Northumberland County, Virginia
Northumberland County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,330, its county seat is Heathsville. The county is located on the Northern Neck and is part of the Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace AVA winemaking appellation; the area was occupied at the time of English settlement by the Algonquian-speaking historic tribes of the Wicocomico and Chickacoan. The county was created by the Virginia General Assembly in 1648 during a period of rapid population growth and geographic expansion. Settlement began in this area of the Northern Neck around 1635. Known as the Indian district Chickacoan, the area was first referred to as Northumberland in the colonial records in 1644; the following year, John Mottrom served as the first burgess for the territory in the House of Burgesses, which met at the capital of the Virginia Colony at Jamestown. The colonial court ordered the two tribes to merge and by 1655, assigned them a reservation of 4,400 acres near Dividing Creek, south of the Great Wicomico River.
By the early 1700s, the Wicocomico tribe was reduced, English colonists took control of their lands. They were believed to be extinct as a tribe as, they disappeared from the historical record. Descendants of the last weroance are working to regain recognition as a tribe, the Wicocomico Indian Nation; the size of the county was drastically reduced in 1651 and 1653 when the colonial government organized Lancaster and Westmoreland counties from it. Of the 172 counties that have existed in Virginia's history, Northumberland ended up being an "ancestor" to 116 of these –– more than the current 95 counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 286 square miles, of which 191 square miles is land and 94 square miles is water; the county is located between the Rappahannock River to Potomac River to the north. Chesapeake Bay is east of the county. Lancaster County - east Richmond County - west Westmoreland County - northwest St. Mary's County, Maryland - north As of the census of 2000, there were 12,259 people, 5,470 households, 3,785 families residing in the county.
The population density was 64 people per square mile. There were 8,057 housing units at an average density of 42 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 72.18% White, 26.58% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.33% from other races, 0.56% from two or more races. 0.93% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,470 households out of which 20.11% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.30% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.80% were non-families. 27.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.70. In the county, the population was spread out with 18.60% under the age of 18, 4.80% from 18 to 24, 20.20% from 25 to 44, 30.10% from 45 to 64, 26.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 50 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.20 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,129, the median income for a family was $49,047. Males had a median income of $30,151 versus $24,116 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,917. 12.30% of the population and 8.10% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 17.00% are under the age of 18 and 10.70% are 65 or older. The county is governed by a Board of Supervisors, elected every four years, one from each of five districts; the county has an elected school board, elected every four years, one from each of the five supervisor districts. The school board appointed by the Board of Supervisors, manages local education policy; the county has all located on one campus near Heathsville. There is no police department in the county. Instead, law enforcement is the responsibility of the county Sheriff, a commonwealth constitutional officer elected every four years, with support from the Virginia State Police.
The Northumberland County Sheriff's Office is located in Heathsville. Northumberland County has two courthouses: an antebellum building and a new building constructed in the late 1990s behind the older structure; the county courts, along with the Clerk of the Circuit Court and the Commonwealth's Attorney, both commonwealth constitutional officers, are located in the new building. The Commissioner of Revenue and the County Treasurer, both commonwealth constitutional officers, have offices in the older building. Northumberland County is one of the few counties left in Virginia that has all-volunteer emergency services; the county is served by two fire departments, Callao Volunteer Fire Department in Callao and Fairfield Volunteer Fire Department with buildings in Reedville and Burgess. There are three rescue squads that serve the county: Callao Volunteer Rescue Squad in Callao, Mid-County Volunteer Rescue Squad in Heathsville, Northumberland County Rescue Squad in Reedville and Burgess; the county has a water rescue service, Smith Point Sea Rescue
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Robert Carter I
Robert "King" Carter, of Lancaster County, was an American businessman and colonist in Virginia and became one of the wealthiest men in the colonies. As President of the Governor's Council of the Virginia Colony, he was acting Governor of Virginia in 1726-1727 after the death in office of Governor Hugh Drysdale, he acquired the moniker "King" from his wealth, political power, autocratic business methods. Robert Carter was born at Corotoman Plantation in Lancaster County, Virginia, to John Carter of London and Sarah Ludlow of Maiden Bradley, Wiltshire. In 1688, he married Judith Armistead of Hesse in Gloucester County, an area, included in the formation of Mathews County in 1691. After her death in 1699, he married Elizabeth Landon in 1701. At age 28, Robert Carter entered the General Assembly of Virginia as a Burgess from Lancaster County, serving five consecutive years. In 1726, as President of the Governor's Council, he served as acting Governor of Virginia after the death of Governor Hugh Drysdale.
