Lancaster County locally, sometimes nicknamed the Garden Spot of America or Pennsylvania Dutch Country, is a county located in the south central part of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 519,445, its county seat is Lancaster. Lancaster County comprises the Lancaster, Metropolitan Statistical Area and is a part of Philadelphia's Designated Media Market; the County of Lancaster is a popular tourist destination, with its Amish community a major attraction. Contrary to popular belief, the word "Dutch" in "Pennsylvania Dutch" is not a mistranslation, but rather a corruption of the Pennsylvania German endonym Deitsch, which means "Pennsylvania Dutch / German" or "German"; the terms Deitsch, Dutch and Deutsch are all cognates of the Proto-Germanic word *þiudiskaz meaning "popular" or "of the people". The continued use of "Dutch" instead of "German" was strengthened by the Pennsylvania Dutch in the 19th century as a way of distinguishing themselves from waves of German immigrants to the United States, with the Pennsylvania Dutch referring to themselves as Deitsche and to Germans as Deitschlenner whom they saw as a related but distinct group.
The ancestors of the Amish began to immigrate to colonial Pennsylvania in the early 18th century to take advantage of the religious freedom offered by William Penn. They were attracted by the area's rich soil and mild climate. Attracted to promises of religious freedom, French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution settled this area in 1710. There were significant numbers of English and Ulster Scots; the area that became Lancaster County was part of William Penn's 1681 charter. John Kennerly received the first recorded deed from Penn in 1691. Although Matthias Kreider was said to have been in the area as early as 1691, there is no evidence that any Europeans settled in Lancaster County before 1710. Lancaster County was part of Chester County, until May 10, 1729, when it was organized as the colony's fourth county, it was named after the city of Lancaster in the county of Lancashire in England, the native home of John Wright, an early settler. As settlement increased, six other counties were subsequently formed from territory directly taken, in all or in part, from Lancaster County: Berks, Dauphin, Lebanon and York.
Many other counties were in turn formed from these six. Indigenous peoples had occupied the areas along the waterways for thousands of years, established varying cultures. Historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter included the Shawnee, Gawanese and Nanticoke peoples, who were from different language families and had distinct cultures. Among the earliest recorded inhabitants of the Susquehanna River valley were the Iroquoian-speaking Susquehannock, whose name was derived from the Lenape term for "Oyster River People"; the English called them the Conestoga, after the name of their principal village, Gan'ochs'a'go'jat'ga, anglicized as "Conestoga." Other places occupied by the Susquehannock were Ka'ot'sch'ie'ra, where present-day Chickisalunga developed, Gasch'guch'sa, now called Conewago Falls, Lancaster County. Other Native tribes, as well as early European settlers, considered the Susquehannock a mighty nation, experts in war and trade, they were beaten only by the combined power of the Five Nation Iroquois Confederacy, after colonial Maryland withdrew its support.
After 1675, the Susquehannock were absorbed by the Iroquois. A handful were settled at "New Conestoga," located along the south bank of the Conestoga River in Conestoga Township of the county, they helped staff an Iroquois consulate to the English in Virginia. By the 1720s, the colonists considered the Conestoga Indians as a "civilized" or "friendly tribe," having been converted in large part to Christianity, speaking English as a second language, making brooms and baskets for sale, naming children after their favorite neighbors; the outbreak of Pontiac's War in the summer of 1763, coupled with the ineffective policies of the provincial government, aroused widespread settler suspicion and hatred against all Indians in the frontier counties, without distinguishing among hostile and friendly peoples. On December 14, 1763, the Paxton Boys, led by Matthew Smith and Capt. Lazarus Stewart, attacked Conestoga, killing the six Indians present, burning all the houses. Officials sheltered the tribe's fourteen survivors in protective custody in the county jail, but the Paxton Boys returned on December 27, broke into the jail, massacred the remaining natives.
The lack of effective government control and widespread sympathy in the frontier counties for the murderers meant they were never discovered or brought to justice. Pennsylvania had a longstanding dispute with Maryland about the southern border of the province and Lancaster County. Nine years of armed clashes accompanied the Maryland-Pennsylvania boundary dispute, which began soon after the 1730 establishment of Wright's Ferry across the Susquehanna River. Lord Baltimore believed; this was the town of Willow Street, Pennsylvania. This line of demarcation would have resulted in Philadelphia being included in Maryland. New settlers began to cross the Susquehanna. In 1730, the Wright's Ferry services were licensed and begun. Starting in mid-1730, Thomas C
George Bruce Kaiser is an American billionaire businessman. He is the chairman of BOK Financial Corporation in Oklahoma, he is among the 100 richest people in the world and was, in 2012, one of the top 50 American philanthropists. Kaiser was born on July 1942 in Tulsa, Oklahoma, he attended Central High School in Tulsa. He earned a BA from Harvard College in 1964 and an MBA from the Harvard Business School in 1966, he considered joining the U. S. Foreign Service, but instead returned to Tulsa in 1966 to work for his father. Kaiser-Francis Oil Co. was created in the 1940s by Kaiser's uncle and parents, Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany who settled in Oklahoma. George's father, Herman George Kaiser, had been an attorney in the district of the Kammergericht in Berlin until 1933, when he was dismissed by the Nazis because he was Jewish, he and his wife Kate moved to Rostock where Herman Kaiser worked with his father-in-law Max Samuel's EMSA-Werke company. Herman Kaiser escaped to England in 1937 and his wife and daughter came over in September the following year.
