Landwehr, or Landeswehr, is a German language term used in referring to certain national armies, or militias found in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Europe. In different context it refers to low-strength fortifications. In German, the word means "defence of the country". 262, 10th edition. The English term "home guard" may derive from an attempt to translate the term landwehr, the earliest unit calling itself "home guard" being formed by German immigrants in Missouri in the events leading up to the American Civil War; the Austrian Landwehr was one of three components that made up the ground forces of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy between 1868 and 1918, it was composed of recruits from the Cisleithanian parts of the empire. Intended as a national defence force alongside the Royal Hungarian Landwehr, the Landwehr was established by order of Emperor Franz Josef on 5 December 1868, yet while the Hungarian force was generously supported early on by the parliament in Budapest, legislators in Vienna failed to advance the cause of the Landwehr, leaving it by the 1870s as a skeletal force with only the appearance of parity.
In 1887, Archduke Albert wrote that Landwehr units were not ready, in terms of training or discipline, for use in the first two weeks of a war. Yet the 1880s saw an expansion in the force's numbers, as the high command was unable to obtain increases in manpower for the joint Imperial and Royal army and sought to increase overall numbers through the Landwehr. Additionally, Austrian fears of the development of the Honved caused the Austrian Reichsrat to vote to increase the Landwehr's strength to 135,000; these nationalist interests led to a gradual strengthening and improvement of the force, so that by the start of the First World War, Landwehr units were considered equal to the units of the joint army in readiness and equipment. Additionally, in Tyrol and Carinthia, three units of the Landwehr were specially trained and equipped for mountain warfare; the Austrian Landwehr and the other components of the Austro-Hungarian Army were all full-time standing armies. The Royal Hungarian Landwehr or Royal Hungarian Honved, was the standing army of the Kingdom of Hungary, established as one of four armed forces of Austria-Hungary from 1867 to 1918.
The others were its counterpart the Austrian Landwehr, the Common Army and the Imperial and Royal Navy. In the wake of fighting between the Austrian Empire and the Hungarian rebels during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the two decades of uneasy co-existence following, Hungarian soldiers served either in mixed units or were stationed away from Hungarian areas. With the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the new tripartite army was brought into being, it existed until the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I in 1918. The Hungarian Landwehr should not be confused with its successor, the Royal Hungarian Army, which went by the same Hungarian name, but existed from 1922 to 1945; the landwehr in Prussia was first formed by a royal edict of 17 March 1813, which called up all men capable of bearing arms between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, not serving in the regular army, for the defense of the country. After the peace of 1815 this force was made an integral part of the Prussian Army, each brigade being composed of one line and one Landwehr regiment.
This, slowed the mobilisation of brigades as Landwehr regiments had to be called up, diminishing the value of the first line. By the re-organization of 1859 the Landwehr troops were relegated to the second line. During the Weimar republic, Germany was not allowed a standing army of more than 100,000 men, thus conscription had been abolished. In the course of the remilitarization of Nazi Germany, the Landwehr was reestablished on 21 May 1935 comprising all Germans liable for military service under the new law older than 35 years of age and younger than 45 years. In effect only one Landwehr division was called up, the remainder of the Landwehr was used either to fill out the 3rd wave infantry divisions or formed Landesschützen battalions used for guard and occupation duty. In Switzerland, the Landwehr used to be a second line force, in which all citizens served for twelve years, it was abolished after the army reform in 1965. As a reference to this past, a number of Swiss wind bands bear the name "Landwehr" in their titles.
The Baltic Landeswehr was the name of the armed forces of the puppet Government of Latvia established by the Baltic nobility. The Baltic state was designed to be established from territories that were ceded by Imperial Russia in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918, but collapsed in the Estonian War of Independence in 1919. Hrvatsko domobranstvo Slovensko domobranstvo Landsturm Volkssturm National Guard
I Still Do is the twentieth studio album by English musician Eric Clapton, was released through the independent Bushbranch Records/Surfdog Records label. The album is a combination of new material written by Clapton and classic songs, contemporary tunes and influences interpreted in his own style; the album was produced by Glyn Johns who had worked with Clapton on Backless. The album's artwork is a painting of Clapton by Peter Blake who previously worked with Clapton, it is the follow-up to Clapton's global hit album The Breeze: An Appreciation of JJ Cale, released in the summer of 2014, his compilation album Forever Man, released in the spring of 2015 and his commercially successful concert film and live album Slowhand at 70 – Live at the Royal Albert Hall released in late 2015. The album was produced by Glyn Johns, producer on Clapton's successful albums Slowhand and Backless; the album cover consists of a portrait of Clapton by Peter Blake who had designed multiple pages of artwork for Clapton's 1991 album 24 Nights as well as a photo book, containing all of his drawings of Clapton, his band and the Royal Albert Hall in which the album was recorded from 1990 to 1991.
