A landfill site is a site for the disposal of waste materials. Landfill is the oldest and most common form of waste disposal, although the systematic burial of the waste with daily and final covers began in 1940's. In the past, refuse was left in piles or thrown into pits; some landfill sites are used for waste management purposes, such as temporary storage and transfer, or for various stages of processing waste material, such as sorting, treatment, or recycling. Unless they are stabilized, landfills may experience severe shaking or soil liquefaction of the ground during a large earthquake. Operators of well-run landfills for non-hazardous waste meet predefined specifications by applying techniques to: confine waste to as small an area as possible compact waste to reduce volumeThey can cover waste with layers of soil or other types of material such as woodchips and fine particles. During landfill operations, a scale or weighbridge may weigh waste collection vehicles on arrival and personnel may inspect loads for wastes that do not accord with the landfill's waste-acceptance criteria.
Afterward, the waste collection vehicles use the existing road network on their way to the tipping face or working front, where they unload their contents. After loads are deposited, compactors or bulldozers can spread and compact the waste on the working face. Before leaving the landfill boundaries, the waste collection vehicles may pass through a wheel-cleaning facility. If necessary, they return to the weighbridge for re-weighing without their load; the weighing process can assemble statistics on the daily incoming waste tonnage, which databases can retain for record keeping. In addition to trucks, some landfills may have equipment to handle railroad containers; the use of "rail-haul" permits landfills to be located at more remote sites, without the problems associated with many truck trips. In the working face, the compacted waste is covered with soil or alternative materials daily. Alternative waste-cover materials include chipped wood or other "green waste", several sprayed-on foam products, chemically "fixed" bio-solids, temporary blankets.
Blankets can be lifted into place at night and removed the following day prior to waste placement. The space, occupied daily by the compacted waste and the cover material is called a daily cell. Waste compaction is critical to extending the life of the landfill. Factors such as waste compressibility, waste-layer thickness and the number of passes of the compactor over the waste affect the waste densities; the term landfill is shorthand for a municipal landfill or sanitary landfill. These facilities were first introduced early in the 20th century, but gained wide use in the 1960s and 1970s, in an effort to eliminate open dumps and other "unsanitary" waste disposal practices; the sanitary landfill is an engineered facility that confines waste. Sanitary landfills are intended as biological reactors in which microbes will break down complex organic waste into simpler, less toxic compounds over time; these reactors must be operated according to regulatory standards and guidelines. Aerobic decomposition is the first stage by which wastes are broken down in a landfill.
These are followed by four stages of anaerobic degradation. Solid organic material in solid phase decays as larger organic molecules degrade into smaller molecules; these smaller organic molecules begin to dissolve and move to the liquid phase, followed by hydrolysis of these organic molecules, the hydrolyzed compounds undergo transformation and volatilization as carbon dioxide and methane, with rest of the waste remaining in solid and liquid phases. During the early phases, little material volume reaches the leachate, as the biodegradable organic matter of the waste undergoes a rapid decrease in volume. Meanwhile, the leachate's chemical oxygen demand increases with increasing concentrations of the more recalcitrant compounds compared to the more reactive compounds in the leachate. Successful conversion and stabilization of the waste depends on how well microbial populations function in syntrophy, i.e. an interaction of different populations to provide each other's nutritional needs.:The life cycle of a municipal landfill undergoes five distinct phases:Phase I – Initial adjustment: As the waste is placed in the landfill, the void spaces contain high volumes of molecular oxygen.
