Gastonia, North Carolina
Gastonia is the largest city in and county seat of Gaston County, North Carolina, United States. It is the second largest satellite city of the Charlotte area, behind Concord; the population was 71,741 at the 2010 Census. In 2016, the population had increased to 75,536. Gastonia is the 13th largest city in North Carolina, it is part of the Charlotte metropolitan area designated the Charlotte Metropolitan Statistical Area. Gastonia has experienced steady growth, with a population increase between 2000 and 2010 of nearly 8.2%, according to the U. S. Census Bureau. Gastonia is named for member of the North Carolina Supreme Court; the City Hospital-Gaston Memorial Hospital, Craig Farmstead, Downtown Gastonia Historic District, First National Bank Building, Gaston County Courthouse, Gastonia High School, David Jenkins House, Loray Mill Historic District, Robinson-Gardner Building, Third National Bank Building, William J. Wilson House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Loray Mill strike of 1929 in Gastonia was one of the most notable strikes in the labor history of the United States.
The role of organizers for Communist Party-affiliated National Textile Workers Union alienated religious leaders in Gastonia, who denounced the organizers' ideology, undermining support for the strike. The strike collapsed after the death of Gastonia's police chief, Orville Alderholt, led to a murder trial of several of the organizers; the strike failed in attaining its goals of better working conditions and wages, the American labor movement was never able to gain a foothold among textile workers in Gastonia. The strike, became for a while an international cause célèbre, figuring in several novels published in the 1930s. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 50.7 square miles, of which 50.5 square miles is land and 0.23 square miles, or 0.45%, is water. Gastonia occupies 14% of the total area of Gaston County; as of 2010, there were 71,741 people, 27,770 households, 18,599 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,420.6 people per square mile.
There were 31,238 housing units at an average density of 618.6 per square mile. The racial composition of the city was 63.0% White, 27.8% Black or African American, 1.3% Asian, 0.4% Native American, 5.2% some other race, 2.2% two or more races. 9.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino American of any race. As of the 2010 census, there were 27,770 households, out of which 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.5% were headed by married couples living together, 19.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.0% were non-families. 27.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.7% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52, the average family size was 3.05. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.6 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.6 males. In 2011 the estimated median income for a household in the city was $36,881, the median income for a family was $44,576. Male full-time workers had a median income of $38,151 versus $29,590 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,277. 20.9% of the population and 18.3% of families were below the poverty line. 32.5% of those under the age of 18 and 6.9% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Many shutdowns and job losses have plagued Gastonia over the past decade. Gastonia maintains a strong manufacturing workforce, but many workers are laid off and many more are facing job losses; the city had an unemployment rate of 7.9% as of 2010. The city is the international corporate headquarters for textile company Parkdale Mills, the number one manufacturer of spun yarn in the world; the company operated two production facilities in Gastonia and several in surrounding communities. Parkdale, like many other companies, has closed plants and moved production to other countries.
Other manufacturers in Gastonia include Wix Filtration Corp. Freightliner LLC, Curtiss-Wright Controls Engineered Systems and Radici Group. Other major employers include the City of Gastonia and Gaston County governments, the Gaston County Schools system, CaroMont Regional Medical Center, retailers Walmart and Advance Auto Parts, with two and six stores respectively. Gastonia and the surrounding areas feature several notable attractions; the Schiele Museum of Natural History features a number of permanent exhibits, including the Hall of North Carolina Natural History and the Henry Hall of the American Indian. The museum is home to the James H. Lynn Planetarium, the only planetarium in the Charlotte area; the Daniel Stowe Botanical Garden is located just southeast of the city in Belmont on NC 279. The U. S. National Whitewater Center is located east of the city in neighboring Mecklenburg County. Crowders Mountain State Park is located west near Kings Mountain; the park offers a number of hiking trails, as well as campgrounds, picnic areas, rock climbing, fishing.
