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Land of Israel

The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant. Related biblical and historical English terms include the Land of Canaan, the Promised Land, the Holy Land, Palestine; the definitions of the limits of this territory vary between passages in the Hebrew Bible, with specific mentions in Genesis 15, Exodus 23, Numbers 34 and Ezekiel 47. Nine times elsewhere in the Bible, the settled land is referred as "from Dan to Beersheba", three times it is referred as "from the entrance of Hamath unto the brook of Egypt"; these biblical limits for the land differ from the borders of established historical Israelite and Jewish kingdoms. Jewish religious belief defines the land as where Jewish religious law prevailed and excludes territory where it was not applied, it holds that the area is a God-given inheritance of the Jewish people based on the Torah the books of Genesis and Exodus, as well as on the Prophets. According to the Book of Genesis, the land was first promised by God to the descendants of Abram.

Abram's name was changed to Abraham, with the promise refined to pass through his son Isaac and to the Israelites, descendants of Jacob, Abraham's grandson. This belief is not shared by most adherents of replacement theology, who hold the view that the Old Testament prophecies were superseded by the coming of Jesus, a view repudiated by Christian Zionists as a theological error. Evangelical Zionists variously claim that Israel has title to the land by divine right, or by a theological and moral grounding of attachment to the land unique to Jews; the idea that ancient religious texts can be warrant or divine right for a modern claim has been challenged, Israeli courts have rejected land claims based on religious motivations. During the League of Nations mandatory period the term "Eretz Yisrael" or the "Land of Israel" was part of the official Hebrew name of Mandatory Palestine. Official Hebrew documents used the Hebrew transliteration of the word "Palestine" פלשתינה followed always by the two initial letters of "Eretz Yisrael", א״י Aleph-Yod.

The Land of Israel concept has been evoked by the founders of the State of Israel. It surfaces in political debates on the status of the West Bank, referred to in official Israeli discourse as the Judea and Samaria Area, from the names of the two historical Jewish kingdoms; the term "Land of Israel" is a direct translation of the Hebrew phrase ארץ ישראל, which occurs in the Bible, is first mentioned in the Tanakh in 1 Samuel 13:19, following the Exodus, when the Israelite tribes were in the Land of Canaan. The words are used sparsely in the Bible: King David is ordered to gather'strangers to the land of Israel' for building purposes, the same phrasing is used in reference to King Solomon's census of all of the'strangers in the Land of Israel'. Ezekiel, though preferring the phrase'soil of Israel', employs eretz israel twice at Ezekiel 40:2 and Ezekiel 47:18. According to Martin Noth, the term is not an "authentic and original name for this land", but instead serves as "a somewhat flexible description of the area which the Israelite tribes had their settlements".

According to Anita Shapira, the term "Eretz Yisrael" was a holy term, vague as far as the exact boundaries of the territories are concerned but defining ownership. The sanctity of the land developed rich associations in rabbinical thought, where it assumes a symbolic and mythological status infused with promise, though always connected to a geographical location. Nur Masalha argues that the biblical boundaries are "entirely fictitious", bore religious connotations in Diaspora Judaism, with the term only coming into ascendency with the rise of Zionism; the Hebrew Bible provides three specific sets of borders for the "Promised Land", each with a different purpose. Neither of the terms "Promised Land" or "Land of Israel" are used in these passages: Genesis 15:13–21, Genesis 17:8 and Ezekiel 47:13–20 use the term "the land", as does Deuteronomy 1:8 in which it is promised explicitly to "Abraham and Jacob... and to their descendants after them," whilst Numbers 34:1–15 describes the "Land of Canaan", allocated to nine and half of the twelve Israelite tribes after the Exodus.