In 1940 all three emigrated to the United States. They settled in Tulsa, where Herman's aunt and uncle lived. Herman joined the uncle's oil drilling business, their son was born in Tulsa. Herman died in Tulsa on October 14, 1992 at the age of 88. Kaiser took control of Kaiser-Francis Oil Company in 1969. Kaiser-Francis was a little-known owned oil prospecting and drilling company at the time. Under George's management, it became the 23rd largest nonpublic energy exploration company in the U. S. by 2010. In that year the company earned about $217 million, based on estimates by Bloomberg News. In 1990, Kaiser bought Bank of Oklahoma out of Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation receivership. Despite BOK's depressed state, it was rich enough to land Kaiser on the Forbes 400 at one stroke, he has since expanded BOK from a 20-branch company located in Oklahoma into a $23.9 billion bank with operations in nine states. He owns 61.5 percent of BOK. As of 2007, Kaiser's ownership interests in BOK were worth $2.3 billion.
In 2008, with an estimated current net worth of around $12 billion, he was ranked by Forbes as the 20-richest person in America and the richest person in Oklahoma. In March 2009, in the face of the general world economic downturn, Forbes reported that Kaiser's net worth had dropped to $9 billion, ranking him in a tie for 43rd-richest person in the world, it has since risen to $9.8 billion. As of 2019, George's net worth was estimated at $7.6 billion. In April 2014, Kaiser bought Tom L. Ward's interest in The Professional Basketball Club, the investment group headed by Clay Bennett that owns the Oklahoma City Thunder of the National Basketball Association, as well as its Oklahoma City Blue minor league affiliate. Kaiser's nephew is actor Tim Blake Nelson. Kaiser has been married twice: His first wife was Betty Eudene. Betty was a prominent literacy advocate volunteering more than 7,000 hours with the Tulsa City-County Library's literacy program. Betty died in 2002; the couple had three children: Philip and Emily.
They have five grandchildren: Shai, Aidan and Ben. His second wife is Myra Block, a curator, authority on fiber art and founder of 108|Contemporary, she is the daughter of Tulsa oilman and philanthropist Charles Goodall, known for establishing the small cities program on the Council of Jewish Federations. The couple divides their time between Tulsa and San Francisco, California. Kaiser works 70 hours a week in his office, spending half his time on philanthropy and the rest on banking and other business interests. Kaiser is affiliated with the Egalitarian Conservative Congregation B'Nai Emunah. Kaiser avoids publicity, does not attend society functions and hardly gives interviews. While he owns homes in Tulsa and San Francisco, he is said to own no vacation homes, airplanes or yachts. Kaiser is listed third on BusinessWeek's 2008 list of the top 50 American philanthropists, behind Warren Buffett and Bill and Melinda Gates. Among his prominent causes is fighting childhood poverty through the George Kaiser Family Foundation.
He has been notably active in the promotion of early childhood education. Kaiser's family foundation is the largest contributor to the Tulsa Community Foundation, which Kaiser established in 1998 because of his perception that Tulsa's historical dependence on unorganized private giving from its wealthy families was no longer effective. Beginning with gifts from seventeen local philanthropists, by 2006 this foundation had grown to become the largest community foundation in the United States, now has four billion dollars in assets. Kaiser's family foundation funded the National Energy Policy Institute, a non-profit energy policy organization located at the University of Tulsa whose president since its inception is former Alaska governor Tony Knowles. and whose director was former U. S. Representative Brad Carson. In January 2009, Kaiser drew attention after he told a committee of the Oklahoma House of Representatives that the state should eliminate or reduce tax incentives for the oil and gas industry, instead use the money for health care or education programs or for tax cuts for other taxpayers.
The foundation was instrumental in the funding of Tulsa's Woody Guthrie Center, which opened in 2013, in facilitating the acquisition in 2016 of Bob Dylan's 6,000-piece archive, which will be maintained by archivists at the university's Helmerich Center for American Research at Gilcrease Museum. The Kaiser family foundation is responsible for th
Clifford Salisbury Woodward M. C. was Bishop of Bristol from 1933 to 1946 and Bishop of Gloucester from 1946 to 1953. Woodward was educated at Marlborough School and Jesus College, obtaining a second-class degree in Literae Humaniores in 1901. After ordination, he served as lecturer at Wycliffe Hall and chaplain of Wadham College, Oxford before becoming rector of St Saviour's with St Peter's, Southwark, he was an Army chaplain in the First World War, during which time he was wounded and won the Military Cross. In 1918, he became rector of St Peter's, Cranley Gardens, in the West End of London, becoming a Canon of Westminster Abbey and rector of St John's, Smith Square in 1925, he became Bishop of Bristol in 1946 became Bishop of Gloucester. He died on 14 April 1959