Media interest was aroused by the listing of Angelo Mysterioso as contributing to "I Will Be There" as it is similar to L'Angelo Misterioso, a pseudonym used by George Harrison. After Clapton refused to make an official statement, the media began to speculate whether it might be Dhani Harrison playing on the new release. A spokesman for Clapton told Examiner.com on 2 March 2016 that neither Clapton himself nor his management or Clapton's record companies will be revealing the actual identity of "Angelo Mysterioso". In a brief statement, the spokesman wrote: "We aren't going to be saying. Now or ", it was never approved or denied if Dhani Harrison appears on the release. Ed Sheeran joined Clapton on stage at the Nippon Budokan Tokyo, Japan on 13 April 2016 for "I Will Be There", leading to speculation that he is in fact Angelo Mysterioso. Sheeran sang "Cypress Grove" and "Sunshine State" at the same concert. Since Sheeran's album ÷ was released crediting'Angelo Mysterioso' with a guitar solo, leading to speculation of an arrangement between the two.
Speaking to People magazine, Sheeran confirmed the collaboration. I Still Do was announced on 18 February 2016; the album is available on gramophone record and on compact disc. There is a limited edition vacuum tube shaped USB and CD release in a denim box with bonus materials; the bonuses include two exclusive tracks "Lonesome" and "Freight Train" plus 45 minutes of video featuring intimate interviews, behind the scenes clips of recording sessions, live performances and more, 10 behind the scenes polaroid photo prints. Clapton's independent Bushbranch and Surfdog Records labels distribute the album to worldwide territories. Jon M. Gilbertson, indicating in a review from Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, opines, "'I Still Do' is not a dramatic statement, but it is sturdy enough to earn another alternate title:'I'm Still Here.'"Andy Gill of The Independent praised the album, stating: Reuniting him with Slowhand/Backless producer Glyn Johns for the first time in four decades, I Still Do is Eric Clapton’s most assured album in ages, its understated poise and refinement reflecting the influence of his late compadre JJ Cale...
Eric Clapton – guitar, lead vocals Paul Brady – acoustic guitar, backing vocals Andy Fairweather Low – acoustic guitar, electric guitar, backing vocals Angelo Mysterioso – acoustic guitar, backing vocals Simon Climie – acoustic guitar, electric guitar, keyboards Walt Richmond – keyboards Chris Stainton – keyboards Paul Carrack – Hammond organ, backing vocals Dirk Powell – accordion, backing vocals Dave Bronze – bass guitar, double bass Henry Spinetti – drums, percussion Ethan Johns – percussion Michelle John – backing vocals Sharon White – backing vocals Producer and Mixing – Glyn Johns Engineers – Martin Hollis and Glyn Johns Assistant Engineer – Rowan McIntosh Mastered by Bob Ludwig at Gateway Mastering. Art Direction and Design – Catherine Roylance Layout – Brice Beckham Artwork Technician – Matthew Gordon Cover Painting – Sir Peter Blake Photography – Catherine Roylance, Nick Roylance, Craig Stecyk, Simon Whitehead and Getty Images. I Still Do at Amazon.com
The Continental Junior Hockey League was an independent junior ice hockey league based in the Northeastern United States and Canada. League President Jim Cashman is the former President of the now defunct semi-pro Gulf Coast Hockey League and North Eastern Hockey League. League offices were based in Fort Erie and Erie, Pennsylvania; the CJHL claimed to have 5 teams in Canada and the United States of America for the inaugural season in 2010–11 but only played with two teams in its only season of operation. The league was announced on May 28, 2010 on the league website; the teams were announced on June 2, 2010 in Erie and Indiana, June 4, 2010 in Syracuse, New York and June 11, 2010 in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The Niagara Fury were announced on June 2010 on the league website. On September 3, 2010 the Alpena Thunder joined the league after their league, the Northern Junior Hockey League folded. Prior to the start of the 2010–11 season it was announced that Johnstown and Syracuse would not play until the 2011–12 season.
The league's first game was on October 23, 2010, when the Alpena Thunder defeated the Niagara Fury 6-4 in Alpena, Michigan. As the only two teams in the league, they played an 18-game season for the 2010–11 season; the 2011–12 season saw Cashman promise and announce many new teams and an affiliation with the Amateur Athletic Union. At the beginning of the season it became apparent that the league would only have two teams and no affiliation with a governing body. Erie announced through the press that it was withdrawing from the league in November, but the team owned by Niagara owner Cashman became a founding member of the Midwest Junior Hockey League in 2011 before folding midseason. Early in the summer of 2011, the CJHL entered into an agreement with the Amateur Athletic Union for sanctioning; as a part of this agreement the league claimed to have ascended to Tier II Junior A, which would put them on par with the likes of the North American Hockey League. When hockey blog site AmericanJuniorHockey.com inquired to the AAU about the Tier II claim, the AAU informed the blog site that they did not have "tiered" hockey structures like USA Hockey and that the claim was therefore false.
The AAU has launched an audit into the CJHL's prior roster keeping practices and allegations of using unsigned and uncarded players. Since these allegation, most mentions of the AAU have been removed from the CJHL website. Alpena Pride — Announced replacement for the Alpena Thunder for the 2011–12 season Columbus Stampede — Announced replacement of the Pittsburgh Stampede for 2011–12 season Erie Blizzard — Announced for 2010–11 season, merged with Niagara Fury for 2010–11 season.