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Land Rush of 1889

The Oklahoma Land Rush of 1889 was the first land rush into the Unassigned Lands. The area, opened to settlement included all or part of the Canadian, Kingfisher, Logan and Payne counties of the US state of Oklahoma; the land run started at high noon on April 22, 1889, with an estimated 50,000 people lined up for their piece of the available two million acres. The Unassigned Lands were considered some of the best unoccupied public land in the United States; the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889 was passed and signed into law with an amendment by Illinois Representative William McKendree Springer that authorized President Benjamin Harrison to open the two million acres for settlement. President Abraham Lincoln signed the Homestead Act of 1862 which allowed settlers to claim lots of up to 160 acres, provided that they lived on the land and improved it; the removal of Native Americans to Indian Territory started after the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828. The federal government was unwilling to help the tribes in Georgia and Mississippi fight against state laws passed against them.

President Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act on May 28, 1830. The Choctaws were the first tribe to concede to removal in 1830, they agreed to give up their move to the designated Indian Territory. The main portions of the Choctaw tribe moved to Indian Territory from 1830-1833, with the promise that they would be granted autonomy. Many perished on the journey to the new territory; the Creeks were the next tribe to move to Indian Territory. In 1829 a council was held and it was agreed that they would submit to state laws and stay on their lands. However, pressure from settlers and the state government lead to the Creek Tribe surrendering its lands to the state of Alabama. By 1836, the entire Creek Tribe had been removed to Oklahoma after the killing and pillaging of white settlers and a civil war within the tribe; the Cherokees were the third tribe to be removed to Indian Territory. Tribal leaders Chief John Ross, other high ranking families did the most they could to keep their lands. Jackson refused to enforce the ruling in the Worcester v. Georgia case, ruling that the Cherokee Nation was a community that had its own boundaries and the citizens of Georgia could not enter their lands without consent of the Cherokee Tribe.

The necessity to leave Georgia to Oklahoma became inevitable to Chief John Ross. The U. S. military forced the removal of the Cherokees to Indian Territory. By the end of 1838, the Cherokee tribe had been removed to Oklahoma. Out of the 18,000 that made the trip from 1835 to 1838, about 4,000 perished; the Chickasaws elected to leave their lands and did not suffer like the Cherokee tribe. The tribe was progressing by frontier standards in that they were educating children, building churches, farming, they were faced with the problem of the federal government not being able to protect them from the state government of Mississippi. Beginning in 1832 a collection of treaties were signed, granting them better terms than the other tribes had received, they left for Oklahoma in the winter of 1837–38 and paid the Choctaws to be able to settle on their lands. The Seminole Tribe was tricked into signing a removal treaty and the Seminole War is what followed; this was the costliest Indian war in United States history.

Chief Osceola and his tribe hid in the Everglades in Florida, the military sought to hunt them down. Many were sent to Oklahoma in chains. Osceola died in prison; the war and removal reduced their population by 40%, only 2,254 were left in 1859 according to the 1859 census. After the removal of the Five Civilized Tribes, they were joined by tribes of the plains who were forced into the territory after wars with the U. S. military. The Quapaws and Senecas were placed in Northeast Oklahoma with the Cherokees, they were joined by the Shawnees and Kickapoos by 1845. After the entrance of Texas into the Union, the Caddos and parts of the Comanche tribe were placed in Indian Territory after treaties with the Civilized Tribes. By 1880, the Wyandots, Arapahos and other smaller tribes had been removed from surrounding states and placed into Oklahoma. Americans at this time were facing the troubles of land overpopulation in the east where millions of people were occupying only thousands of square miles of land.

The Civil War had just ended, sparking people's need to occupy the west. The only problem was the Indian Territory. Americans called for their legislators to open the Indian Territory and certain Native Americans like Elias C. Boudinot encouraged other Native Americans to participate in the effort to welcome westward expansion; as a result, thirty-three bills were presented before congress introducing legislation to open the territory for settlement in the course of ten years from 1870 to 1879. Legislation was passed through Congress in 1866 that permitted railroads to be laid in sections of 40 miles on either sides of the Indian Territory; the two companies in charge of creating these railroads were the Atlantic and the Pacific, although their contracts were rescinded due to not finishing the projects in the agreed time. Railroad companies that came up after them took it as their responsibility to finish the project, saw a way to strengthen their contracts by introducing the movement of white settlement in the Indian Territory.

