Not to be confused with parachute mines which were known as "land mines" in the UK during The Blitz. A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it; such a device is detonated automatically by way of pressure when a target steps on it or drives over it, although other detonation mechanisms are sometimes used. A land mine may cause damage by direct blast effect, by fragments that are thrown by the blast, or by both; the use of land mines is controversial because of their potential as indiscriminate weapons. They can remain dangerous many years after a conflict has ended, harming the economy. 78 countries are contaminated with land mines and 15,000–20,000 people are killed every year while countless more are maimed. 80% of land mine casualties are civilian, with children as the most affected age group. Most killings occur in times of peace. With pressure from a number of campaign groups organised through the International Campaign to Ban Landmines, a global movement to prohibit their use led to the 1997 Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction known as the Ottawa Treaty.
To date, 164 nations have signed the treaty, but these do not include China, the Russian Federation, the United States. In the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention and the Protocol on Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, a mine is defined as a "munition designed to be placed under, on or near the ground or other surface area and to be exploded by the presence, proximity or contact of a person or vehicle." Similar in function is the booby-trap, which the Protocol defines as "any device or material, designed, constructed or adapted to kill or injure and which functions unexpectedly when a person disturbs or approaches an harmless object or performs an safe act." Such actions might include picking up an object. Mines are mass-produced and placed in groups, while booby traps are improvised and deployed one at a time. Booby traps can be non-explosive devices such as the punji stick. Overlapping both categories is the improvised explosive device, "a device placed or fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating explosive material, lethal, incendiary, pyrotechnic materials or chemicals designed to destroy, distract or harass.
They may incorporate military stores, but are devised from non-military components." Some meet the definition of mines or booby traps and are referred to as improvised, artisanal or locally manufactured mines. Other types of IED are remotely activated. Remotely delivered mines are dropped from an aircraft or carried by devices such as artillery shells or rockets. Another type of remotely delivered explosive is the cluster munition, a device that releases several submunitions over a large area. If they do not explode, they are referred to as unexploded ordnance, along with unexploded artillery shells and other explosive devices that were not manually placed. Explosive remnants of war include UXO and abandoned explosive ordnance, devices that were never used and were left behind after a conflict. Land mines are divided into two types: anti-tank mines, which are designed to disable tanks or other vehicles; the history of land mines can be divided up into three main phases: In the ancient world, buried spikes provided many of the same functions as modern mines.
Mines using gunpowder as the explosive were used from the Ming Dynasty to the American Civil War. Subsequently, high explosives were used in land mines; some fortifications in the Roman Empire were surrounded by a series of hazards buried in the ground. These included foot-long pieces of wood with iron hooks on their ends; as with modern land mines, they were "victim-operated" concealed, formed zones that were wide enough so that the enemy could not do much harm from outside, but were under fire if they attempted to remove the obstacles. A notable use of these defenses was by Julius Caesar in the Battle of Alesia, his forces were besieging Vercingetorix, the leader of the Gauls, but Vercingetorix managed to send for reinforcements. To maintain the siege and defend against the reinforcements, Caesar formed a line of fortifications on both sides, they played an important role in his victory. Lilies were used by Scots against the English at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, by Germans at the Battle of Passchendaele in the First World War.
A more deployed defense used by the Romans was the caltrop, a weapon about 12–15 cm across with four sharp spikes that are oriented so that when it is thrown on the ground, one spike always points up. As with modern antipersonnel mines, caltrops are designed to disable soldiers rather than kill them, they were used by the Jin Dynasty in China at the Battle of Zhongdu to slow down the advance of Genghis Khan's army.
Hanna's Sabbath Dress is a 1996 book by Itzhak Schweiger-Dmi'el. It was first published in Hebrew in 1937; the story is accompanied by bright and "blocky" illustrations by Ora Eitan. Hanna's Sabbath Dress has been distributed by PJ Library, a service that sends out Jewish books to families at no cost, on multiple occasions; the book received several positive reviews. Booklist favored Hanna's Sabbath Dress, writing, "...this simple story, with new illustrations and translation, still has considerable charm." The New York Times Book Review approved of the book, writing, "Fresh, impressionistic gouache artwork accompanies a new translation of a well-loved and quite magical Israeli story." The School Library Journal recommended the book, saying, "This story written in 1937 but newly translated and illustrated, is a welcome addition." Another positive review was from Horn Book Magazine, which wrote, "the simple story is a perfect example of the moral tale in which a child's act of kindness is rewarded in a mysterious and magical way."
