Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman was an American politician who served as the 33rd President of the United States, assuming the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt during the waning months of World War II. In domestic affairs, he was a moderate Democrat whose liberal proposals were a continuation of Franklin Roosevelts New Deal, but the conservative-dominated Congress blocked most of them. He used weapons to end World War II, desegregated the U. S. armed forces, supported a newly independent Israel. Truman was born in Lamar and spent most of his youth on his familys 600-acre farm near Independence, in the last months of World War I, he served in combat in France as an artillery officer with his National Guard unit. After the war, he owned a haberdashery in Kansas City and joined the Democratic Party. Truman was first elected to office as a county official in 1922. After serving as a United States Senator from Missouri and briefly as Vice President, he succeeded to the presidency on April 12,1945, upon the death of Franklin D.
Roosevelt. Germany surrendered on Trumans 61st birthday, just a few weeks after he assumed the presidency, but the war with Imperial Japan raged on and was expected to last at least another year. Although this decision and the issues that arose as a result of it remain the subject of debate to this day. Truman presided over a surge in economic prosperity as America sought readjustment after long years of depression. His presidency was a point in foreign affairs, as the United States engaged in an internationalist foreign policy. Truman helped found the United Nations in 1945, issued the Truman Doctrine in 1947 to contain Communism and his political coalition was based on the white South, labor unions, ethnic groups, and traditional Democrats across the North. Truman was able to rally groups of supporters during the 1948 presidential election. The Soviet Union became an enemy in the Cold War, Truman oversaw the Berlin Airlift of 1948 and the creation of NATO in 1949, but was unable to stop Communists from taking over China.
When communist North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, he sent U. S. troops, after initial successes in Korea, the UN forces were thrown back by Chinese intervention, and the conflict was stalemated throughout the final years of Trumans presidency. Scholars, starting in 1962, ranked Trumans presidency as near great, Harry S. Truman was born on May 8,1884, in Lamar, the oldest child of John Anderson Truman and Martha Ellen Young Truman. His parents chose the name Harry after his mothers brother, Harrison Harry Young, while the S did not stand for any one name, it was chosen as his middle initial to honor both of his grandfathers, Anderson Shipp Truman and Solomon Young. The initial has been written and printed followed by a period
A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by not only suppress floods but provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, aquaculture. Hydropower is often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity, a dam can be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams generally serve the purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, and before that, from Middle Dutch, the first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, that is mentioned in 1120. The word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, so the word should be understood as dike from dug out earth. The names of more than 40 places from the Middle Dutch era such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam, early dam building took place in Mesopotamia and the Middle East.
Dams were used to control the level, for Mesopotamias weather affected the Tigris. The earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan,100 kilometres northeast of the capital Amman and this gravity dam featured an originally 9-metre-high and 1 m-wide stone wall, supported by a 50 m-wide earth rampart. The structure is dated to 3000 BC, the Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km south of Cairo, was 102 m long at its base and 87 m wide. The structure was built around 2800 or 2600 BC as a dam for flood control. During the Twelfth Dynasty in the 19th century BC, the Pharaohs Senosert III, Amenemhat III, two dams called Ha-Uar running east-west were built to retain water during the annual flood and release it to surrounding lands. The lake called Mer-wer or Lake Moeris covered 1,700 km2 and is today as Berkat Qaroun. One of the wonders of the ancient world was the Great Dam of Marib in Yemen. Repairs were carried out during various periods, most important around 750 BC and these extensive works were not actually finalized until 325 AD and allowed the irrigation of 25,000 acres.
By the mid-late 3rd century BC, an intricate water-management system within Dholavira in modern-day India was built, the system included 16 reservoirs and various channels for collecting water and storing it. Eflatun Pınar is a Hittite dam and spring temple near Konya and it is thought to be from the time of the Hittite empire between the 15th and 13th century BC
President of the United States
The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole.
However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them.
In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislation
Alben W. Barkley
Alben William Barkley was a lawyer and politician from Kentucky who served in both houses of Congress and as the 35th Vice President of the United States from 1949 to 1953. In 1905, he was elected county attorney for McCracken County and he was chosen County Judge/Executive in 1909 and U. S. Representative from Kentuckys First District in 1912, as a Representative, he was a liberal Democrat, supporting President Woodrow Wilsons New Freedom domestic agenda and foreign policy. Endorsing Prohibition and denouncing parimutuel betting, Barkley narrowly lost the 1923 Democratic gubernatorial primary to fellow Representative J. Campbell Cantrill, in 1926, he unseated Republican Senator Richard P. Ernst. In the Senate, he supported the New Deal approach to addressing the Great Depression and was elected to succeed Senate Majority Leader Joseph T. Robinson upon Robinsons death in 1937, during his 1938 re-election bid, his opponent A. B. Happy Chandler accused him of using Works Progress Administration employees to campaign for him, neither candidate was charged with any wrongdoing, but in 1939, Congress passed the Hatch Act, making it illegal for federal employees to campaign for political candidates.
