A vehicle is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wagons, motor vehicles, railed vehicles, amphibious vehicles and spacecraft. Land vehicles are classified broadly by what is used to apply steering and drive forces against the ground: wheeled, railed or skied. ISO 3833-1977 is the standard internationally used in legislation, for road vehicles types and definitions; the oldest boats found by archaeological excavation are logboats, with the oldest logboat found, the Pesse canoe found in a bog in the Netherlands, being carbon dated to 8040 - 7510 BC, making it 9,500–10,000 years old, a 7,000-year-old seagoing boat made from reeds and tar has been found in Kuwait. Boats were used in the Indian Ocean. There is evidence of camel pulled wheeled vehicles about 4000–3000 BC; the earliest evidence of a wagonway, a predecessor of the railway, found so far was the 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos wagonway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece since around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. In 200 CE, Ma Jun built a vehicle with an early form of guidance system. Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages; the earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a stained-glass window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau dating from around 1350. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. 1769 Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in 1769. In Russia, in the 1780s, Ivan Kulibin developed a human-pedalled, three-wheeled carriage with modern features such as a flywheel, gear box and bearings. 1783 Montgolfier brothers first balloon vehicle 1801 Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, which many believe was the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, though it could not maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use.
1817 Push bikes, draisines or hobby horses were the first human means of transport to make use of the two-wheeler principle, the draisine, invented by the German Baron Karl von Drais, is regarded as the forerunner of the modern bicycle. It was introduced by Drais to the public in Mannheim in summer 1817. 1885 Karl Benz built the first automobile, powered by his own four-stroke cycle gasoline engine in Mannheim, Germany 1885 Otto Lilienthal began experimental gliding and achieved the first sustained, reproducible flights. 1903 Wright brothers flew the first controlled, powered aircraft 1907 First helicopters Gyroplane no.1 and Cornu helicopter 1928 Opel RAK.1 rocket car 1929 Opel RAK.1 rocket glider 1961 Vostok vehicle carried the first human, Yuri Gagarin, into space 1969 Apollo Program first manned vehicle landed on the moon 2010 The number of road motor vehicles in operation worldwide surpassed the 1 billion mark – one for every seven people. There are over 1 billion bicycles in use worldwide.
In 2002 there were an estimated 590 million cars and 205 million motorcycles in service in the world. At least 500 million Chinese Flying Pigeon bicycles have been made, more than any other single model of vehicle; the most-produced model of motor vehicle is the Honda Super Cub motorcycle, having passed 60 million units in 2008. The most-produced car model is the Toyota Corolla, with at least 35 million made by 2010; the most common fixed-wing airplane is the Cessna 172, with about 44,000 having been made as of 2017. The Soviet Mil Mi-8, at 17,000, is the most-produced helicopter; the top commercial jet airliner is the Boeing 737, at about 10,000 in 2018. Locomotion consists of a means that allows displacement with little opposition, a power source to provide the required kinetic energy and a means to control the motion, such as a brake and steering system. By far, most vehicles use wheels which employ the principle of rolling to enable displacement with little rolling friction, it is essential.
Energy can be extracted from external sources, as in the cases of a sailboat, a solar-powered car, or an electric streetcar that uses overhead lines. Energy can be stored, provided it can be converted on demand and the storing medium's energy density and power density are sufficient to meet the vehicle's needs. Human power is a simple source of energy. Despite the fact that humans cannot exceed 500 W for meaningful amounts of time, the land speed record for human-powered vehicles is 133 km/h, as of 2009 on a recumbent bicycle; the most common type of energy source is fuel. External combustion engines can use anything that burns as fuel, whilst internal combustion engines and rocket engines are designed to burn a specific fuel gasoline, diesel or ethanol. Another common medium for storing energy is batteries, which have the advantages of being responsive, useful in a wide range of power levels, environmentally friendly, simple to install, easy to maintain. Batteries facilitate the use of electric motors, which have thei
In a motor vehicle, the powertrain or powerplant comprises the main components that generate power and deliver it to the road surface, water, or air. This includes the engine, drive shafts and the final drive. More in hybrid powertrains the battery, the electric motor and the control algorithm are seen as elements of the powertrain. A motor vehicle's driveline or drivetrain consists of the parts of the powertrain excluding the engine, it is the portion of a vehicle, after the prime mover, that changes depending on whether a vehicle is front-wheel, rear-wheel, or four-wheel drive, or less-common six-wheel or eight-wheel drive. In a wider sense, the powertrain includes all of its components used to transform stored energy into kinetic energy for propulsion purposes; this includes non -- wheel-based vehicles. The most recent developments in powertrain are driven by the electrification of it in multiple components. Electrical energy needs to be provided this leads to larger batteries. Electrical engines can be found as part of other elements, e.g. the axle.