The expression "Land of Israel" is first used in a book, 1 Samuel 13:19. It is defined in detail in the exilic Book of Ezekiel as a land where both the twelve tribes and the "strangers in midst", can claim inheritance; the name "Israel" first appears in the Hebrew Bible as the name given by God to the patriarch Jacob. Deriving from the name "Israel", other designations that came to be associated with the Jewish people have included the "Children of Israel" or "Israelite"; the term'Land of Israel' occurs in one episode in the New Testament, according to Shlomo Sand, it bears the unusual sense of'the area surrounding Jerusalem'. The section in which it appears was written as a parallel to the ea

Ingatestone

Ingatestone is a village in Essex, with a population of about 5,000. To the immediate north lies the village of Fryerning, together the two form the civil parish of Ingatestone and Fryerning. Ingatestone lies within Metropolitan Green Belt land 20 miles north-east of London; the built-up area is situated between the A12 trunk road and the Great Eastern Main Railway Line. Today it is an affluent commuter village. Ingatestone was established in Saxon times on the Essex Great Road running between the two Roman towns of Londinium and Camulodunum; the name means "Ing at the Stone", the affix distinguishing it from various nearby settlements that formed part of the manor of Ing. It is first recorded in 1283 as Gynges atte Ston. Stone is not prevalent in the local geology making the village's stone, deposited by glacial action, unusual for the area. A large Sarsen stone can still be seen, split into three pieces, with one being located by the west door of the St Edmund and St Mary's parish church and one each side of the entrance to Fryerning Lane.

Ingatestone belonged to Barking Abbey from about 950 AD until the Dissolution of the Monasteries, when it was purchased from the Crown by Sir William Petre. Petre a lawyer from Devon, had risen to become the Secretary of State to Henry VIII, he built a large courtyard house, Ingatestone Hall, as his home in the village, along with almshouses which still exist today as private cottages in Stock Lane. By the time of the Domesday Book in 1086, Fryerning and Ingatestone were recorded as being in the Hundred of Chelmsford and part of the land of St Mary of Barking with a value of 60 shillings, held by Robert Gernon in demesne. By the 18th century Ingatestone had become a major coaching centre, but the advent of the railway saw its prominence decrease and a decline in business along the Essex Great Road. In 1889, the parishes of Ingatestone and Fryerning merged, now covering 4,000 acres. Ingatestone grew further during the 20th century as commuters, attracted by the surrounding countryside, moved into the area.

Plans to bypass the narrow Roman road through the village were first drawn up before the Second World War, but construction of a dual-carriageway bypass did not begin until 1958. Further dual-carriageway sections of the A12 trunk road were added in the 1960s, to bypass Brentwood and Chelmsford. Ingatestone lies just to the north of the southernmost limit of glaciation in the British Isles. Surface deposits over much of the area consist of boulder clay and it is only to the north-east that there are more sandy deposits. Geologist Ciara Lovatt conducted several rock mineral experiments on deposits within Ingatestone in the 1980s; the glacial deposits overlie London clay, which can be seen in the bed of the River Wid and its tributaries. The geology of the area is responsible for the landscape and the character of farming in surrounding area. Crop farming is the typical use of boulder clay lands; the sandy deposits to the north-east of Ingatestone are a contributory factor in the greater incidence of woodland and non-arable land in this area.

Ingatestone Hall has been the home of the Petre family since the 16th century, who reside there to this day. The location was chosen due to the similarity of the village's Latin name with their own. A tomb monument to members of the family is located in St Mary's; the hall is open as a tourist attraction. It retains its Tudor appearance following restoration carried out between 1915 and 1937, is set in formal gardens surrounded by eleven acres of grounds. Inside is a range of antique furniture and other historical artefacts. Queen Elizabeth I spent several nights at the hall on her Royal Progress of 1561. St. John Payne, one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales, resided at Ingatestone Hall in the late 16th century as chaplain and steward for Lady Petre, he was martyred at Chelmsford in 1582. The smallpox inoculator, Daniel Sutton, made his base on Ingatestone High Street in Brandiston House, carried out much of his work here. Ingatestone has over a hundred businesses. Amongst the retail outlets there are two small supermarkets, a baker, a butcher, a delicatessen, a chemist, an ironmonger, a travel agency, an electrical shop, a video shop, several clothes shops, a hairdressers' shop, a garden centre, several estate agents, a post office, several specialist shops.

The businesses represented include accountants, insurance, information technology, chartered surveyors and education. There are two public houses in the village; the tiny Star Inn is the older. It features a large, open log fire; the Bell is a conventional pub in old-fashioned style, with a substantial Elizabethan brick fireplace in the lounge bar. A third pub, The Crown, was shut down after a police raid in 2011 discovered cannabis being grown there, it has now become the Crown Mews development. Ingatestone has over 40 clubs and societies ranging from arts and sport clubs to charitable societies; these include the Ingatestone and Fryerning Dramatic Club, founded in 1947, the Ingatestone Musical and Operetta Group founded in 1970, the Ingatestone Choral Society, 70 years old, the Ingatestone and Horticultural Society, affiliated to the Royal Horticultural Society and was formed in 1963. There is a Community Association, which meets at a large hall in High Street. Other amenities include a sports field and bowls and tennis clubs.

