A salt road refers to any of the prehistoric and historical trade routes by which essential salt was transported to regions that lacked it. From the Bronze Age fixed transhumance routes appeared, like the Ligurian drailles that linked the maritime Liguria with the alpages, long before any purposely-constructed roadways formed the overland routes by which salt-rich provinces supplied salt-starved ones; the Via Salaria, an ancient Roman road in Italy ran from Rome to Castrum Truentinum on the Adriatic coast - a distance of 242 kilometres. A modern road by this name, part of the SS4 highway, runs 51 kilometres from Rome to Osteria Nuova in Orvieto; the Old Salt Route, about 100 kilometres, was a medieval route in northern Germany, linking Lüneburg with the port of Lübeck, which required more salt than it could produce itself. Lüneburg, first mentioned in the 10th century, grew rich on the salterns surrounding the town. Traders shipped salt via Lauenburg, to Lübeck. Lüneburg and its salt were major factors of wealth of the Hanseatic League.
After a long period of prosperity, its importance declined after 1600. The last of the salt mines was closed in 1980. In France, the salt route was longer. Salt unloaded at the ports of Nice and Ventimiglia could travel by two salt roads leading away from the coastal area, from Nice up the Vésubie valley, via Saint-Martin-Vésubie at the head of the valley, or from Ventimiglia inland through the Roya Valley, over the Col de Tende pass and into Piedmont. In Ethiopia blocks of salt, called amoleh, were carved from the salt pans of the Afar Depression around Lake Afrera carried by camel west to Atsbi and Ficho in the highland, whence traders distributed them throughout the rest of Ethiopia, as far south as the Kingdom of Kaffa. Before the People's Republic of China annexed Tibet and closed the borders in the 1950s, salt trade between Nepal and Tibet crossed passes through the Himalayas such as the gorges of the upper Karnali and Gandaki rivers. Caravans of pack animals brought rice up from Nepal's Terai and lower hills in exchange for salt from dry lakes on the Tibetan Plateau.
The salt highways of Europe were the navigable rivers, where by medieval times shipments of salt coming upstream passed rafts and log-trains of timber, which could only be shipped downstream. And along Europe's coasts, once long-distance trade was revived in the 11th century, the hot and sunny south outproduced the wet north. By the Late Middle Ages the expanding fishing fleets of the Low Countries required more salt than could be produced locally. Spain did no more than dream of this," Fernand Braudel has written. In Ming China, salt as well as rice was shipped from south to north, along the Imperial Canal as far as Beijing. In France, a major source of marine salt with access to expansive hinterlands in need of it was the wetlands region in Languedoc called the Camargue. Of the early modern period in Europe, Fernand Braudel remarked that in spite of the flux and reflux of economics: "no salt mine was abandoned and the scale of the equipment needed put these mines in the hands of merchants from early days.
Salt-marshes on the other hand, were exploited by artisanal methods: the merchants took control only of transport and marketing, both in Setúbal in Portugal and in Peccais in Languedoc. Salt marketing was quite big business along the Atlantic seabord or the Rhône valley." The vast interior of Poland was salt-starved, its maritime districts lying under rainy skies and fronting the Baltic Sea. By medieval times the process of mining for fossil salt supplemented the age-old techniques of evaporating sea salt in tidal pans. By the 14th century, at Wieliczka near Kraków, Braudel reports that peasant extraction of salt from brine evaporated in large shallow iron pans had been eliminated by the early industrialisation of salt mining. "Galleries and shafts were now dug to a depth of 300 metres, enormous winches powered by teams of horses brought blocks of salt to the surface. At its peak, production stood at the mines employed 3,000 workers. By 1368, the cooperation of the Polish state had been obtained."
History of salt Timeline of international trade Russ Collins, Route de Sel
Augsburg is a city in Swabia, Germany. It is a university town and regional seat of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben. Augsburg is an urban home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg, it is the third-largest city in Bavaria with a population of 300,000 inhabitants, with 885,000 in its metropolitan area. After Neuss and Trier, Augsburg is Germany's third oldest city, founded in 15 BC by the Romans as Augusta Vindelicorum, named after the Roman emperor Augustus, it was a Free Imperial City from 1276 to 1803 and the home of the patrician Fugger and Welser families that dominated European banking in the 16th century. The city played a leading role in the Reformation as the site of the 1530 Augsburg Confession and 1555 Peace of Augsburg; the Fuggerei, the oldest social housing complex in the world, was founded in 1513 by Jakob Fugger. Augsburg lies on the Singold; the oldest part of the city and the southern quarters are on the northern foothills of a high terrace, which emerged between the steep rim of the hills of Friedberg in the east and the high hills of the west.
