Fairfield County, South Carolina
Fairfield County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 23,956, its county seat is Winnsboro. Fairfield County is part of SC Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is alleged that the county name originated from a statement made by General Cornwallis when he declared "How Fair These Fields" during the British occupation of the area in 1780-81. The house Cornwallis stayed in during the occupation is still standing. Several years before the Revolution, Richard Winn from Virginia moved to what is now called Fairfield County, his lands covered the present site of Winnsboro, as early as 1777 the settlement was known as "Winnsborough". The village was laid out and chartered in 1785 upon petition of Richard Winn, John Winn and John Vanderhorst. John and Minor Winn all served in the Revolutionary War. Richard was a General and he is said to have fought in more battles than any Whig in South Carolina. Fairfield County has numerous churches; the most famous church, built in 1788, is the Old Brick Church, where the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Synod of the Carolinas was organized in 1803.
A note penciled on the wall of the Old Brick Church is testimony to a Union soldier's regret at the church's floor boards being taken up to build a crossing over the nearby river for General Sherman's troops during the American Civil War. The early settlers in the mid-18th century brought cotton to the county, it was soon supported as a commodity crop by the labor of enslaved African Americans. Invention of the cotton gin enabled the cultivation of short-staple cotton through the upcountry regions of the South, it was the chief commodity crop for this county from the early 19th century through the 1920s. In the antebellum era, most of the intensive labor was accomplished by African-American slaves, many of whose descendants still live in this rural area. After the Civil War, many African Americans worked as sharecroppers and tenant farmers. Over time the soil became depleted, but more damaging was infestation in the 20th century by the boll weevil. Together with mechanization of agriculture, the need for labor was reduced.
In the first half of the 20th century through the 1940s, millions of African Americans left the rural South in the Great Migration to northern and midwestern cities for other job opportunities and the chance to escape Jim Crow restrictions. In December 1832 Winnsboro was incorporated as a town to be governed by wardens; the most prominent architectural feature of Fairfield County is the Town Clock in Winnsboro. South Carolina's General Assembly authorized Winnsboro's town fathers to build a market house that "shall not be of greater width than 30 feet" to allow 30 feet of wagon travel on either side; the narrow building was modeled after Independence Hall in Philadelphia and built on the site of a duck pond. A clock was added in 1837, the building has since been known as the Town Clock; the County Courthouse, across from the Town Clock, dates back to 1823. Designed by South Carolina architect Robert Mills, the courthouse houses records dating to the mid-18th century. Granite deposits in the County led to the early development of quarrying.
Winnsboro blue granite, "The Silk of the Trade," is used worldwide in monuments. The county was home to the Carolinas–Virginia Tube Reactor during the 1960s. In 1984 the Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Generating Station was built here; the county owns the Fairfield County Airport, in operation since 1975. The Ridgeway gold mine, east of Ridgeway, was in operation from 1988 to 1999. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 710 square miles, of which 686 square miles is land and 24 square miles is water; as of the census of 2000, there were 23,454 people, 8,774 households, 6,387 families residing in the county. The population density was 34 people per square mile. There were 10,383 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 59.09% Black or African American, 39.58% White, 0.19% Asian, 0.15% Native American, 0.44% from other races, 0.55% from two or more races. 1.07% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,774 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.90% were married couples living together, 20.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.20% were non-families.
24.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.12. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 13.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,376, the median income for a family was $35,943. Males had a median income of $29,033 versus $21,197 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,911. About 17.20% of families and 19.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.70% of those under age 18 and 24.10% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 23,956 people, 9,419 households, 6,578 families residing in the county.
The population density was 34.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 11,681 housing units at an average density of 17.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 59.1% black or African American, 38.6% white, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% American Indi
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties; the capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City; the state has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell, the highest point in North America east of the Mississippi River. The climate of the coastal plains is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. Woodland-culture Native Americans were in the area around 1000 BCE.