In hybrid powertrains the torque generated by the combustion engine and the electric motor have to be brought together and distributed to the wheels. The control of this process can be quite involved but the rewards are improved acceleration and much lower emissions. Powertrain development for diesel engines involves the following: exhaust gas recirculation, advanced combustion. Spark ignition engine development include: fuel injection, including the gasoline direct injection variant, as well as improving volumetric efficiency by using multi-valves per cylinder, variable valve timing, variable length intake manifolds, turbocharging. Changes include new fuel qualities to allow new combustion concepts. So-called "combined combustion systems" or "diesotto" cycles are based on synthetic fuels. BEVs, FCEVs and PHEV powertrains are expected to reach parity with ICE powertrains in 2025; the manufacturing of powertrain components and systems is important to industry, including the automotive and other vehicle sectors.
Competitiveness drives companies to engineer and produce powertrain systems that over time are more economical to manufacture, higher in product quality and reliability, higher in performance, more fuel efficient, less polluting, longer in life expectancy. In turn these requirements have led to designs involving higher internal pressures, greater instantaneous forces, increased complexity of design and mechanical operation; the resulting designs in turn impose more severe requirements on parts shape and dimension. Quality control over these parameters is achieved through metrology technology applied to all of the steps in powertrain manufacturing processes. In automotive manufacturing, the frame plus the "running gear" makes the chassis. A body, not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. Commercial vehicle manufacturers may have "chassis only" and "cowl and chassis" versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies; these include buses, motor homes, fire engines, etc.
The frame plus the body makes a glider. The final drive is the last in the set of components. In a road vehicle, it incorporates the differential. In a railway vehicle, it sometimes incorporates the reversing gear. Examples include the Self-Changing Gears RF 28 and RF 11 used in the British Rail Class 03 and British Rail Class 04 diesel shunting locomotives. Car safety Electric vehicle Electric vehicle conversion Giubo Gear train Hybrid vehicle drivetrain New powertrain technologies conference, 27 and 28- March-2007. Http://www.caradvice.com.au/105/car-frame-chassis/ Honda F1 Race Car Frame. Drivetrain Quiz HIL Test Bench Technical Paper: A Closed-Loop Drive-train Model
The crawler-transporters, formally known as the Missile Crawler Transporter Facilities, are a pair of tracked vehicles used to transport spacecraft from NASA's Vehicle Assembly Building along the Crawlerway to Launch Complex 39. They were used to transport the Saturn IB and Saturn V rockets during the Apollo and Apollo–Soyuz programs, they were used to transport Space Shuttles from 1981 to 2011. The crawler-transporters carry vehicles on the Mobile Launcher Platform, after each launch return to the pad to take the platform back to the VAB; the two crawler-transporters were designed and built by Marion Power Shovel Company using components designed and built by Rockwell International at a cost of US$14 million each. Upon its construction, the crawler-transporter became the largest self-powered land vehicle in the world. While other vehicles such as bucket-wheel excavators like Bagger 293, dragline excavators like Big Muskie and power shovels like The Captain are larger, they are powered by external sources.