In the south extends the Lechfeld, an outwash plain of the post ice age between the rivers Lech and Wertach, where rare primeval landscapes were preserved. The Augsburg city forest and the Lech valley heaths today rank among the most species-rich middle European habitats. On Augsburg borders the nature park Augsburg Western Woods - a large forestland; the city itself is heavily greened. As a result, in 1997 Augsburg was the first German city to win the Europe-wide contest Entente Florale for Europe's greenest and most livable city. Augsburg is surrounded by the counties Landkreis Augsburg in the west and Aichach-Friedberg in the east; the Suburb are Friedberg, Königsbrunn, Neusäß, Diedorf Neighbouring municipalities:Rehling, Kissing, Merching, Gessertshausen The city was founded in 15 BC by Drusus and Tiberius as Augusta Vindelicorum, on the orders of their stepfather Emperor Augustus. The name means "Augusta of the Vindelici"; this garrison camp soon became the capital of the Roman province of Raetia.
Early development was due to a 400-year affiliation with the Roman Empire because of its excellent military and geographic position at the convergence of the Alpine rivers Lech and Wertach, with direct access to most important Alpine passes. Thus, Augsburg was the intersection of many important European east-west and north-south connections, which evolved as major trade routes of the Middle Ages. Around 120 AD Augsburg became the capital of the Roman province Raetia. Augsburg was sacked by the Huns in the 5th century AD, by Charlemagne in the 8th century, by Welf of Bavaria in the 11th century, but arose each time to greater prosperity. Augsburg was granted the status of a Free Imperial City on March 9, 1276 and from until 1803, it was independent of its former overlord, the Prince-Bishop of Augsburg. Frictions between the city-state and the prince-bishops were to remain frequent however after Augsburg became Protestant and curtailed the rights and freedoms of Catholics. With its strategic location at an intersection of trade routes to Italy, the Free Imperial City became a major trading center.
Augsburg produced large quantities of woven goods and textiles. Augsburg became the base of two banking families that rose to great prominence, the Fuggers and the Welsers; the Fugger family donated the Fuggerei part of the city devoted to housing for needy citizens in 1516, which remains in use today. In 1530, the Augsburg Confession was presented to the Holy Roman Emperor at the Diet of Augsburg. Following the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, after which the rights of religious minorities in imperial cities were to be protected, a mixed Catholic–Protestant city council presided over a majority Protestant population. Religious peace in the city was maintained despite increasing Confessional tensions until the Thirty Years' War. In 1629, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II issued the Edict of Restitution, which restored the legal situation of 1552 and again curtailed the rights of the Protestant citizens; the inequality of the Edict of Restitution was rescinded when in April 1632, the Swedish army under Gustavus Adolphus captured Augsburg without resistance.
In 1634, the Swedish army was routed at nearby Nördlingen. By October 1634, Catholic troops had surrounded Augsburg; the Swedish garrison refused to surrender and a siege ensued through the winter of 1634/35 and thousands died from hunger and disease. According to J. N. Hays, "In the period of the Swedish occupation and the Imperial siege the population of the city was reduced from about 70,000 to about 16,000, with typhus and plague playing major roles." In 1686, Emperor Leopold I formed the League of Augsburg, termed by the English as the "Grand Alliance" after England joined in 1689: a European coalition, consisting of Austria, Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Savoy, Spain and the United Provinces. It was formed to defend the Palatinate from France; this organization fought against France in the Nine Years War. Augsburg's peak boom years occurred during the 15th and 16th centuries thanks to the bank and metal businesses of the merchant families Fugger and Welser, who held a local near total monopoly on their respective industries.
Augsburg's wealth attracted artists seeking patrons and became a creative centre for famous painters and musicia
Landsberg Prison is a penal facility located in the town of Landsberg am Lech in the southwest of the German state of Bavaria, about 65 kilometres west of Munich and 35 kilometres south of Augsburg. It is best known as the prison where Adolf Hitler was held in 1924, after the failed Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, where he dictated his memoirs Mein Kampf to Rudolf Hess; the prison was used by Allied power during the Occupation of Germany for holding Nazi War Criminals. In 1946 General Joseph T. McNarney, commander in chief, U. S. Forces of Occupation in Germany renamed Landsberg: War Criminal Prison Nr. 1. The Americans closed the war crimes facility in 1958. Control of the prison was handed over to the Federal Republic of Germany. Landsberg is now maintained by the Prison Service of the Bavarian Ministry of Justice. Landsberg prison, in the town's western outskirts, was completed in 1910; the facility was designed with an Art Nouveau frontage by Hugo Höfl. Within its wall, the four brick-built cell blocks were constructed in a cross-shape orientation.