Eastridge Mall, located at exit 20 on North New Hope Road, is the only indoor regional mall in the area. The mall is home to over 80 specialty stores including Victoria's Secret, PacSun, Bath & Body Works, Hibbet Sports, Charlotte Russe, New York & Co. Hat Fanatic, Encore by Shoe Departme
Waxhaw Presbyterian Church Cemetery
Waxhaw Presbyterian Church Cemetery known as Old Waxhaw Cemetery, is a historic Presbyterian church cemetery located near Lancaster, Lancaster County, South Carolina. It is a visual reminder of the pioneer settlement of Waxhaw, it includes noteworthy examples of 19th century tombstones. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. William Richardson Davie, Governor of North Carolina, 1798 Andrew Jackson, Sr. father of Andrew Jackson Andrew Pickens, Sr. and Ann Pickens, parents of Andrew Pickens, U. S. Congressman James H. Witherspoon, Lt. Governor of South Carolina, 1826-1828 Casualties of "Buford's Massacre", May 28, 1780 Patterson, Daniel W. "Backcountry Legends of a Minister's Death," Southern Spaces, 30 October 2012
1790 United States Census
The United States Census of 1790 was the first census of the whole United States. It recorded the population of the United States as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws. In the first census, the population of the United States was enumerated to be 3,929,214. Congress assigned responsibility for the 1790 census to the marshals of United States judicial districts under an act which, with minor modifications and extensions, governed census taking until the 1840 census. "The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president." Both Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and President George Washington expressed skepticism over the results, believing that the true population had been undercounted.
If there was indeed an undercount, possible explanations for it include dispersed population, poor transportation links, limitations of contemporary technology, individual refusal to participate. Although the Census was proved statistically factual, based on data collected, the records for several states were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830. One third of the original census data have been lost or destroyed since their original documentation; these include some 1790 data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont. No microdata from the 1790 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves.
Under the direction of the current Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, marshals collected data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory. The census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. At 17.8 percent, the 1790 Census's proportion of slaves to the free population was the highest recorded by any census. Media related to 1790 United States Census at Wikimedia Commons Historic US Census data 1790 Census of Population and Housing official reports Population of 24 Urban Places: 1790
Chesterfield County, South Carolina
Chesterfield County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 46,734, its estimated 2015 population had declined a little to 46,017, its county seat is Chesterfield. The largest town in the county is Cheraw. Chesterfield County is part of the Charlotte Metropolitan Area, it is located north of the Midlands, on its border with North Carolina. The county was erected in 1785, but was part of what was known as Cheraws District until 1800, at which time Chesterfield became a district itself. Under the post-American Civil War state constitution of 1867, passed during the Reconstruction era, South Carolina districts became counties with home rule; the county is named for Chesterfield County in Virginia. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 806 square miles, of which 799 square miles is land and 6.7 square miles is water. Anson County, North Carolina - north Richmond County, North Carolina - northeast Union County, North Carolina - northwest Marlboro County - east Darlington County - southeast Kershaw County - southwest Lancaster County - west Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 42,768 people, 16,557 households, 11,705 families residing in the county.
The population density was 54 people per square mile. There were 18,818 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 64.34% White, 33.22% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.04% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races. 2.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 16,557 households out of which 33.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.60% were married couples living together, 16.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.30% were non-families. 25.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.05. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.60% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, 12.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females there were 93.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,483, the median income for a family was $36,200. Males had a median income of $30,205 versus $20,955 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,233. About 16.70% of families and 20.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.70% of those under age 18 and 24.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 46,734 people, 18,173 households, 12,494 families residing in the county; the population density was 58.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 21,482 housing units at an average density of 26.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 62.8% white, 32.6% black or African American, 0.5% American Indian, 0.4% Asian, 2.0% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 16.3% were American, 6.8% were English, 6.0% were German, 5.9% were Irish.
Of the 18,173 households, 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 18.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.2% were non-families, 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age was 39.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $32,979 and the median income for a family was $41,225. Males had a median income of $35,965 versus $26,881 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,162. About 17.6% of families and 22.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.6% of those under age 18 and 18.0% of those age 65 or over. In the South Carolina House of Representatives, Chesterfield County is located in South Carolina's 53rd House district and is represented by Republican Ritchie Yow. In the South Carolina Senate, Chesterfield is located in Senate district 27 and represented by Democrat, former 2010 candidate for governor, Vincent Sheheen.
In the US House of Representatives, Chesterfield County is located in South Carolina's 7th Congressional District. As of the 2012 House elections, it is represented by Republican Tom Rice, who comes from Horry County. Chesterfield County was located in South Carolina's 5th Congressional District, one of the seats that the Democrats lost to the Republicans during the 2010 election; the county's youth are provided with an education through the Chesterfield County School District. The South Point Christian School is a private school located in Pageland and offers Kindergarten through 12th grade. Northeastern Technical College has branches in Cheraw. Central High School, Pageland Cheraw High School, Cheraw Chesterfield High School, Chesterfield McBee High School, McBee Chesterfield/Ruby Middle School, Chesterfield/Ruby Long Middle School, Cheraw New Heights Middle School, Jefferson Cheraw Intermediate School, Cheraw Edwards Elementary School, Chesterfield Jefferson Elementary School, Jefferson McBee Elementary School, McBee Pageland Elementary School, Pageland Plainview Elementary School, Plainview Ruby Elementary School, Ruby Cheraw Primary School, Cheraw Pet
Battle of Waxhaws
The Battle of Waxhaws took place during the American Revolutionary War on May 29, 1780, near Lancaster, South Carolina, between a Continental Army force led by Abraham Buford and a Loyalist force led by British officer Banastre Tarleton. Buford refused an initial demand to surrender, but when his men were attacked by Tarleton's cavalry, many threw down their arms to surrender. Buford attempted to surrender. However, the British commanding officer Tarleton was shot at during the truce, causing his horse to fall and trap him. Loyalists and British troops were outraged at the breaking of the truce in this manner and proceeded to fall on the rebels. While Tarleton was trapped under his dead horse, men continued killing the Continental soldiers, including men who were not resisting. Little quarter was given to the patriots/rebels. Of the 400 or so Continentals, 113 were killed with sabers, 150 so badly injured they could not be moved and 53 prisoners were taken by the British and Loyalists. "Tarleton's quarter", thereafter became a common expression for refusing to take prisoners.
In some subsequent battles in the Carolinas, few of the defeated were taken alive by either side. This'Battle of Waxhaws' became the subject of an intensive propaganda campaign by the Continental Army to bolster recruitment and incite resentment against the British. Valid accounts of the battle by soldiers from both sides describe Tarleton as having no part in ordering a massacre as he had been trapped under his horse, when freed ordered thorough medical treatment of American prisoners and wounded. Following the British defeat at Saratoga in 1777 and French entry into the American Revolutionary War in early 1778, the British military decided to embark on a "southern strategy" to win back their rebellious colonies, they believed they had more supporters in the South due to the close business and trading relationships, that they might concentrate power in the South, retake the North. They began the campaign in December 1778 with the capture of Georgia. In 1780, General Sir Henry Clinton brought an army south and captured Charleston, South Carolina on May 12, 1780, after a siege.
Colonel Abraham Buford commanded a force of about 380 Virginian Continentals. Most of his men were raw recruits with little battle experience, although Buford had experienced officers under his command. Due to delays in outfitting his command, Buford had been unable to reach Charleston to participate in its defense. Charleston's commander, General Benjamin Lincoln, had ordered him to take a defensive position near Lenud's Ferry on the Santee River outside the city, but Lincoln surrendered around the time Buford reached this position. Buford was joined by about 40 Virginia Light Dragoons who had escaped the siege or during battles outside the city, by Richard Caswell's North Carolina militia. Receiving news of the surrender, Buford was ordered by General Isaac Huger to return to Hillsborough, North Carolina, he headed north. At Camden and Caswell parted ways, with Buford heading north into the Waxhaws region. Buford was accompanied for a time by South Carolina Governor John Rutledge, recruiting militia in the backcountry.
When Buford stopped to rest his troops at Waxhaw Creek, Rutledge rode ahead toward Charlotte, North Carolina. General Clinton learned of Huger's and Rutledge's forces, on May 15 ordered Lord Cornwallis to bring the South Carolina and Georgia backcountry under British control, his army moving too to keep up with Buford, Cornwallis on May 27 sent Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton in pursuit with a force of about 270 men. Tarleton commanded the British Legion, a Loyalist provincial regiment; the force he took in pursuit of Buford consisted of 170 Legion and British Army dragoons, 100 mounted British Legion infantry, a three-pounder cannon. Tarleton reached Camden late on May 28, set off in pursuit of Buford around midnight the next morning. By that afternoon, his advance force of 60 dragoons from the 17th Light Dragoons and the British Legion cavalry, 60 mounted infantry from the British Legion, an additional flanking force of 30 British Legion dragoons and some infantry, had reached Buford's resting place.
Warned of Tarleton's pursuit, Buford had begun moving north, was 2 miles up the road. Tarleton sent Captain David Kinlock forward to the rebel column, carrying a white flag, to demand Buford's surrender. Upon his arrival, Buford formed a battle line while the parley took place. Tarleton hugely exaggerated the size of his force in his message—claiming he had 700 men—hoping to sway Buford's decision; the note said, "Resistance being vain, to prevent the effusion of human blood, I make offers which can never be repeated", indicating that Tarleton would ask only once for Buford to surrender. Buford refused to surrender, responding: "I reject your proposals, shall defend myself to the last extremity." Buford reformed his troops into a column, continued the northward march, with his baggage train near the front of the column. Tarleton, in violation of accepted rules of war, had continued his march while the parley took place. Around 3:00 pm the leading edge of Tarleton's force caught up with Buford's rear guard.
According to a Patriot eyewitness, a field surgeon named Robert Brownfield, the five dragoons of the rear guard were captured, their leader, Captain Pearson, was "inhumanely mangled" by saber cuts, some inflicted after he had fallen. Buford stopped the column (except for the ar
Concord, North Carolina
Concord is a city in Cabarrus County, in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 79,066, with an estimated population in 2018 of 94,546, it is the largest city in Cabarrus County. In terms of population, the city of Concord is the second-largest city in the Charlotte Metropolitan Area and is the tenth largest city in North Carolina. In 2015, Concord was ranked as the city with the 16th fastest growing economy in the United States; the city was a winner of the All-America City Award in 2004. Located near the center of Cabarrus County in the Piedmont region, it is 20 miles northeast of Charlotte center city. Concord is the home to some of North Carolina's top tourist destinations, including NASCAR's Charlotte Motor Speedway and Concord Mills. Concord, located in today's growing northeast quadrant of the Charlotte metropolitan area, was first settled about 1750 by German and Scots-Irish immigrants; the name Concord means with harmony. This name was chosen after a lengthy dispute between the German Lutherans and Scotch-Irish Presbyterians over where the county seat should be located.
Concord is considered a old town by US standards, as it was incorporated in 1806. Today, markers identifying the original town limits can be seen in the downtown area; as county seat, Concord became a center of trade and retail for the cotton-producing region on court days. The downtown would be crowded with townfolk, in addition to lawyers and their clients. During the antebellum era, wealth was built by planters through the cultivation of cotton as a commodity crop. Located in the Piedmont, Concord became a site of industrialization with cotton mills in the late 19th century. Among the owners of the new mills in the area were men of the rising black middle-class in Wilmington, North Carolina, such as W. C. Coleman, John C. Dancy, others, who organized Coleman Manufacturing Company in 1897, they built and operated what is believed to have been the first cotton mill owned by blacks in the nation. They hoped to promote economic security for people of color. However, the Wilmington Insurrection of 1898, with white attacks on black areas of the city, caused many deaths, as well as destroying homes and businesses built by blacks since the Civil War.
In 1900, Dancy was among more than 2000 blacks. He moved to Washington, DC, appointed as the federal Recorder of Deeds, serving until 1910; the mill operated under black ownership through 1904. The brick mill building was taken over by Fieldcrest Cannon, it added on to, nearly doubling its square footage. Based on wealth from cotton as a commodity crop and through textile manufacturing, Concord's white planters and business owners built some significant homes in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Within the North Union Historic District is Memorial Garden. Located on 3 acres, the garden winds through the 200-year-old cemetery of the First Presbyterian Church. In addition to the Cabarrus County Courthouse, the Barber-Scotia College, Boger-Hartsell Farm, McCurdy Log House, Mill Hill, North Union Street Historic District, Odell-Locke-Randolph Cotton Mill, Reed Gold Mine, South Union Street Courthouse and Commercial Historic District, South Union Street Historic District, Spears House, Stonewall Jackson Training School Historic District, Union Street North-Cabarrus Avenue Commercial Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
From the time of incorporation in the late 1700s through the 1970s, Concord's jurisdiction was centered around the downtown area. Since most annexations have taken place west of the center-city area toward Charlotte. Portions of the city limit boundary adjoin the Cabarrus/Mecklenburg County line. Concord is located in western Cabarrus County at 35°24′16″N 80°36′2″W; the city is located in the Piedmont area of North Carolina, characterized by rolling hills and forest. Land left untended will return to native forest land within a few years; the climate can be described as cool winter seasons with humid summer seasons. The average high temperature in the winter is 43 °F, the average daily low temperature is 29 °F. In the summer the average temperature is 79 °F, the average daily high temperature is 88 °F, it is not unusual for summer daytime temperatures to reach in the mid to upper 90s and exceed 100 °F. It is typical for winter temperatures to fall into the teens at night, but temperatures warm to above freezing during the day.
Summer months are characterized as having cool to warm nights with warm to hot temperatures during the day. The area receives a generous amount of rainfall at 43.8 inches per year, with February and April being the two driest months. Rainfall in the winter is lighter but more frequent, whereas rainfall in the summer is heavier but less frequent. Thunderstorms, both light and strong, are common in the summer months; the sun shines 70 percent of 55 percent in winter. The prevailing wind is from the southwest, with the average highest windspeed of 9 miles per hour in spring; the city has a total area of 60.3 square miles, of which 0.06 %, is water. The elevation at the center of downtown is 706 feet above sea level. Concord is located northeast of the largest city in North Carolina. Concord is the second-largest city in the Charl
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i