During this time, important buildings were constructed as flat-topped buildings. By 1550, many groups of American Indians lived in present-day North Carolina, including Chowanoke, Pamlico, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw and Catawba. Juan Pardo explored the area in 1566–1567, establishing Fort San Juan in 1567 at the site of the Native American community of Joara, a Mississippian culture regional chiefdom in the western interior, near the present-day city of Morganton; the fort lasted only 18 months. A expedition by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe followed in 1584, at the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh. In June 1718, the pirate Blackbeard ran his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in present-day Carteret County. After the grounding her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. In November, after appealing to the governor of North Carolina, who promised safe-haven and a pardon, Blackbeard was killed in an ambush by troops from Virginia.
In 1996 Intersal, Inc. a private firm, discovered the remains of a vessel to be the Queen Anne's Revenge, added to the US National Register of Historic Places. North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen Colonies and with the territory of South Carolina was known as the Province of North-Carolina; the northern and southern parts of the original province separated in 1729. Settled by small farmers, sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked cities or towns. Pirates menaced the coastal settlements. Growth was strong in the middle of the 18th century, as the economy attracted Scots-Irish, Quaker and German immigrants. A majority of the colonists supported the American Revolution, a smaller number of Loyalists than in some other colonies such as Georgia, South Carolina, New York. During colonial times, Edenton served as the state capital beginning in 1722, New Bern was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of Tryon Palace, which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor William Tryon, began in 1767 and was completed in 1771.
In 1788 Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from coastal attacks. Established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital, the city was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island; the population of the colony more than quadrupled from 52,000 in 1740 to 270,000 in 1780 from high immigration from Virginia and Pennsylvania plus immigrants from abroad. North Carolina made the smallest per-capita contribution to the war of any state, as only 7,800 men joined the Continental Army under General George Washington. There was some military action in 1780–81. Many Carolinian frontiersmen had moved west over the mountains, into the Washington District, but in 1789, following the Revolution, the state was persuaded to relinquish its claim to the western lands, it ceded them to the national government so that the Northwest Territory could be organized and managed nationally. After 1800, cotton and tobacco became important export crops.
The eastern half of the state the Tidewater region, developed a slave society based on a plantation system and slave labor. Many free people of color migrated to the frontier along with their European-American neighbors, where the social system was looser. By 1810, nearly 3 percent of the free population consisted of free people of color, who numbered more than 10,000; the western areas were dominated by white families Scots-Irish, who operated small subsistence farms. In the early national period, the state became a center of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy, with a strong Whig presence in the West. After Nat Turner's slave uprising in 1831, North Carolina and other southern states reduced the rights of free blacks. In 1835 the legislature withdrew their right to vote. On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, 13 days after the Tennessee legislature voted for secession; some 125,000 North Carolinians served in the military.
Concord, North Carolina
Concord is a city in Cabarrus County, in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 79,066, with an estimated population in 2018 of 94,546, it is the largest city in Cabarrus County. In terms of population, the city of Concord is the second-largest city in the Charlotte Metropolitan Area and is the tenth largest city in North Carolina. In 2015, Concord was ranked as the city with the 16th fastest growing economy in the United States; the city was a winner of the All-America City Award in 2004. Located near the center of Cabarrus County in the Piedmont region, it is 20 miles northeast of Charlotte center city. Concord is the home to some of North Carolina's top tourist destinations, including NASCAR's Charlotte Motor Speedway and Concord Mills. Concord, located in today's growing northeast quadrant of the Charlotte metropolitan area, was first settled about 1750 by German and Scots-Irish immigrants; the name Concord means with harmony. This name was chosen after a lengthy dispute between the German Lutherans and Scotch-Irish Presbyterians over where the county seat should be located.
Concord is considered a old town by US standards, as it was incorporated in 1806. Today, markers identifying the original town limits can be seen in the downtown area; as county seat, Concord became a center of trade and retail for the cotton-producing region on court days. The downtown would be crowded with townfolk, in addition to lawyers and their clients. During the antebellum era, wealth was built by planters through the cultivation of cotton as a commodity crop. Located in the Piedmont, Concord became a site of industrialization with cotton mills in the late 19th century. Among the owners of the new mills in the area were men of the rising black middle-class in Wilmington, North Carolina, such as W. C. Coleman, John C. Dancy, others, who organized Coleman Manufacturing Company in 1897, they built and operated what is believed to have been the first cotton mill owned by blacks in the nation. They hoped to promote economic security for people of color. However, the Wilmington Insurrection of 1898, with white attacks on black areas of the city, caused many deaths, as well as destroying homes and businesses built by blacks since the Civil War.