The Railroads employed people like C. C. Carpenter to spread false information in newspapers of the Indian Territory being open to settlement through Congress's Homestead laws; the articles were a success as a large movement of black and white settlers began to

Facel Vega Excellence

The Excellence is a luxury saloon automobile, unveiled by Facel-Vega of Paris, France, at the Paris Auto Show in October 1956 to rave reviews by the motoring press. Production started in 1958 and lasted until the company ceased production in 1964; the car was based on an elongated chassis from the Facel Vega FV Coupé. It was the only four-door model the company made. Production ended; the low production figure is a direct result of the car's exorbitant purchase price. When new, it cost about as much as four Citroën DS saloons, which themselves were hardly to be considered cheap cars; the towering price could still be boosted by ordering optional equipment, which became available over the car's production run, such as power steering, power brakes, electric windows, wire-spoke wheels, air conditioning. The Excellence features some styling elements found on American cars of the era, like tailfins, the wraparound windshield, the "hardtop" roof without B-pillars, but the overall design is distinctively European, with its stacked quad-headlights and rakishly low profile.

Its low beltline and comparatively high greenhouse predicted the automotive architecture that became mainstream in the late Fifties, lasted throughout the Sixties. The Facel-Vega Excellence incorporates a pillarless four-door mechanism, allowing the car to be designed with rear-hinged "suicide" styled rear doors for easier access and egress; this layout could be found on the limited production Cadillac Eldorado Brougham, unveiled in 1956, on the mass-produced 1961-1969 Lincoln Continental. Inside, the car has a lavish interior with seats covered in aromatic leather, a fake walnut dashboard with full instrumentation, a make up kit located in the back of the centre armrest, consisting of a chrome-handled brush and comb, two perfume bottles, the latter albeit being supplied empty by the factory. Still, the interior is not nearly as roomy as one would expect from a car with a wheelbase exceeding three metres; the Excellence could hold its own among the best GTs Europe had to offer. Some high-performance American cars, most notably Chrysler's 300'letter series' models, could outrun an Excellence in straight-line performance, but they were neither as refined, well built, nor had they the'panache' of a Facel-Vega.

Although the Excellence could match the wheelbase of most full-sized American cars of the time, it was shorter and most of all, lower. Its comparatively compact measurements gave it the edge in the handling department, which came in handy under European road conditions. In an article for the November 1985 edition of Collectible Automobile Magazine, noted automotive historian Richard Langworth stated his opinion that "The Excellence is a large vehicle...better suited as a car of State rather than a daily driver." How he came to this conclusion despite the unanimously positive reviews regarding the roadability of the Excellence from the contemporary motoring press as well as its owners, has been a matter of debate since. Powered by contemporary Chrysler V8 engines, like other Facel-Vega cars, the initial Excellences were fitted with the famed Hemi, which Chrysler discontinued for the 1958 model year. Facel-Vega continued to use those engines until their stocks were used up in late 1958. From on, the V8 powered Facel-Vegas were powered by the Chrysler B-series "Wedge" big-block engines.

All Chrysler powered Facel-Vegas could be had with either the Pont-à-Mousson built four-speed manual, or the Chrysler built Torqueflite three-speed automatic. Whereas the American automatic transmission was optional for the Facel-Vegas, the French manual gearbox conversely became optionally available in selected Chrysler high-performance models. While the Paris Show Car of 1956 was fitted with a 331 CID unit, the initial batch of production Excellences was equipped with the monster 392 CID version of the Chrysler Hemi V8; this engine, producing 360 hp, was shared - among others - with the Facel Vega HK500 and Chrysler's own Imperial. Facels could either be ordered with the Pont-à-Mousson built four-speed manual, or the Chrysler built Torqueflite three-speed automatic. Contemporary road tests showed, that they performed well with either gearbox. Arguably the most powerful Excellences to hit the roads, these were genuine 140 mph cars. A mere eleven'EX'-series cars were built, seven of which are known to survive.

The Hemi-engined Excellences can be recognized by their inclusion of a hood scoop not seen on models. For model year 1958, Chrysler discontinued the Hemi engines, after stocks had dried up, Facel-Vega started using the 361 CID Chrysler'Wedge' head V8 engines. Why Facel-Vega didn't go for the top-of-the-line 413 CID engines remains a mystery, but the French road tax system, based on engine displacement, is cited as an explanation. Be it as it may, a 361-powered Excellence was anything but a slouch, it had the same nominal horsepower output as the Hemi, namely 360 hp. The more faint at heart may be pleased to learn, that from late 1959 onwards, an Excellence could be stopped via optional power disc brakes up front; the 1958 to 1961 Excellences were the most numerous of the bunch with 137 examples being built. Late models incorporate nearly all of the advancements considered to be part of the EX2 update, including the non-panoramic windshield and steering upgrades, as well as the lesser fins; the Excellence received its only significant facelift in 1961.