This allowed guards to watch all wings from a central location. Landsberg, used for holding convicted criminals and those awaiting sentencing, was designated a Festungshaft prison. Festungshaft facilities were similar to a modern protective custody unit. Prisoners had reasonably comfortable cells, they were allowed to receive visitors. Anton Graf von Arco-Valley who shot Bavarian prime minister Kurt Eisner was given a Festungshaft sentence in February 1919. In 1924 Adolf Hitler spent 264 days incarcerated in Landsberg after being convicted of treason following the Beer Hall Putsch in Munich the previous year. During his imprisonment, Hitler dictated and wrote his book Mein Kampf with assistance from his deputy, Rudolf Hess. Numerous foreign political prisoners of the Nazis were deported to Germany and imprisoned in Landsberg. Between early 1944 and the end of the war, at least 210 prisoners died in Landsberg as a result of mistreatment or execution. During the occupation of Germany by the Allies after World War II, the US Army designated the prison as War Criminal Prison No. 1 to hold convicted Nazi war criminals.
It was guarded by personnel from the United States Army's Military Police. The first condemned prisoners arrived at Landsberg prison in December 1945; these war criminals had been sentenced to death for crimes against humanity at the Dachau Trials which had begun a month earlier. Between 1945 and 1946, the prison housed a total of 110 prisoners convicted at the Nuremberg trials, a further 1416 war criminals from the Dachau trials and 18 prisoners convicted in the Shanghai trials. In five and half years, Landsberg prison was the place of execution of nearly 300 condemned war criminals. 259 death sentences were conducted by 29 by firing squad. Executions were carried out expeditiously. In May 1946 twenty eight former SS guards from Dachau were hanged within a four-day period. Bodies that were not claimed were buried in unmarked graves in the cemetery next to the Spöttingen chapel. Former members of the Third Reich who were sent to the US Army's prison at Landsberg included: By 1948 the Bavarian Ministry of Justice's Association for the Welfare of Prisoners managed the needs of the prisoners held by the American military.
With the foundation of the Federal Republic of Germany in May 1949 and its abolition of the death penalty, calls from politicians, the churches and artists resulted in numerous petitions being made to close down War Criminal Prison No. 1. as part of a general effort to bring freedom for all Germans convicted of war crimes. In the last half of 1950 and the first half of 1951, thousands of Germans took part in demonstrations outside Landsberg prison to demand pardons for all the war criminals while the German media coverage was overwhelmingly on the side of the condemned, who were depicted as the innocent victims of American "lynch law". Though the protestors at Landsberg claimed to be motivated only by opposition to the death penalty and not to have any pro-Nazi or anti-Semitic feelings, their actions belied their words; when a group of Jewish protestors arrived at Landsberg demanding the execution of the 102 war criminals on 7 January 1951, the German protestors demanding amnesty began to chant the Nazi-era slogan "Juden raus!
Juden raus!" and proceed to beat up the Jewish protestors. The German historian Norbert Frei observed that most of the politicians who demanded freedom for condemned prisoners at Landsberg at various protest rallies outside the prison, such as Richard Jaeger of the CSU on became prominent advocates of restoring the death penalty, which suggested that what people like Jaeger objected to was not so much the death penalty, but rather the use of the death penalty against Nazi war criminals. Another politician who spoke at the protest rallies outside Landsberg prison was Gebhard Seelos of the Bavaria Party, who called the prisoners of Landsberg together with Heligoland -, being used as target practice by the RAF - to be "beacons of the German Volk in their struggle for justice and the reconciliation of nations". Seelos went on to compare the suffering of the condemned prisoners at Landsberg with that of the six million Jews killed in the Holocaust, argued that to execute the prisoners on death r
Displaced persons camps in post-World War II Europe
Displaced persons camps in post-World War II Europe were established in Germany and Italy for refugees from Eastern Europe and for the former inmates of the Nazi German concentration camps. A "displaced persons camp" is a temporary facility for displaced persons, whether refugees or internally displaced persons. Two years after the end of World War II in Europe, some 850,000 people lived in displaced persons camps across Europe, among them Armenians, Latvians, Estonians, Jews, Russians and Czechoslovaks. At the end of the Second World War, at least 11 million people had been displaced from their home countries, with about seven million in Allied-occupied Germany; these included former prisoners of war, released slave laborers, both non-Jewish and Jewish concentration-camp survivors. The Allies categorized the refugees as “displaced persons” and assigned the responsibility for their care to the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. Combat operations, ethnic cleansing, the fear of genocide uprooted millions of people from their homes over the course of World War II.