In 1900, Dancy was among more than 2000 blacks. He moved to Washington, DC, appointed as the federal Recorder of Deeds, serving until 1910; the mill operated under black ownership through 1904. The brick mill building was taken over by Fieldcrest Cannon, it added on to, nearly doubling its square footage. Based on wealth from cotton as a commodity crop and through textile manufacturing, Concord's white planters and business owners built some significant homes in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Within the North Union Historic District is Memorial Garden. Located on 3 acres, the garden winds through the 200-year-old cemetery of the First Presbyterian Church. In addition to the Cabarrus County Courthouse, the Barber-Scotia College, Boger-Hartsell Farm, McCurdy Log House, Mill Hill, North Union Street Historic District, Odell-Locke-Randolph Cotton Mill, Reed Gold Mine, South Union Street Courthouse and Commercial Historic District, South Union Street Historic District, Spears House, Stonewall Jackson Training School Historic District, Union Street North-Cabarrus Avenue Commercial Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
From the time of incorporation in the late 1700s through the 1970s, Concord's jurisdiction was centered around the downtown area. Since most annexations have taken place west of the center-city area toward Charlotte. Portions of the city limit boundary adjoin the Cabarrus/Mecklenburg County line. Concord is located in western Cabarrus County at 35°24′16″N 80°36′2″W; the city is located in the Piedmont area of North Carolina, characterized by rolling hills and forest. Land left untended will return to native forest land within a few years; the climate can be described as cool winter seasons with humid summer seasons. The average high temperature in the winter is 43 °F, the average daily low temperature is 29 °F. In the summer the average temperature is 79 °F, the average daily high temperature is 88 °F, it is not unusual for summer daytime temperatures to reach in the mid to upper 90s and exceed 100 °F. It is typical for winter temperatures to fall into the teens at night, but temperatures warm to above freezing during the day.
Summer months are characterized as having cool to warm nights with warm to hot temperatures during the day. The area receives a generous amount of rainfall at 43.8 inches per year, with February and April being the two driest months. Rainfall in the winter is lighter but more frequent, whereas rainfall in the summer is heavier but less frequent. Thunderstorms, both light and strong, are common in the summer months; the sun shines 70 percent of 55 percent in winter. The prevailing wind is from the southwest, with the average highest windspeed of 9 miles per hour in spring; the city has a total area of 60.3 square miles, of which 0.06 %, is water. The elevation at the center of downtown is 706 feet above sea level. Concord is located northeast of the largest city in North Carolina. Concord is the second-largest city in the Charl
1790 United States Census
The United States Census of 1790 was the first census of the whole United States. It recorded the population of the United States as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws. In the first census, the population of the United States was enumerated to be 3,929,214. Congress assigned responsibility for the 1790 census to the marshals of United States judicial districts under an act which, with minor modifications and extensions, governed census taking until the 1840 census. "The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president." Both Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and President George Washington expressed skepticism over the results, believing that the true population had been undercounted.
If there was indeed an undercount, possible explanations for it include dispersed population, poor transportation links, limitations of contemporary technology, individual refusal to participate. Although the Census was proved statistically factual, based on data collected, the records for several states were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830. One third of the original census data have been lost or destroyed since their original documentation; these include some 1790 data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont. No microdata from the 1790 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves.
Under the direction of the current Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, marshals collected data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory. The census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. At 17.8 percent, the 1790 Census's proportion of slaves to the free population was the highest recorded by any census. Media related to 1790 United States Census at Wikimedia Commons Historic US Census data 1790 Census of Population and Housing official reports Population of 24 Urban Places: 1790
Lynches River, named for Thomas Lynch, Jr. signer of the Declaration of Independence, rises in North Carolina near Waxhaw, North Carolina, at about 700 feet elevation, flowing only a short distance to the South Carolina border, thence to join the Great Pee Dee River near Johnsonville. It is about 140 mi long and the drainage area is 1030 square miles. Several sections of the river have been designated by the state of South Carolina as a wild and scenic river, with the upper portions from Bishopville to the eastern boundary of Lynches River County Park receiving designation in 1994, the lower 57 mile section designated in 2008; the river is a favorite for canoeing, but Hurricane Hugo in 1989 felled many trees, blocking the flow at places, making navigation difficult at low water and dangerous at high water. River enthusiasts have been cleaning up the storm debris; the river is a popular fishing spot, with sunfish, redbreast and bass. The upper reaches of the River are in the Piedmont, an area of worn down mountains, consisting of metamorphic rocks, overlain by rocky clay soils.
Much of the Piedmont is forested with some agricultural land around Pageland, site of an annual watermelon festival. This section of the river was an important gold, minor iron mining area in the 19th century, with the first known gold being mined by placer in Lynches River and its tributaries near Pageland and Jefferson starting about 1828. Before the Civil War, 58 gold mines operated in South Carolina. All commercial mining ceased in 1942 when the federal government's War Labor Board and PL-208 outlawed gold mining across the country. With the value of gold locked at $35 per ounce, federal law prohibiting private citizens from holding gold between the 1930s and 1980s, nearly all gold mines in the United States became impractical and unprofitable to operate; when the price of gold was released by the federal government, prices rose, feasibility studies were begun on some of the old sites. At the Brewer gold mine, between Jefferson and Lynches River, it was deemed to have sufficient reserves to open it with modern machinery and technology.
Between 1987 and 1991 the mine produced 118,000 troy ounces of gold, by crushing the ore and leaching it with a cyanide solution to dissolve the gold. In 1990 an accidental spill released cyanide into Lynches River and 11,000 fish died; the mine was closed for a few months for repair. The river drops off the Piedmont between Bethune and McBee, cutting through the sand hills region, an old ocean shoreline with hills that are thought to be former beach dunes, now used for peach orchards and pine plantations. Near the river is the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge and the Sandhills State Forest both in Chesterfield County. At Bethune, South Carolina you'll find the only bridge in the world that crosses the same river three times and the river does not fork; the Lynches River forms a large'S" at the place where US Highway 1 crosses the river one mile north of Bethune. Below this the river valley widens and it begins to meander more, as it finishes its course through the coastal plain; as it passes Bishopville, South Carolina and Lynchburg, South Carolina, it flows through a traditional cotton farming belt.
Bishopville is the site of the South Carolina Cotton Museum. Lee State Park is located 4 miles. Although river access is limited at the park, several boat ramps are located nearby. Fishing may be enjoyed from the park's riverbanks. Children under 14 may fish in the Artesian Lake, stocked with catfish. There is a boardwalk out into the Lynches River floodplain. At Coward, South Carolina, Florence County owns Lynches River County Park, which features nature trails, an elevated canopy walk, Splash Pad, geocaching and standards-based environmental education programs; as the floodplain widens, the riversides become forested with tupelo, bald cypress, red maple, other water loving vegetation. The uplands from Effingham to Johnsonville, South Carolina are rich agricultural areas. Tobacco is the primary money crop for farmers, but cotton, wheat and vegetables are grown. Effingham is the site of South Carolina's only canning factory. At Johnsonville, the stream passes what was the largest factory along its length, that of Wellman Industries, a fiber processing and recycling plant.
Just below Johnsonville, Lynches River empties into the Great Pee Dee River. Part of Lynches River has been designated by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service as critical habitat for the federally endangered Carolina heelsplitter, Lasmigona decorata, a freshwater mussel; the Carolina heelsplitter is a medium-sized freshwater mussel, reaching 4.5 inches in length, with a greenish brown to dark brown shell. It is threatened by pollution and silting and only six small populations still are known to exist. Another aquatic invertebrate that inhabits the Lynches River is a gastropod called, Ridged Lioplax, Lioplax subcarinata. South Carolina has designated it a Species of Concern, it has only been found in the Lynches and Waccamaw Rivers. Https://web.archive.org/web/20070819080132/http://www.dnr.sc.gov/water/envaff/river/scenic/lynches.html https://web.archive.org/web/20060923052425/http://www.sc.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/LynchesRiverWater.html http://www.house.gov/list/press/sc05_spratt/042905_brewer_gold_mine.html http://www.fws.gov/endangered/r/fr93505.html
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i
York County, South Carolina
York County is a county located in the north-central section of the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 226,073, its county seat is York, South Carolina, its largest city is Rock Hill. The county is served by one interstate highway, I-77, a nearby airport, Charlotte/Douglas International Airport. York County is part of the Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-Rock Hill SC Metropolitan Statistical Area. With a population of nearly 6,000 at the time of first European contact, the native inhabitants, the Catawba were agriculturalists. Hernando de Soto passed through the area in the 1540s in his search for gold. Several decades Juan Pardo recorded his observation of a predominant Native American tribe confirmed to be the Catawba, in the vicinity of present-day Fort Mill, east of the Catawba River; the Province of South Carolina was founded in 1670. Twelve years it was divided into three counties. One of these, Craven County encompassed the northern half of the colony, while the northern portion of York County was considered part of North Carolina.
The first European settlers in the Carolina Piedmont, traditionally called the South Carolina Upcountry, were Scots-Irish Presbyterians. Rising rent and land prices in Pennsylvania drove them southward down the Great Wagon Road, they began arriving in the Upcountry west of the Catawba River during the 1740s and settled in present-day York County during the 1750s. Before the boundaries between the two Carolinas were fixed, the northern portion of York County was part of Bladen County, North Carolina, in 1750 it was included in the newly created Anson County, North Carolina. In 1762 Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, was formed from western Anson and included present-day northern York County. Five years the area became part of Tryon County, North Carolina, which comprised all of North Carolina west of the Catawba River and south of Rowan County; this area would remain a part of Tryon County until 1772, when the boundary between North and South Carolina in this portion was established. After its transfer to South Carolina in 1772, much of the area was known as the New Acquisition.
In 1785, York County was one of the original counties in the newly created state of South Carolina, its boundaries remained unchanged until 1897, when a small portion of the northwestern corner, was ceded to the newly formed Cherokee County, South Carolina. By 1780, the Carolina Upcountry had an estimated population of more than 250,000, predominantly Scots-Irish Presbyterians but with significant numbers of other Protestants from Great Britain; the Scots-Irish settled in a dispersed community pattern denoted by communal, family-related groups known as "clachans", much the same as in Pennsylvania and Ulster, Northern Ireland. The clachans developed around the Presbyterian Kirks, or meetinghouses, became the forerunners of the congregations. In York County, the "Five B" churches, all Presbyterian—- Bethany, Bethesda and Bullock's Creek—- are the county’s oldest. Sandwiched between unfriendly natives to the west, Cherokee and Creek Native American tribes, indifference on the part of English officials in Charleston, who considered residents of the Backcountry uncivilized, the early settlers found themselves targets of Native American raids, the local militia became an early police force, patrolling the area for possible Native American or slave troubles and controlling the numerous outlaw bands which roamed the region.
Militia units, or "Beat Companies", enrolled every able-bodied man on the frontier. Residents of the Upcountry were slow to take sides in the American Revolutionary War, content to remain neutral as long as left unmolested; the New Acquisition entered into vocal opposition to Royal authority in 1780 only after three "invasions" of the region: the first by Banastre Tarleton and his "Green Dragoons", two more by Lord Cornwallis. Most of the state had capitulated to the British after their capture of Charleston, but after the Waxhaw Massacre in nearby Lancaster County in May 1780, residents of the New Acquisition took part in a regional resistance. Led by men such as William "Billy" Hill, William Bratton, Samuel Watson, both the battles of Huck's Defeat and Kings Mountain, were fought in the New Acquisition; these defeats forced Cornwallis northward, led to his ultimate surrender at Yorktown. After the defeat of the British, Upcountry residents enjoyed a greater share of administration in their region.
The area experienced phenomenal growth after the war. In first United States census, York County had a population of 6,604. Less than 15% of the county's population lived in bondage in 1790, while the state averaged 30%. A county seat was laid out in 1786 at Fergus' Cross Roads, where several roads converged near the geographic center of the county; the new town was first known as the village of York, or more York Court House. In 1841, the town was incorporated as "Yorkville." In 1823 its population, was 441—which included 292 whites and 149 blacks. By 1840 the population had reached 600, in 1850 Yorkville consisted of 93 dwellings and 617 inhabitants. In the years just prior to the Civil War, the town gained a reputation as a summer resort for many Lowcountry planters trying to escape the malarial swamps of the region for the more mod