It now came with a bigger 383 CID engine, rated at 390 hp, a mindboggling figure back especially for a saloon car. H


The Ganda language or Luganda is a Bantu language spoken in the African Great Lakes region. It is one of the major languages in Uganda, spoken by more than eight million Baganda and other people principally in central Uganda, including the capital Kampala of Uganda, it belongs to the Bantu branch of the Niger–Congo language family. Typologically, it is a highly-agglutinating language with subject–verb–object, word order and nominative–accusative morphosyntactic alignment. With about six million first-language-speakers in the Buganda region and a million others fluent elsewhere, it is the most spoken Ugandan language; as a second language, it follows precedes Swahili. Luganda is used in some primary schools in Buganda as pupils begin to learn English, the primary official language of Uganda; until the 1960s, Luganda was the official language of instruction in primary schools in Eastern Uganda. A notable feature of Luganda phonology is its geminate consonants and distinctions between long and short vowels.

Speakers consider consonantal gemination and vowel lengthening to be two manifestations of the same effect, which they call "doubling" or "stressing". Luganda is a tonal language. For example, the word kabaka means ` king'. If the first syllable is high the meaning changes to'the little one catches'; this feature makes Luganda a difficult language for speakers of non-tonal languages to learn. A non-native speaker has to learn the variations of pitch by prolonged listening. Unlike some other Bantu languages, there is no tendency in Luganda for penultimate vowels to become long. All five vowels have two forms: short; the distinction can occur only in certain positions. After two consonants, the latter being a semivowel, all vowels are long; the quality of a vowel is not affected by its length. Long vowels in Luganda are long, more than twice the length of a short vowel. A vowel before a prenasalised consonant, as in Bugáńda'Buganda' is lengthened, although it is not as long as a long vowel. Before a geminate, all vowels are short.

A segment such as tugg, where a short vowel is followed by a geminate consonant, is slightly shorter than tuuk or tung. The table below gives the consonant set of Luganda, grouping voiceless and voiced consonants together in a cell where appropriate, in that order. Apart from /l~r/, all these consonants can be geminated at the start of a word: bbiri /bːíri/'two', kitto /cítːo/'cold'; the approximants /w/ and /j/ are geminated as /ɡːw/ and /ɟː/: eggwanga /eɡːwáːŋɡa/'country'. Geminated consonants appear to have arisen when a close between two consonants dropped out. Apart from /l~r/, /w/ and /j/, all consonants can be prenasalised; this consonant will be, or according to the place of articulation of the consonant which follows, belongs to the same syllable as that consonant. The liquid /l~r/ becomes /d/ when geminated or prenasalised. For example, ndaba /n̩dába/'I see'. A consonant can not be both prenasalised; when morphological processes require this, the gemination is dropped and the syllable /zi/ is inserted, which can be prenasalised.

For example, when the prefix en- is added to the adjective -ddugavu'black' the result is enzirugavu /eːnzíruɡavu/. The nasals /m/, /n/, /ɲ/ and /ŋ/ can be syllabic at the start of a word: nkima /ɲ̩címa/'monkey', mpa /m̩pá/'I give', nnyinyonnyola /ɲ̩ɲiɲóɲːola/ or /ɲːiɲóɲːola/'I explain'. Note that this last example can be analysed in two ways, reflecting the fact that there is no distinction between prenasalisation and gemination when applied to nasal stops. Luganda is a tonal language, with three tones: high and falling. There are, however, no syllables in Luganda with rising tone. According to one analysis, tones are carried on morae. In Luganda, a short vowel has one mora and a long vowel has two morae. A geminate or prenasalised consonant has one mora. A consonant + semivowel has one mora. A vowel followed by a prenasalised consonant has two morae including the one belonging to the prenasalised consonant; the initial vowel of words like ekitabo'book' is considered to have one mora though such vowels are pronounced long.

No syllable can have more than two morae. Falling tones can be heard in syllables which have two morae, e.g. those with a long vowel, those with a short vowel followed by a geminate consonant, those with a vowel followed by a prenasalised consonant, those following a consonant plus semivowel. They can be heard on final vowels, e.g. ensî'country'. Words in Luganda belong to one of three patterns: toneless, e.g. ekitabo'book'.