The two crawler-transporters were added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 21, 2000. The crawler-transporter has eight tracks, two on each corner; each track has 57 shoes, each shoe weighs 900 kg. The vehicle measures 40 by 35 metres; the height from ground level to the platform is adjustable from 6.1 to 7.9 m, each side can be raised and lowered independently of the other. The crawler uses a laser guidance system and a leveling system to keep the Mobile Launcher Platform level within 10 minutes of arc, while moving up the 5 percent grade to the launch site. A separate laser docking system provides pinpoint accuracy when the crawler-transporter and Mobile Launch Platform are positioned in the VAB or at the launch pad. A team of nearly 30 engineers and drivers operates the vehicle; the crawlers were overhauled in 2003 with upgrades to the Motor Control Center, which houses the switchgear and electrical controls of all of major systems on board, a new engine and pump ventilation system and new diesel engine radiators, replacement of the two driver cabs on each vehicle.
As of 2003, each crawler had 16 traction motors, powered by four 1,000 kW generators, in turn driven by two 2,050 kW V16 ALCO 251C diesel engines. Two 750 kW generators, driven by two 794 kW engines, were used for jacking, steering and ventilating. Two 150 kW generators were available to power the Mobile Launcher Platform; the crawler's tanks held 19,000 liters of diesel fuel, it burned 296 liters per kilometer. Due to its age and the need to support the heavier Space Launch System and its launch tower, in mid-2012 one of the crawlers was undergoing an upgrade involving "new engines, new exhausts, new brakes, new hydraulics, new computers," to increase its lifting capacity from 5,400,000 to 8,200,000 kg; the crawler is controlled from two control cabs located at either end of the vehicle, travels along the 5.6 km crawlerway at a maximum speed of 1.6 km/h loaded, or 3.2 km/h unloaded. The average trip time from the VAB along the Crawlerway to Launch Complex 39 is about five hours; each crawlerway is 2 m deep and covered with Alabama and Tennessee river rock for its low friction properties to reduce the possibility of sparks.
In 2000, NASA unearthed and restored an Apollo-era segment of the crawlerway to provide access to High Bay 2 in the VAB in order to provide protection from a hurricane for up to three Shuttles at the same time. Kennedy Space Center has been using the same two crawlers, now nicknamed "Hans" and "Franz", since their initial delivery in 1965. In their lifetime, they have traveled more than 5,500 km, about the same driving distance as from Miami to Seattle; the crawler-transporters have featured in television and movies. In a season three episode of Dirty Jobs, host Mike Rowe helps workers maintain a crawler-transporter and takes the vehicle for a short drive; the crawler was seen in the 1995 film Apollo 13, the 2011 film Transformers: Dark of the Moon and the 2019 film Apollo 11. Similar vehicles appeared in the 2013 film Pacific Rim, used for launching Jaegers. In the Fallout 3 video game add-on pack "Broken Steel", the US government survivors, The Enclave, have a mobile base built on and into a modified crawler.
In Sid Meier's Alpha Centauri, various units are called "crawlers" and feature chassis based on the crawler-transporters. 28.58808°N 80.65521°W / 28.58808.
The Tsar Tank known as the Netopyr' which stands for Pipistrellus or Lebedenko Tank, was an unusual Russian armoured vehicle developed by Nikolai Lebedenko, Nikolai Zhukovsky, Boris Stechkin, Alexander Mikulin from 1914 onwards. The project was scrapped after initial tests deemed the vehicle to be vulnerable to artillery fire, it differed from modern tanks in that it did not use caterpillar tracks—rather, it used a tricycle design, meaning it does not suit the modern definition of a tank. The two front spoked wheels were nearly 9 meters in diameter; the upper cannon turret reached a height of nearly 8 meters. The hull was 12 metres wide with two more cannon in sponsons. Additional weapons were planned under the belly; each wheel was powered by a 250 hp Sunbeam engine. The huge wheels were intended to cross significant obstacles. However, due to miscalculations of the weight, the rear wheel was prone to getting stuck in soft ground and ditches, the front wheels were sometimes insufficient to pull it out.