When World War II focused President Franklin D. Roosevelts attention on foreign affairs and he resigned as floor leader after Roosevelt ignored his advice and vetoed the Revenue Act of 1943. The Democratic caucus supported and unanimously re-elected Barkley to the position of Majority Leader, Barkley had a better working relationship with Harry S. Truman, who ascended to the presidency after Roosevelts death in 1945. With Trumans popularity waning entering the 1948 Democratic National Convention, Barkley gave an address that energized the delegates. Truman selected him as his running mate for the upcoming election, Barkley took an active role in the Truman administration, acting as its primary spokesman, especially after the Korean War necessitated the majority of Trumans attention. He retired but was coaxed back into life, defeating incumbent Republican Senator John Sherman Cooper in 1954. Barkley died of an attack while giving a speech at the Washington. Willie Alben Barkley, the eldest of John Wilson and Electa Eliza Barkleys eight children, was born November 24,1877 and his grandmother, midwife Amanda Barkley, delivered him in the log house she lived in with her husband, Alben, in Wheel, Kentucky.
Barkleys parents were tenant farmers who grew tobacco, and his father was an elder in the local Presbyterian church, both parents were religious, opposed to playing cards and alcohol. Occasionally, Barkleys parents would leave him in the care of his grandparents for extended periods, during these times, his grandmother related stories of her relatives. Her childhood playmates included future U. S, Vice President Adlai Stevenson I and James A. McKenzie, a future U. S. Barkley worked on his parents farm and attended school in Lowes, unhappy with his birth name, he adopted Alben William as soon as he was old enough to express his opinion in the matter. In the difficult economy of late 1891, relatives convinced Barkleys father to sell his farm and move to Clinton, to pursue opportunities as a tenant wheat farmer
Battle of Fort Henry
The Battle of Fort Henry was fought on February 6,1862, in western Middle Tennessee, during the American Civil War. It was the first important victory for the Union and Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in the Western Theater, on February 4 and 5, Grant landed two divisions just north of Fort Henry on the Tennessee River. Grants plan was to advance upon the fort on February 6 while it was being attacked by Union gunboats commanded by Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote. The surrender of Fort Henry opened the Tennessee River to Union traffic south of the Alabama border, in the days following the forts surrender, from February 6 through February 12, Union raids used timberclad boats to destroy Confederate shipping and railroad bridges along the river. On February 12, Grants army proceeded overland 12 miles to engage with Confederate troops in the Battle of Fort Donelson, in early 1861 the critical border state of Kentucky had declared neutrality in the American Civil War. This neutrality was first violated on September 3, when Confederate Brig.
Gen. Gideon J. Pillow, acting on orders from Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk, occupied Columbus, Kentucky. Two days later, Union Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Henceforth, neither adversary respected Kentuckys proclaimed neutrality, the buffer zone that Kentucky provided between the North and the South was no longer available to assist in the defense of Tennessee. By early 1862, a general, Albert Sidney Johnston, commanded all the Confederate forces from Arkansas to the Cumberland Gap. Forts Henry and Donelson were the sole positions defending the important Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers, if these rivers were opened to Union military traffic, two direct invasion paths would lead into Tennessee and beyond. By January 1862, the disunity was apparent because they could not agree on a strategy for operations in the Western Theater, under political pressure to invade and hold pro-Union eastern Tennessee, moved slowly in the direction of Nashville. In Hallecks department, Grant moved up the Tennessee River to divert attention from Buells intended advance and the other generals in the West were coming under political pressure from President Abraham Lincoln to participate in a general offensive by Washingtons birthday.
Despite his tradition of caution, Halleck eventually reacted positively to Grants proposal to move against Fort Henry, Halleck hoped that this would improve his standing in relation to his rival, Buell. Halleck and Grant were concerned about rumors that Confederate General P. G. T, beauregard would soon arrive with 15 Confederate regiments. On January 30,1862, Halleck authorized Grant to take Fort Henry, Grant wasted no time, leaving Cairo, Illinois, at the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, on February 2. His invasion force, which arrived on the Tennessee River on February 4 and 5, john A. McClernand and Charles F. Smith, and the Western Gunboat Flotilla, commanded by United States Navy Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote. The flotilla included four ironclad gunboats under Footes direct command, insufficient transport ships this early in the war to deliver all of the army troops in a single operation required two trips upriver to reach the fort. Fort Henry was a five-sided, open-bastioned earthen structure covering 10 acres on the bank of the Tennessee River.