Ambenob Rural LLG is a local-level government of Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. 02. Furan / Sisiak 03. Korong / Opi 04. Kamba / Kuris 05. Siar / Wadan 06. Riwo / Nagada 07. Amron / Baitabag 08. Budad Haven 09. Gegeri Wangar 10. Ward 10 11. Bagupi / Saruga 12. Abar / Labting 13. Baiteta / Hipondik 14. Balima / Kusubar 15. Aiyap / Malac 16. Sein 17. Bahor Sahgala 18. Ward 18 19. Amele / Omuru 20. Bau / Umun 21. Bemahal / Fulumu 22. Arar/ Maneb 23. Asikan/ Atu OCHA FISS. "Papua New Guinea administrative level 0, 1, 2, 3 population statistics and gazetteer". Humanitarian Data Exchange. 1.31.9. United Nations in Papua New Guinea. "Papua New Guinea Village Coordinates Lookup". Humanitarian Data Exchange. 1.31.9
Anthony Robert Elliott is an English former professional footballer who made 186 appearances in the Football League playing as a goalkeeper for Hereford United, Huddersfield Town, Carlisle United, Cardiff City and Scarborough. In 2010, he joined Darlington as goalkeeping coach and has since followed Tommy Cassidy, who he was assistant to at Workington and Blue Star, to Whitby Town. Since retiring as a player, Elliott has opened a goalkeeping school in the Cumbria area, has worked with Carlisle United, Carlisle City, the Liverpool F. C. Academy and the England national futsal team goalkeepers, he has been assistant manager of Workington of the Conference North and Newcastle Blue Star of the Northern Premier League Division One North. In August 2010 he joined Darlington of the Conference National as goalkeeping coach. Tony Elliott at Soccerbase
The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings, the trade union movement or labor union movement called trade unionism or labor unionism on the one hand, the political labour movement on the other. The trade union movement consists of the collective organisation of working people developed to represent and campaign for better working conditions and treatment from their employers and, by the implementation of labour and employment laws, from their governments; the standard unit of organisation is the trade union. The political labour movement in many countries includes a political party that represents the interests of employees known as a "labour party" or "workers' party". Many individuals and political groups otherwise considered to represent ruling classes may be part of and active in the labour movement; the labour movement developed in response to the depredations of industrial capitalism at about the same time as socialism. However, while the goal of the labour movement is to protect and strengthen the interests of labour within capitalism, the goal of socialism is to replace the capitalist system entirely.
In Europe, the labour movement began during the industrial revolution, when agricultural jobs declined and employment moved to more industrial areas. The idea met with great resistance. In the early 19th century, groups such as the Tolpuddle Martyrs of Dorset were punished and transported for forming unions, against the laws of the time. Trade unionism was active during the early to mid 19th century and various labour parties and trade unions were formed throughout the industrialised parts of the world; the International Workingmen's Association, the first attempt at international coordination, was founded in London in 1864. The major issues included the right of the workers to organize themselves, the right to an 8-hour working day. In 1871 workers in France rebelled and the Paris Commune was formed. From the mid-nineteenth century onward the labour movement became globalised; the movement gained major impetus during the late 19th and early 20th centuries from the Catholic Social Teaching tradition which began in 1891 with the publication of Pope Leo XIII's foundational document, Rerum novarum known as "On the Condition of the Working Classes," in which he advocated a series of reforms including limits on the length of the work day, a living wage, the elimination of child labour, the rights of labour to organise, the duty of the state to regulate labour conditions.
Throughout the world, action by labourists has resulted in reforms and workers' rights, such as the two-day weekend, minimum wage, paid holidays, the achievement of the eight-hour day for many workers. There have been many important labour activists in modern history who have caused changes that were revolutionary at the time and are now regarded as basic. For example, Mary Harris Jones, better known as "Mother Jones", the National Catholic Welfare Council were important in the campaign to end child labour in the United States during the early 20th century. Modern labour parties originated from an increase in organising activities in Europe and European colonies during the 19th century, such as the Chartist movement in the United Kingdom during 1838–50. In 1891, localised labour parties were formed, by trade union members in the British colonies of Australia, they amalgamated to form the Australian Labor Party. In 1899, the labour party in the Colony of Queensland formed the world's first labour government, lasting one week.