This led to a fiasco of tests before the high commission in August 1915. The tank remained in the location where it was tested, some 60 kilometres from Moscow until 1923 when it was taken apart for scrap. Lebedenko Tank at the Wayback Machine
The Panzerkampfwagen E-100 was a German super-heavy tank design developed towards the end of World War II. It was proposed to be the basis for a heavy artillery system, an anti-aircraft vehicle, a heavy tank destroyer. By the end of the war, a single prototype chassis of the E-100 had been produced, it was only completed. After the war, the prototype was shipped to the United Kingdom for trials, but was scrapped; the basic design was ordered by the Waffenamt as a parallel development to the Porsche Maus in June 1943. It was the heaviest of the Entwicklung series of vehicles, meant to standardize as many components as possible; the proposed designs were the E-5, E-10, E-25, E-50, E-75 and the E-100. In March 1944, the Adler company in Frankfurt submitted blueprint 021A38300 for a super-heavy tank called E-100, after the tank was proposed in April 1943 along with the other Entwicklung series vehicles. According to the blueprints, the tank would be armed with a 75 mm gun. Two types of engines were proposed: one was a 700 hp Maybach HL230, with a transmission and turning mechanism borrowed from the Tiger II.
The estimated top speed was 23 km/h. The second variant would have a top speed estimated at 40 km/h; the design had removable side skirts and narrow transport tracks to make rail transport more viable. This design was similar to the original'Tiger-Maus' proposal, but had larger 900 mm diameter road wheels and a new spring based suspension rather than the original torsion bars. A new turret was designed. Permission was given to produce the tank based on the potential use of the E-100 as a tank destroyer with either a 15 cm StuK L/63 or 17 cm StuK L/53 gun. In July 1944 Hitler ordered the development of super heavy tanks to stop. Work on the E-100 continued at a low priority, with only three Adler employees available to assemble the prototype; the first prototype was never completed and was found by the 751st Field Artillery Battalion of the American forces in April 1945. The completed vehicle was taken by the British Army for evaluation and scrapped in the 1950s. List of prototype World War II combat vehicles Notes BibliographyChamberlain, Peter & Doyle, Hilary "Encyclopedia Of German Tanks Of World War Two"
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber, an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine; the force is applied to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy; the first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto. The term internal combustion engine refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as described.
Firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. In contrast, in external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or liquid sodium, heated in a boiler. ICEs are powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars and boats. An ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. There is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for CI engines and bioethanol or methanol for SI engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, can be obtained from either fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines.
In 1791, John Barber developed the gas turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine. In 1794, Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, the first to use liquid fuel, built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine. In 1807, French engineers Nicéphore and Claude Niépce ran a prototype internal combustion engine, using controlled dust explosions, the Pyréolophore; this engine powered a boat on France. The same year, the Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by an electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially. In 1854 in the UK, the Italian inventors Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci tried to patent "Obtaining motive power by the explosion of gases", although the application did not progress to the granted stage. In 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine. In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine.
In 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, four-cycle engine. In 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gasoline engine. In 1886, Karl Benz began the first commercial production of motor vehicles with the internal combustion engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed compression ignition engine. In 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the world's first jet aircraft. At one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery—a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A "motor" is any machine. Traditionally, electric motors are not referred to as "engines". In boating an internal combustion engine, installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, but the engines that sit on the transom are referred to as motors. Reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives.
Rotary engines of the Wankel design are used in some automobiles and motorcycles. Where high power-to-weight ratios are required, internal combustion engines appear in the form of combustion turbines or Wankel engines. Powered aircraft uses an ICE which may be a reciprocating engine. Airplanes can instead use jet engines and helicopters can instead employ turboshafts. In addition to providing propulsion, airliners may employ a separate ICE as an auxiliary power unit. Wankel engines are fitted to many unmanned aerial vehicles. ICEs drive some of the large electric generators, they are found in the form of combustion turbines in combined cycle power plants with a typical electrical output in the range of 100 MW to 1 GW. The high temperature exhaust is used to superheat water to run a steam turbine. Thus, the efficiency is higher because more energy is extracted from the fuel than what could be extracted by the co