Between 11 million and 20 million people were displaced. The majority were inmates of Nazi concentration camps, Labor camps and prisoner-of-war camps that were freed by the Allied armies. In portions of Eastern Europe, both civilians and military personnel fled their home countries in fear of advancing Soviet armies, who were preceded by widespread reports of mass rape, pillaging and murder; as the war ended, these people found themselves facing an uncertain future. Allied military and civilian authorities faced considerable challenges resettling them. Since the reasons for displacement varied the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force classified individuals into a number of categories: evacuees, war or political refugees, political prisoners, forced or voluntary workers, Organisation Todt workers, former forces under German command, intruded persons, extruded persons, civilian internees, ex-prisoners of war, stateless persons. In addition, displaced persons came from every country, invaded and/or occupied by German forces.
Although the situation of many of the DPs could be resolved by moving them to their original homes, this could not be done, for example, where borders changed to place the location in a new country. Additionally, many could not return home for fear of political persecution or retribution for perceived collaboration with Axis powers; the original plan for those displaced as a result of World War II was to repatriate them to their countries of origin as as possible. Throughout Austria and Germany, French, British, or Soviet forces tended to the immediate needs of the refugees located within their particular Allied Occupation Zone and set in motion repatriation plans. Nearly all of the displaced persons were malnourished, a great number were ill, some were dying. Shelter was improvised, there were many instances of military personnel sharing from their own supplies of food, clothing, etc. to help the refugees. Military missions of the various Allied nations attached to the British, French and U.
S. army commands classifying the DPs of their own nationality. For example, during 1945 and 1946 there were several dozen Polish liaison officers attached to individual occupation army units. On October 1, 1945, the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, running many of the camps, took responsibility for the administration of displaced persons in Europe, though military authorities continued to play a role for several years to come, in providing transportation and security; those who were classified and were willing to be repatriated were sent back to their country of origin. By the end of 1945, over six million refugees were repatriated by the military forces and UNRRA British authorities made June 30, 1946 the cutoff for accepting further displaced persons in their sector of occupation, the American sector set it at August 1, with the exception of those persecuted for race or religion, or who entered the zone in "an organized manner." The American sector ceased receiving new arrivals on April 21, 1947.
An unknown number of displaced persons rejected by authorities were left to find their own means of survival. Displaced persons began to appear in substantial numbers in the spring of 1945. Allied forces took them into their care by improvising shelter. Accommodation included former military barracks, but included summer camps for children, hotels, hospitals, private homes, partly destroyed structures. Although there were continuous efforts to sort and consolidate populations, there were hundreds of DP facilities in Germany, Austria and other European countries by the end of 1945. One camp was set up in Guanajuato in Mexico; the UNRRA moved to field teams to take over administration of the camps from the military forces. A number of DP camps became less permanent homes for these individuals. Conditions were sometimes harsh. Rations were restricted, curfews were imposed. Camps were shut down as refugees found new homes and there was continuous consolidation of remaining refugees into fewer camps.
By 1952, all but two DP camps were closed. The last two DP camps, Föhrenwald closed in 1957 and Wels in 1959. All displaced persons had experienced trauma, many had
Mein Kampf is a 1925 autobiographical book by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler. The work describes the process by which Hitler became antisemitic and outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany. Volume 1 of Mein Kampf was published in 1925 and Volume 2 in 1926; the book was edited by Hitler's deputy Rudolf Hess. Hitler began Mein Kampf while imprisoned for what he considered to be "political crimes" following his failed Putsch in Munich in November 1923. Although Hitler received many visitors he soon devoted himself to the book; as he continued, Hitler realized that it would have to be a two-volume work, with the first volume scheduled for release in early 1925. The governor of Landsberg noted at the time that "he hopes the book will run into many editions, thus enabling him to fulfill his financial obligations and to defray the expenses incurred at the time of his trial." After slow initial sales, the book was a bestseller in Germany after Hitler's rise to power in 1933. After Hitler's death, copyright of Mein Kampf passed to the state government of Bavaria, which refused to allow any copying or printing of the book in Germany.