Calochilus paludosus

Calochilus paludosus known as the red beard orchid or red beardie, is a species of orchid native to Australia and New Zealand. It has light green leaf and up to nine greenish flowers with reddish stripes; the labellum has a dull red or coppery coloured beard and lacks the "eye" spots of other beard orchids. Calochilus paludosus is a terrestrial, deciduous, herb with an underground tuber and a single fleshy, light green to yellowish-green, linear to lance-shaped leaf, 100–180 mm long and 4–7 mm wide. Unlike some others in the genus, the leaf is developed at flowering time. Up to nine greenish flowers with reddish stripes are borne on a flowering stem 150–350 mm tall; the dorsal sepal is 11–15 mm long, 6–8 mm wide and the lateral sepals are a similar length but broader. The petals are 5 -- 4 -- 5 mm wide; the labellum is flat, 22–28 mm long, 7–9 mm wide, with short, reddish calli near its base and a flap-like ridge on each outside edge. The middle section of the labellum has coarse, dull red or coppery coloured hairs up to 7 mm and the tip has a hairless "tail" 10–14 mm long and about 1 mm wide.

The column lacks the sham "eyes" of most other beard orchids. Flowering occurs from September to January. Calochilus paludosus was first formally described in 1810 by Robert Brown and the description was published in Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae; the specific epithet is a Latin word meaning "boggy" or "marshy". The red beard orchid is widespread in eastern Australia where it grows in heath and open forest in wet places but in drier open forest, it is found in Queensland south from Burleigh Heads, in coastal districts of New South Wales in the higher rainfall areas of Victoria and in Tasmania but is only known from a single population in South Australia. In New Zealand, C. paludosus occurs in the North Island near geothermally active ground, the northern part of the South Island

Hippeastrum pardinum

Hippeastrum pardinum is a flowering perennial herbaceous bulbous plant, in the family Amaryllidaceae, from Peru to Bolivia. Collected in 1866 by Richard Pearce, it was used in breeding programmes. Vermilion spots on a yellowish background. Short or nearly absent flower tube, floral segments broad and spreading. Flowers 18 cm in diameter. Described by Joseph Dalton Hooker in 1867 as Amaryllis, but transferred to Hippeastrum by Henry Honywood Dombrain; the Plant List. "Hippeastrum pardinum". Retrieved 20 March 2014. GBIF: Hippeastrum pardinum "Hippeastrum pardinum". Tropicos. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 25 March 2014. International Bulb Society: Hippeastrum pardinum Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45: i–xl, 1–1286. Macbride, J. F. 1936. Amaryllidaceae, Flora of Peru. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. Ser. 13: 631–690. L'Illustration Horticole. Ghent & Brussels 14: 46. 1867

Shruti Haasan filmography

Shruti Haasan is an Indian actress and playback singer who works in Telugu and Tamil films. Born into the prominent Haasan family, she is the daughter of actors Kamal Sarika. Shruti Haasan started her career as a playback singer at the age of six in the 1992 Tamil film Thevar Magan, she made a cameo appearance in her father's Tamil-Hindi bilingual directorial Hey Ram. Haasan's first major appearance was in the Hindi film Luck, in which she played a dual role of a woman avenging her twin sister's death, she played the female lead in the films Anaganaga O 7aum Arivu. Her subsequent releases Oh 3 were commercially unsuccessful; the latter earned her a nomination for the Best Actress – Tamil at the 60th Filmfare Awards South ceremony. A turning point came in Haasan's career with Harish Shankar's commercially successful Telugu film Gabbar Singh; the release was followed by a series of successful films such as Yevadu. She received her first Filmfare Award for Best Actress – Telugu for her performance in Race Gurram.

In 2015, Haasan played the female lead in five films: Gabbar Is Back and Welcome Back in Hindi, Srimanthudu in Telugu, Puli and Vedalam in Tamil. Except Puli, the rest of the releases achieved commercial success, she earned a nomination for the Best Actress – Telugu award at the 63rd Filmfare Awards South ceremony for her performance in Srimanthudu. The following year, she had two releases: Premam; the latter, a Telugu remake of the 2015 Malayalam-language film of the same name, drew criticism for Haasan's casting before its release. She played the role of a young college lecturer with a stern approach towards her students; the remake gained positive critical reception, earned average returns. Her Tamil film Si3 had a delayed theatrical release in 2017. Shruti Haasan on IMDb