With added and compacted wastes, the O2 content of the landfill bioreactor strata decreases. Microbial populations grow, density increases. Aerobic biodegradation dominates, i.e. the primary electron acceptor is O2. Phase II – Transition: The O2 is degraded by the existing microbial populations; the decreasing O2 leads to more anaerobic conditions in the layers. The primary electron acceptors during transition are nitrates and sulphates, since O2 is displaced by CO2 in the effluent gas. Phase III – Acid formation: Hydrolysis of the biodegradable fraction of the solid waste begins in the acid formation phase, which leads to rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids in the leachate; the increased organic acid content decreases the leachate pH from 7.5 to 5.6. During this phase, the decomposition intermediate compounds like the VFAs contribute much chemical oxygen demand. Long-chain volatile organic acids are converted to acetic acid, CO2, hydrogen gas. High concentrations of VFAs increase both the biochemical oxygen demand and VOA concentrations, which initiates H2 production by fermentative bacteria, which stimu
David Charles Wish, known as Dave Cash, was a British-Canadian radio presenter who latterly worked for BBC Radio Kent, having had previous spells at Radio London, BBC Radio 1, Capital Radio, Radio West, Invicta Radio, Country 1035 and PrimeTime Radio. Cash was born in Bushey, Hertfordshire, in 1942, grew up in London, he began his career in broadcasting in Canada. He returned to the UK in the 1960s and joined pirate station Radio London at the age of 21 after meeting up with the programme director, Ben Toney. Toney persuaded him to join the station as the afternoon writer for commercials. Once on board with Radio London, Cash teamed up with Kenny Everett for the Kenny & Cash Show, amongst the most successful of all pirate radio programmes. After parliament outlawed the pirate stations in 1967, Cash joined Radio Luxembourg became one of the first-day DJs on BBC Radio One. Cash's popular Sunday show Cash At Four attracted guests such as Peter Sellers, Spike Milligan, John Cleese, Lady Antonia Fraser, Rolf Harris, David Bellamy.
In 1973, Cash started working at Capital Radio as production presenter. He stayed at Capital for 21 years, reprising the Kenny & Cash Show, hosting a lunchtime quiz competition "Cash on Delivery" and the weekend programmes for Capital Gold. After the success of his best selling first novel The Rating Game, he left Capital in 1994 to concentrate on his writing. Cash latterly worked for the BBC, broadcasting his weekend shows on Saturday and Sunday nights to BBC Radio Kent, BBC Sussex, BBC Surrey, BBC Radio Solent, BBC Radio Berkshire and BBC Radio Oxford. On 4 December 2011, at Anna Maria Island in the U. S. state of Florida, Cash married Sara Davies, they had met in 1989, went on to appear on his BBC radio show where she was called'Emily Email' and became a co-presenter. They lived in Kent. Dave Cash hosted a few episodes of BBC TV series Top of the Pops, he co-hosted this edition with Jimmy Savile. In 1970, Cash wrote and performed The Radio Programme, a 26-part sitcom/music show produced at HTV and sold to the ITV network, NBC, stations across Europe.
Guests included Sammy Davis Jr. Richard Harris and Terry-Thomas, it was on this show that he met actress Monica Evans, with whom he had two children. In 1979, Cash appeared as himself in the cult hit Quadrophenia and took a cameo role alongside Dennis Hopper in The American Way. In 1988, he co-wrote and produced At Last It's Hogmanay with Billy Connolly and Robbie Coltrane for Channel 4. In 1991, Cash's first novel The Rating Game made the best-seller charts in four weeks followed in 1993 by All Night Long, King of Clubs in 1995. In 2006 he began working on a book designed to be both an autobiography and a history of pirate radio, he was developing the first "triography": a biography written by Cash and his two best friends detailing their road trip to Mexico. On 9 May 2011, One Media Publishing released a collection of over 1,000 albums compiled by Cash, featuring artists from a diverse range of musical genres, including Toni Braxton, Django Reinhardt, Aaliyah, The Troggs, Chaka Khan, Elvis Presley, Sham 69, Lou Reed and Jerry Lee Lewis.
These albums are available via digital music stores only. Cash died on 21 October 2016 aged 74, after collapsing of a massive heart attack at his home. Cash was cremated, in August 2017 his ashes were scattered by fellow DJ Johnnie Walker off the Harwich coast. Dave Cash on IMDb
The 1976 Toyota Tamaraws season was the second season of the franchise in the Philippine Basketball Association. Toyota Comets Toyota Silver Tamaraws Toyota placed runner-up to Crispa in all three contested championships for the season. In the first conference finals, the Comets won the series opener but were beaten three straight by the Redmanizers. In the second conference and Toyota meet again in the final series; the Redmanizers took the first two games but the Silver Tamaraws avoided a sweep by taking the third game. Two nights on November 18, Crispa clinch its third straight crown with a 3-1 series victory. In the All-Philippine championship, Toyota led the series, two games to none, but Crispa came back and win the final three games to capture the league's first Grandslam as the Tamaraws ended up bridesmaid for the third time in the year and had lost to their archrivals in the last four conferences