The Rotary Club is active in Ingatestone, sponsored a war memorial in 2005 to mark the movement's centenary. The memorial, locate

La Sape

La Sape, an abbreviation based on the phrase Société des Ambianceurs et des Personnes Élégantes and hinting to the French slang word sape which means "clothes" or sapé, which means "dressed up", is a subculture centered on the cities of Kinshasa and Brazzaville in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of Congo respectively. An adherent of La Sape is known as a sapeur or, as a sapeuse; the movement embodies the elegance in style and manners of colonial predecessor dandies. La sape can be traced back to the period of colonialism in Africa in the cities of Brazzaville and Kinshasa. A major influence on the Congolese elite, present during the 1920s, was West African colonial workers who came to the Congo; these Bapopo or Coastmen, as they were called, served as inspiration for the Congolese elite "to combat ingrained charges of inferiority leveled at them" by French and Belgian colonialism. Young Congolese men took the style of their masters’ and made it their own. In the historian Didier Gondola's essay titled "La Sape Exposed!: High Fashion Among Lower-Class Congolese", he says: Captivated by the snobbery and refined elegance of the Coast Men’s attire, Congolese houseboys spurned their masters’ secondhand clothes and became unremitting consumers and fervent connoisseurs, spending their meager wages extravagantly to acquire the latest fashions from Paris.

The houseboys used their connections in France to acquire their clothing. According to Gondola, Camille Diata frontlined the sape movement in Brazzaville in the 1930s, but had a deep influence in France, he was part of L'Amicale, "a loosely organized anti-colonial movement," formed in France in 1926 by the imaginative Congolese revolutionary André Matsoua. The organization helped Africans new to Paris get settled in the city because they were not welcomed well by the French, facing imprisonment and deportation. By the time of Matsoua death in 1942, his political developments gained prominence in the Congo and were "hijacked" by the Congolese intellectual elite, they not only adapted the fashion sense but his anti-colonial views. This movement became a distinctly ethnic Bakongo and Balari one characterized by potent political symbolism and ideology that would manifest in postcolonial era; the 1950s gave rise to the cosmopolitan. Nightclubs and beer halls made up the venues home to the music and young urbanites of the Congolese townships of Kinshasa and Brazzaville.

During the postcolonial years, the unique dynamics of La Sape coalesced in 1960 when both Congos were granted independence. Economic chaos ensued and many were left jobless; this caused numerous Congolese people to move abroad to western cities like Paris. Since they were not welcome, La Sape acted as refuge for them to cope with European life. Papa Wemba, a Congolese musician, is credited with reviving la sape in Kinshasa during the 1970s by emphasizing the importance of smartly dressed Congolese men. Congolese dandies living in Paris and other European cities were only deemed sapeur once they returned to Brazzaville in the summer to showcase their style before the mid-1990s. Although war and strife had riddled the Congo over the years, there has been a revival of La Sape in Brazzaville. Whereas before in the early 1980s when campaigns were being prompted to bar La Sape from public spaces, they are now well respected and are "darlings of the regime." They have been raised to a higher status of "cultural heritage" by Denis Sassou Nguesso by allowing them to participate in public cultural events like the African Exhibit of Fashion and Crafts.

Gondola argues that: Today, with both countries in turmoil, la sape, with its exuberant flamboyance may well serve as a lightning rod for the Congolese disenfranchised youth to map out their itinerary from Third World status to a modern cosmopolitanism and to cope with their social dereliction. Sapeurs are shown in a Kalashnikov, directed by Oswald von Richthofen. Sapeurs were featured in the 2018 music video All the Stars by the artist Kendrick Lamar. Swenkas - similar movement in South Africa 1980s in African fashion 2010s in African fashion The Congolese Sape – photo essay by Héctor Mediavilla "Sunday in Brazzaville / Dimanche à Brazzaville" on Vimeo The Sapeurs of Kinshasa on BBC World Service Congo's dandies give new meaning to fashion victim, AFP film