As an agent of Thomas Fairfax, 5th Lord Fairfax of Cameron – known as Lord Fairfax – he served two terms as agent for the Fairfax Proprietary of the Northern Neck of Virginia. During his first term, 1702–1711, he began to acquire large tracts of land for himself in the Rappahannock River region of Virginia. Carter acquired some 20,000 acres, a large part of, the 6,000-acre Nomini Hall Plantation spelled "Nomoni" or "Nominy," which he purchased in 1709 from the heirs of Col. Nicholas Spencer, cousin of the Lords Culpeper, from whom the Fairfaxes had inherited their Virginia holdings; when he became representative of Fairfax's interests again in 1722, serving from 1722–32, he secured for his children and grandchildren about 110,000 acres in the Northern Neck, as well as additional land in Virginia west of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Carter died on 4 August 1732, in Lancaster County and was buried there at Christ Church, he left his family 300,000 acres of 1,000 slaves and 10,000 British pounds in cash.
When Lord Fairfax saw Carter's obituary in the London monthly The Gentleman's Magazine, he was astonished to read of the immense personal wealth acquired by his resident land agent. Rather than name another Virginian to the position, Fairfax made arrangements to have his cousin, Colonel William Fairfax, move to Virginia to act as land agent, with the paid position of customs inspector for the Potomac River district. Fairfax himself visited his vast Northern Neck Proprietary from 1735–37, he moved there permanently in 1747. Carter had five children with his first wife, Judith Armistead: Sarah Carter Elizabeth Carter married Nathaniel Burwell. Judith Carter died in infancy before her mother and buried near her at Christ Church Judith Carter married Mann Page. John Carter married Elizabeth Hill of Shirley PlantationCarter had ten children with his second wife, Betty Landon: Anne Carter married Benjamin Harrison IV. Robert Carter II married Priscilla Churchill. Sarah Carter Betty Carter Charles Carter married Anne Byrd, daughter of Col. William Byrd II.
Ludlow Carter Landon Carter married Maria Byrd, daughter of Col. William Byrd II. Mary Carter married George Braxton. Lucy Carter married Henry Fitzhugh George Carter Other notable descendants include: Robert Burwell, member of the House of Burgesses Robert Carter III Carter Braxton, signer of Declaration of Independence Talcott Eliason J. E. B. Stuart's Field Surgeon during the Civil War. Robert Randolph Carter, Confederate States Army first lieutenant John Page 13th Governor of Virginia. Mann Page Virginia delegate to the Continental Congress in 1777 Thomas Nelson Page US ambassador to Italy during the Woodrow Wilson administration. William Nelson Page American civil engineer and industrialist. James "Gentleman Jim" Robinson, one of the wealthiest African Americans in the Manassas area, but is known because his homestead was located between the lines of the Confederate and Union armies during two major battles of the Civil War. Robert Carter III Carter's Grove Plantation Corotoman Plantation Rosewell Plantation Shirley Plantation History of slavery in the United States Robert Carter I at Encyclopedia Virginia Nomini Hall Plantation Robert Carter I at Christ Church Diary and Papers of Robert Carter at the University of Virginia Library Paweł Konieczny, Korespondencja Roberta „Króla” Cartera jako źródło do badań nad mentalnością elity osiemnastowiecznej Wirginii
Middlesex County, Virginia
Middlesex County is a county located on the Middle Peninsula in the U. S. state of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,959, its county seat is Saluda. This area was long settled by indigenous peoples; the Nimcock had a village on the river where Urbanna was developed. English settlement of the area began around 1640, with the county being formed in 1669 from a part of Lancaster County; this settlement pushed the Nimcock upriver. The county's only incorporated town, was established by the colonial Assembly in 1680 as one of 20 50-acre port towns designated for trade, it served as a port on the Rappahannock River for shipping agricultural products the tobacco commodity crop. As the county developed, it became its governmental center; the Rosegill Estate was developed as a plantation by Ralph Wormeley beginning in 1649, with construction of its major buildings through the 17th century. It served as the temporary seat of the colony under two royal Governors of Virginia; this and other plantations in the county were developed for the commodity crop of tobacco through the 18th century, dependent on the skilled labor of enslaved African Americans.