In 2016, following the expiration of the copyright held by the Bavarian state government, Mein Kampf was republished in Germany for the first time since 1945, which prompted public debate and divided reactions from Jewish groups. Hitler wanted to call his forthcoming book Viereinhalb Jahre gegen Lüge, Dummheit und Feigheit, or Four and a Half Years Against Lies and Cowardice. Max Amann, head of the Franz Eher Verlag and Hitler's publisher, is said to have suggested the much shorter "Mein Kampf" or "My Struggle"; the arrangement of chapters is as follows: Volume One: A Reckoning Chapter 1: In the House of My Parents Chapter 2: Years of Study and Suffering in Vienna Chapter 3: General Political Considerations Based on My Vienna Period Chapter 4: Munich Chapter 5: The World War Chapter 6: War Propaganda Chapter 7: The Revolution Chapter 8: The Beginning of My Political Activity Chapter 9: The "German Workers' Party" Chapter 10: Causes of the Collapse Chapter 11: Nation and Race Chapter 12: The First Period of Development of the National Socialist German Workers' Party Volume Two: The National Socialist Movement Chapter 1: Philosophy and Party Chapter 2: The State Chapter 3: Subjects and Citizens Chapter 4: Personality and the Conception of the Völkisch State Chapter 5: Philosophy and Organization Chapter 6: The Struggle of the Early Period – the Significance of the Spoken Word Chapter 7: The Struggle with the Red Front Chapter 8: The Strong Man Is Mightiest Alone Chapter 9: Basic Ideas Regarding the Meaning and Organization of the Sturmabteilung Chapter 10: Federalism as a Mask Chapter 11: Propaganda and Organization Chapter 12: The Trade-Union Question Chapter 13: German Alliance Policy After the War Chapter 14: Eastern Orientation or Eastern Policy Chapter 15: The Right of Emergency Defense Conclusion Index In Mein Kampf, Hitler used the main thesis of "the Jewish peril", which posits a Jewish conspiracy to gain world leadership.
The narrative describes the process by which he became antisemitic and militaristic during his years in Vienna. He speaks of not having met a Jew until he arrived in Vienna, that at first his attitude was liberal and tolerant; when he first encountered the antisemitic press, he says, he dismissed it as unworthy of serious consideration. He accepted the same antisemitic views, which became crucial to his program of national reconstruction of Germany. Mein Kampf has been studied as a work on political theory. For example, Hitler announces his hatred of what he believed to be the world's two evils: Communism and Judaism. In the book Hitler blamed Germany's chief woes on the parliament of the Weimar Republic, the Jews, Social Democrats, as well as Marxists, though he believed that Marxists, Social Democrats, the parliament were all working for Jewish interests, he announced that he wanted to destroy the parliamentary system, believing it to be corrupt in principle, as those who reach power are inherent opportunists.
While historians dispute the exact date Hitler decided to force the Jewish people to emigrate to Madagascar, few place the decision before the mid-1930s. First published in 1925, Mein Kampf shows Hitler's personal grievances and his ambitions for creating a New Order; the historian Ian Kershaw points out that several passages in Mein Kampf are undeniably of a genocidal nature. Hitler wrote "the nationalization of our masses will succeed only when, aside from all the positive struggle for the soul of our people, their international poisoners are exterminated", he suggested that, "If at the beginning of the war and during the war twelve or fifteen thousand of these Hebrew corrupters of the nation had been subjected to poison gas, such as had to be endured in the field by hundreds of thousands of our best German workers of all classes and professions the sacrifice of millions at the front would not have been in vain."The racial laws to which Hitler referred resonate directly with his ideas in Mein Kampf.
In the first edition of Mein Kampf, Hitler stated that the destruction of the weak and sick is far more humane than their protection. Apart from this allusion to humane treatment, Hitler saw a purpose in destroying "the weak" in order to provide the proper space and purity for the "strong". In the chapter "Eastern Orientation or Eastern Policy", Hitler argued that the Germans needed Lebensraum in the East, a "historic destiny" that would properly nurture the German people. Hitler believed that "the organization of a Russian state formation was not the result of the political abilities of the Slavs in Russia, but only a wonderful