The site was one mile above Panther Creek and about six miles below the mouth of the Big Sandy River
Canals and navigations are human-made channels for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. In the vernacular, both are referred to as canals, and in most cases, the works will have a series of dams. These areas are referred to as water levels, often just called levels. In contrast, a canal cuts across a drainage divide atop a ridge, many canals have been built at elevations towering over valleys and others water ways crossing far below. Cities need a lot of water and many canals with sources of water at a higher level can deliver water to a destination where there is a lack of water. The Roman Empires Aqueducts were such water supply canals, a navigation is a series of channels that run roughly parallel to the valley and stream bed of an unimproved river. A navigation always shares the drainage basin of the river, a vessel uses the calm parts of the river itself as well as improvements, traversing the same changes in height. A true canal is a channel that cuts across a drainage divide, most commercially important canals of the first half of the 19th century were a little of each, using rivers in long stretches, and divide crossing canals in others.
This is true for many canals still in use, there are two broad types of canal, Waterways and navigations used for carrying vessels transporting goods and people. These can be subdivided into two kinds, Those connecting existing lakes, other canals or seas and oceans and those connected in a city network, such as the Canal Grande and others of Venice Italy, the gracht of Amsterdam, and the waterways of Bangkok. Aqueducts, water canals that are used for the conveyance and delivery of potable water for human consumption, municipal uses, hydro power canals. Historically canals were of importance to commerce and the development, growth. In 1855 the Lehigh Canal carried over 1.2 million tons of burning anthracite coal, by the 1930s the company which built. By the early 1880s, canals which had little ability to compete with rail transport, were off the map. In the next couple of decades, coal was diminished as the heating fuel of choice by oil. Later, after World War I when motor-trucks came into their own, Canals are built in one of three ways, or a combination of the three, depending on available water and available path, Human made streams A canal can be created where no stream presently exists.
Either the body of the canal is dug or the sides of the canal are created by making dykes or levees by piling dirt, the water for the canal must be provided from an external source, like streams or reservoirs. Where the new waterway must change elevation engineering works like locks, lifts or elevators are constructed to raise, examples include canals that connect valleys over a higher body of land, like Canal du Midi, Canal de Briare and the Panama Canal
Stewart County, Tennessee
Stewart County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,324, Stewart County is home to Fort Donelson, the site of a Confederate stand against the Unions push up the Cumberland River during the Civil War. Stewart County was created in 1803 from a portion of Montgomery County, and was named for Duncan Stewart, during the Battle of Fort Donelson, the county seat, was burned by Union troops to prevent its capture by General Nathan B. Tobaccoport Saltpeter Cave was intensely mined for saltpeter, possibly during the War of 1812, Saltpeter is the main ingredient of gunpowder and was obtained by leaching the earth from the cave. This area fell under Union control in February 1862, early in the Civil War, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 493 square miles, of which 459 square miles is land and 34 square miles is water. The county lies in a section of the northwestern Highland Rim. The Cumberland River traverses the county, the Tennessee River provides the countys border with Henry County to the west.
Federal and state agencies control nearly 44% of the land in the county, the population density was 27 people per square mile. There were 5,977 housing units at a density of 13 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95. 27% White,1. 29% Black or African American,0. 61% Native American,1. 46% Asian,0. 05% Pacific Islander,0. 23% from other races, and 1. 10% from two or more races. 1. 00% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,23. 10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10. 80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was out with 23. 90% under the age of 18,7. 50% from 18 to 24,28. 40% from 25 to 44,25. 40% from 45 to 64. The median age was 39 years, for every 100 females there were 99.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.50 males, the median income for a household in the county was $32,316, and the median income for a family was $38,655.