In the 19th century, many planters from the Upper South sold slaves to the Deep South after switching from tobacco to mixed crops, which required less labor. Others migrated to the Deep South to develop new land and plantations, taking slaves with them, as did Thomas Wingfield, who moved to Wilkes County, Georgia in 1783, accompanied by 23 slaves. Following the American Civil War and emancipation, numerous freedmen stayed in the rural area of Middlesex County, working on the land for pay or a share of crops. Others moved to cities as artisans, seeking more opportunities; the Rosegill mansion continues to be used as a private residence to this day. Most of the land of the estate was purchased in the 21st century by a Northern Virginia development firm, which plans to develop it as a 700-home subdivision. An archaeological survey of the property included in the first phase of the planned development has revealed what appear to be parts of the Nimcock village, it has uncovered evidence of the Rosegill slave community of African Americans.
The developer intends to proceed with building houses over a portion of the artifacts, which will render excavation and study of them impossible. During the American Civil War, Urbanna was planned as the point of landing for General George B. McClellan's 1862 Peninsula Campaign of 1862 to take Richmond. McClellan shifted to use Fort Monroe as the starting point doubling the distance by land that troops had to travel to the Confederate citadel. Delays in reaching the gates of Richmond allowed the Confederates ample time to erect substantial defensive batteries, contributing to the Union failure in this campaign; the Historic Middlesex County Courthouse was built in 1850–1874 by architects William R. Jones and John P. Hill, it is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Construction of a new 21st-century county courthouse began in 2003 and was completed in 2004, it was not occupied until September 2007, due to a legal dispute between the county and the architect. The Historic Courthouse has been remodeled and now serves as the Board of Supervisors meeting room and the Registrar's Office.
Urbanna was incorporated on April 1902, comprising an area of 0.49 square miles. The Town of Urbanna remains its only incorporated area; the county seat was moved to the Village of Saluda on U. S. Route 17. To the east to Stingray Point, the Village of Deltaville is situated on State Route 33 between the mouths of the Rappahannock and Piankatank rivers. Once a major center for wooden boat building, the village has become known as a commercial and recreational center, its waterfront and east to Stingray Point how has many marinas, with a concentration on Broad Creek. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 211 square miles, of which 130 square miles is land and 80 square miles is water. Middlesex County is located at the eastern end of Virginia's Middle Peninsula region; the County is bounded by the Rappahannock River to the north, by the Chesapeake Bay to the east, by the Piankatank River and Dragon Run Swamp to the southwest, by Essex County to the northwest. The County has 135 miles of shoreline.
Lancaster County – North Mathews County – South Gloucester County – Southwest King and Queen County – West Essex County – Northwest As of the census of 2000, there were 9,932 people, 4,253 households, 2,913 families residing in the county. The population density was 76 people per square mile. There were 6,362 housing units at an average density of 49 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 78.50% White, 20.13% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.41% from other races, 0.58% from two or more races. 0.55% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,253 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.10% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.50% were non-families. 27.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol