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Land of Oz

The Land of Oz is a magical country first introduced in the 1900 children's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Oz consists of four vast quadrants, the Gillikin Country in the north, Quadling Country in the south, Munchkin Country in the east and Winkie Country in the west; each province has its own ruler. After The Marvelous Land of Oz, this monarch is Princess Ozma. Baum did not intend for The Wonderful Wizard of Oz to have any sequels, but it achieved a greater popularity than any of the other fairylands he created, including the land of Merryland in Baum's children's novel Dot and Tot in Merryland, written a year later. Due to Oz's worldwide success, Baum decided to return to it four years after The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was published. For the next two decades, he described and expanded upon the land in the Oz Books, a series which introduced many fictional characters and creatures. Baum intended to end the series with the sixth Oz book The Emerald City of Oz, in which Oz is forever sealed off and made invisible to the outside world, but this did not sit well with fans, he abandoned the idea, writing eight more successful Oz books, naming himself the "Royal Historian of Oz."In all, Baum wrote fourteen best-selling children's books about Oz and its enchanted inhabitants, as well as a spin off-series of six early readers.

After his death in 1919, author Ruth Plumly Thompson, illustrator John R. Neill and several other writers and artists continued the series. There are now over 50 novels based upon Baum's original Oz saga. Baum characterized Oz as a real place, unlike MGM's 1939 musical movie adaptation, which presents it as a dream of lead character Dorothy Gale. According to the Oz books, it is a hidden fairyland cut off from the rest of the world by the Deadly Desert; the canonical demonym for Oz is "Ozite". The term appears in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, The Road to Oz, The Emerald City of Oz. Elsewhere in the canon, "Ozmie" is used. In the animated 1974 semi-sequel to the MGM film, Journey Back to Oz, "Ozonian" is used; the term "Ozian" appears in the script for the Royal Shakespeare Company's stage adaptation of the MGM movie and in the non-canonical modern work Wicked. "Ozmite" was used in Reilly & Lee marketing in the 1920s, which has suggested to some critics that "Ozmie" may have been a typographical error.

Oz is, in the first book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, distinguished from Dorothy's native Kansas by not being civilized. In the third book, Ozma of Oz, Oz is described as a "fairy country", new terminology that remained to explain its wonders. Oz is rectangular in shape, divided along the diagonals into four countries: Munchkin Country in the East, Winkie Country in the West, Gillikin Country in the North, Quadling Country in the South. In the center of Oz, where the diagonals cross, is the fabled Emerald City, capital of the land of Oz and seat to the monarch of Oz, Princess Ozma; the regions have a color scheme: blue for Munchkins, yellow for Winkies, red for Quadlings, green for the Emerald City, purple for the Gillikins, which region was not named in the first book. In The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, this is the favorite color, used for clothing and other man-made objects, having some influence on their choice of crops, but the basic colors of the world are natural colors; the effect is less consistent in works.

In The Marvelous Land of Oz, the book states that everything in the land of the Gillikins is purple, including the plants and mud, a character can see that he is leaving when the grass turns from purple to green, but it describes pumpkins as orange and corn as green in that land. Baum, never used the color scheme consistently, his most common technique was to depict the man-made articles and flowers as the color of the country, leaving leaves and fruit their natural colors. Most of these regions are settled with contented people. However, this is lacking in scope for plot. Numerous pockets throughout the Land of Oz are cut off from the main culture, for geographic or cultural reasons. Many have never heard of Ozma, making it impossible for them to acknowledge her as their rightful queen; these regions are concentrated around the edges of the country, constitute the main settings for books that are set within Oz. The Lost Princess of Oz, for instance is set in rough country in Winkie Country, between two settled areas.

In Glinda of Oz, Ozma speaks of her duty to discover all these stray corners of Oz. In The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, a yellow brick road leads from the lands of the Munchkins to the Emerald City. Other such roads featured in other works: one from Gillikin Country in The Marvelous Land of Oz, a second one from Munchkin Land in The Patchwork Girl of Oz. Oz is surrounded on all four sides by a desert which insulates the citizens of the Land of Oz from discovery and invasion. In the first two books, this is a natural desert, with only its extent making it dangerous to the traveler, but in The Road to Oz it is said to turn anyone who touches it to sand. Indeed, in The Marvelous Land of Oz, Mombi tries to escape through it and Glinda chases her over the sands. Still, it is the dividing land between the

Muhannad El Tahir

Muhannad El Tahir. He plays as a striker for the Sudanese Premier League club Al-Hilal and the Sudanese national team, he has been one of the most talented players in Sudan. El Tahir was transferred from Al-Merghani of Kassala in 2004, he is good in free-kicks and dribbling with pace. His shot power is powerful and dangerous with his left foot; the fans call him Al-Ghezal. He wears the number 10 shirt for Al-Hilal, he caught the eyes of many scouts during the 2012 African Cup of Nations as he played an important role, assisting goals for the team during the tournament. Mohamed Tahir – FIFA competition record Muhannad El Tahir at National-Football-Teams.com

Ahmad ibn Abi Diyaf

Ahmad ibn Abi Diyaf, known colloquially as Bin Diyaf, was the author of a chronicle of Tunisian history. His multi-volume history, while it begins with the 7th-century arrival of the Arabs, devotes the most attention to details of the Husainid dynasty, during the 18th and 19th centuries, his writing is informed by his experience as chancellery secretary during the reigns of five Beys in succession. Bin Diyaf himself favored the reform view, current in Tunisian politics, his letter in reply to questions about Tunisian women has attracted interest. Bin Diyaf was born into a prominent family, his father being an important scribe for the ruling regime. Trained in the traditional religious curriculum, Bin Diyaf entered government service in 1827. "He was soon promoted to the post of private secretary, a position he held under successive beys until his retirement only a short time before his death."Other tasks were assigned to him. In 1831 he was sent to the Ottoman Porte in Istanbul regarding fall-out from the 1830 French occupation of Algiers.

In 1834 the Bey appointed Bin Diyaf as liaison between the quasi-independent al-Majlis al-Shar'i and the Bey's own vizier, regarding a civil war in neighboring Tarabulus and the designs of the Ottoman Empire there. He returned on business to Istanbul in 1842, accompanied Ahmed Bey to Paris in 1846, his letter on the status of women was written in 1856. As part of his duties, Bin Diyaf served as a mediator, e.g. to assist in resolving a dispute between two imams at the Zitouna Mosque. Bin Diyaf composed the Arabic version of the ^Ahd al-Aman, a version which proved acceptable to the Muslim community, which Muhammad Bey issued in 1857. Bin Diyaf favored a moderate reform. From his insider perscpective, he came to understand that the Beys, in common with other Maghriban rulers, governed as functional autocrats. "Even though the personal exercise of power was tempered and circumscribed by religious and traditional restraints, it continued to be arbitrary and total." Bin Diyaf became a "partisan" of the reforms being advanced, off and on, in Tunisia.

From 1857 to 1861 and from 1869 to 1877 Khayr al-Din, the high government official, was advocating reform policies. Bin Diyaf collaborated with Khayr al-Din to establish the famous, though short-lived, Constitution of 1861, opposed by the conservative ulama. For a while, as premier, Khayr al-Din managed to initiate institutional changes. Nonetheless Bin Diyaf was familiar with, adept at, the practice of traditions, he knew the customary etiquette expected of him in his situation. In his official position he performed his duties in close proximity with the Bey and the conservative elite, with old distinguished families and with the Muslim ulama who followed "an elaborate code of politesse."Bin Dayaf had rendered his official services under Husain Bey, Mustafa Bey, Ahmed Bey, Muhammad Bey, Sadok Bey. His death in 1874 occurred; the reigning monarch and head of state, under whom Bin Dayaf had labored, attended the funeral ceremony. His major work was in Arabic, Ithaf Ahl al-zaman bi Akhbar muluk Tunis wa'Ahd el-Aman, translated as: Presenting Contemporaries the History of Rulers of Tunis and the Fundamental Pact.

A complete version, newly edited, of the Arabic text was published in eight volumes by the Tunisian government during 1963-1966. This work's short "Introduction" has been translated into English by Princeton professor Leon Carl Brown. Of eight volumes, the first six address Tunisian history from the arrival of the Muslim Arabs forward; the account is summary until 1705. Bin Diyaf draws on his study of the archives and background of the Beys from the 18th century, on his own experiences as a beylical official during the 19th. These'Husainid' volumes present "an abundance of personal and accurate information". For example, Bin Diyaf sheds light on the circumstances surrounding the notorious trial of Batto Sfez in 1857; the last two volumes contain over 400 biographies of "leading statesmen and religious figures who died between the years 1783 and 1872." Included are the careers of many ulama and others, holding such offices as: shadhid, qaid and imam. He labored over the details of this chronicle more than ten years.

Evident in the pages are his "mastery of the customary notions of bureaucratic practice in combination with his access to the inside story... and his undeniable perceptiveness and intelligence". "Bin Diyaf not only reconstructs the story as seen from within. He reveals himself and, through him, the hopes of his generation and class. A heightened appreciation of the ideological confrontation between traditional Islam and the intruding West results." Bin Diyaf's description of dynasty politics and of the lives of officials "make the work a major reference source for the period." His Risalah fi al'mar'a was a response to a list of 23 questions posed by Léon Roches French Consul General in Tunis. Written longhand in 1856, the thirty-page manuscript addresses the social role of women in Tunisia, their legal rights and duites, regarding family and conjugal relations: marriage, polygamy, public presence, household tasks and management, lack of education, it was the most informative wr