Males had an income of $31,106 versus $21,985 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,302, about 10. 60% of families and 12. 40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12. 90% of those under age 18 and 15. 60% of those age 65 or over. The county is part of Tennessees 8th congressional district, and traditionally votes Democratic, Stewart County has been trending Republican in recent presidential elections
The Tennessee River is the largest tributary of the Ohio River. It is approximately 652 miles long and is located in the southeastern United States in the Tennessee Valley. The river was once known as the Cherokee River, among other names, as many of the Cherokee had their territory along its banks, especially in eastern Tennessee. Its current name is derived from the Cherokee village Tanasi, the Tennessee River is formed at the confluence of the Holston and French Broad rivers on the east side of present-day Knoxville, Tennessee. From Knoxville, it flows southwest through East Tennessee toward Chattanooga before crossing into Alabama and it loops through northern Alabama and eventually forms a small part of the states border with Mississippi, before returning to Tennessee. At this point, it defines the boundary between two of Tennessees Grand Divisions and West Tennessee and this waterway reduces the navigation distance from Tennessee, north Alabama, and northern Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico by hundreds of miles.
The final part of the Tennessees run is in Kentucky, where it separates the Jackson Purchase from the rest of the state and it flows into the Ohio River at Paducah, Kentucky. The river has been dammed numerous times, primarily in the 20th century by Tennessee Valley Authority projects since the 1930s, a navigation canal located at Grand Rivers, links Kentucky Lake and Lake Barkley. The canal allows for a trip for river traffic going from the Tennessee to most of the Ohio River. Maps from the early 18th century call it Cussate, Callamaco, a 1755 British map showed the Tennessee River as the River of the Cherakees. By the late 18th century, it had come to be called Tennessee, the river was a major highway to transport goods and explorers in the years when Tennessee was not yet settled. Some major towns that still exist today, and major ports at them were established by those who rode down the river, and settled along it. The Tennessee River begins at mile post 652, where the French Broad River meets the Holston River, in the late 18th century, the mouth of the Little Tennessee River was considered to be the beginning of the Tennessee River.
Through much of the 19th century, the Tennessee River was considered to start at the mouth of Clinch River, at various points since the early 19th century, Georgia has disputed its northern border with Tennessee. Georgia made several attempts to correct what Georgia felt was an erroneous survey line in the 1890s,1905,1915,1922,1941,1947 and 1971 to resolve the dispute. Crews Townsend, Joseph McCoin, Robert F. Parsley, Alison Martin and Zachary H. Greene, writing for the Tennessee Bar Journal, a publication of the Tennessee Bar Association, appearing on May 12,2008. In 2008, as a result of a drought and resulting water shortage. In a two-page resolution passed overwhelmingly by the senate, Georgia declared that it, not its neighbor to the north
Lyon County, Kentucky
Lyon County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,314, the county was formed from Caldwell County, Kentucky in 1854 and named for former Congressman Chittenden Lyon. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 257 square miles. The population density was 38 per square mile, there were 4,189 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 91. 86% White,6. 72% Black or African American,0. 30% Native American,0. 17% Asian,0. 01% Pacific Islander,0. 40% from other races, and 0. 54% from two or more races. 26. 80% of all households were made up of individuals and 12. 20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.70. The age distribution was 15. 80% under the age of 18,7. 50% from 18 to 24,32. 90% from 25 to 44,27. 00% from 45 to 64, the median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 133.50 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 138.10 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $31,694, males had a median income of $36,034 versus $21,806 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,016, about 10. 20% of families and 12. 70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17. 30% of those under age 18 and 13. 30% of those age 65 or over
Both the lake and the dam are named for Vice President Alben Barkley, a Kentucky native. The dam impounds the Cumberland River near Grand Rivers, one mile above the dam is a canal connecting Lake Barkley with Kentucky Lake, forming one of the greatest freshwater recreational complexes in the country. The lakes run parallel courses for more than 50 miles, with the Land Between The Lakes National Recreation Area located between them, Lake Barkley is 134 miles long with a shoreline measuring 1,004 miles. The lakes level is maintained at different levels throughout the year for control purposes. Summer pool,359 ft above sea level, is reached by May 1. The water level begins dropping gradually on July 1, and winter pool is reached by December 1, the spring rise starts April 1. The lakes water surface area varies accordingly from 57,920 acres at summer pool to 45,210 acres at winter pool, as with the formation of Kentucky Lake, communities were flooded in the 1960s to build Lake Barkley. You may hear someone refer to Eddyville and Old Eddyville, as well as Kuttawa, the Old areas were the portions of the cities that were left above the water after the areas were flooded, these old areas are now lakefront.
The present-day cities were created on nearby sites after the lake was impounded, Old foundations and streets, previously flooded, are still visible during winter pool. Highways were even relocated, including US68 and US62, along state routes. The Illinois Central Railroad was relocated, the alignment can still be seen under water from low flying planes above. Lake Barkley State Resort Park is located on the shore of the lake. The largest yellow bass ever taken in Kentucky was caught in the waters of Lake Barkley