The British Labour Party was created as the Labour Representation Committee, as a result of an 1899 resolution by the Trade Union Congress. While archetypal labour parties are made of direct union representatives, in addition to members of geographical branches, some union federations or individual unions have chosen not to be represented within a labour party and/or have ended association with them. Labour festivals have long been a part of the labour movement. Held outdoors in the summer, the music, food and film have attracted hundreds of thousands of attendees each year. A degree of strategic bi-racial cooperation existed among black and white dockworkers on the waterfronts of New Orleans, Louisiana during the early 20th century. Although the groups maintained racially separate labour unions, they coordinated efforts to present a united front when making demands of their employers; these pledges included a commitment to the "50-50" or "half-and-half" system wherein a dock crew would consist of 50% black and 50% white workers and agreement on a single wage demand to reduce the risk of ship owners pitting one race against the other.
Black and white dockworkers cooperated during protracted labour strikes, including general levee strikes in 1892 and 1907 as well as smaller strikes involving skilled workers such as screwmen in the early 1900s. Negroes in the United States find it mirrors their own experience. We are confronted by powerful forces telling us to rely on the good will and understanding of those who profit by exploiting us They are shocked that action organizations, sit-ins, civil disobedience and protests are becoming our everyday tools, just as strikes and union organization became yours to insure that bargaining power genuinely existed on both sides of the table Our needs are identical to labor's needs: decent wages, fair working conditions, livable housing, old age security and welfare measures That is why the labor-hater and labor-baiter is always a twin-headed creature spewing anti-Negro epithets from one mouth and anti-labor propaganda from the other mouth. Labour markets have been constrained by national borders that h
Direct digital control is the automated control of a condition or process by a digital device. Direct digital control takes a centralized network-oriented approach. All instrumentation is gathered by various analog and digital converters which use the network to transport these signals to the central controller; the centralized computer follows all of its production rules and causes actions to be sent via the same network to valves and other heating and air conditioning components that can be adjusted. Central controllers and most terminal unit controllers are programmable, meaning the direct digital control program code may be customized for the intended use; the program features include time schedules, controllers, timers, trend logs, alarms. The unit controllers have analog and digital inputs, that allow measurement of the variable and analog and digital outputs for control of the medium. Digital inputs are contacts from a control device, analog inputs are a voltage or current measurement from a variable sensing device.
Digital outputs are relay contacts used to start and stop equipment, analog outputs are voltage or current signals to control the movement of the medium control devices. An early example of a direct digital control system was completed by the Australian business Midac in 1981-1982 using R-Tec Australian designed hardware; the system installed at the University of Melbourne used a serial communications network, connecting campus buildings back to a control room "front end" system in the basement of the Old Geology building. Each remote or Satellite Intelligence Unit ran 2 Z80 microprocessors whilst the front end ran eleven Z80's in a Parallel Processing configuration with paged common memory; the z80 microprocessors shared the load by passing tasks to each other via the common memory and the communications network. This was the first successful implementation of a distributed processing direct digital control; when direct digital controllers are networked together they can share information through a data bus.
The control system may speak'proprietary' or'open protocol' language to communicate on the data bus. Examples of open protocol language are Building Automation Control Network, LonWorks, Modbus TCP and KNX; when different direct digital control data networks are linked together they can be controlled from a shared platform. This platform can share information from one language to another. For example, a LON controller could share a temperature value with a BACnet controller; the integration platform can not only make information shareable, but can interact with all the devices. Most of the integration platforms are either a network appliance. In many cases, the HMI or SCADA are part of it. Integration platform examples, to name only a few, are the Tridium Niagara AX, Trend Controls, TAC Vista, CAN2GO and the Unified Architecture i.e. OPC server technology used when direct connectivity is not possible. Direct digital control is used to control heating and air conditioning devices such as valves via microprocessors using software to perform the control logic.
Such systems receive analog and digital inputs from the sensors and devices and, according to the control logic, provide analog or digital outputs. These systems may be mated with a software package that graphically allows operators to monitor, control and diagnose building equipment remotely. Building automation Fieldbus GE Fanuc Intelligent Platforms Industrial control systems Industrial safety systems Programmable logic controller Safety instrumented system Role on direct digintal control systems in building commissioning DDCTalk.com - Information and resources related to direct digital control of buildings