Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Berlin Zoological Garden
The Berlin Zoological Garden is the oldest and best-known zoo in Germany. Opened in 1844 it is located in Berlin's Tiergarten. With about 1,380 different species and over 20,200 animals the zoo presents one of the most comprehensive collection of species in the world; the zoo and its aquarium had more than 3.5 million visitors in 2017. It is one of the most popular worldwide. Regular animal feedings are among its most famous attractions. Globally known animals like Knut, the polar bear, Bao Bao, the giant panda have contributed to the zoo's public image; the zoo collaborates with many universities, research institutes, other zoos around the world. It maintains and promotes European breeding programmes, helps safeguard several endangered species, participates in several species reintroduction programs. Opened on 1 August 1844, the Zoologischer Garten Berlin was the first zoo in Germany; the aquarium opened in 1913. The first animals were donated by Frederick William IV, King of Prussia, from the menagerie and pheasantry of the Tiergarten.
The nearby U-Bahn station was opened the same year. In 1938, the Berlin Zoo got rid of Jewish board members and forced Jewish shareholders to sell their stocks at a loss, before re-selling the stocks in an effort to "Aryanize" the institution; the zoo has now commissioned a historian to identify these past shareholders and track down their descendants, according to a report by AFP. Zoo director Lutz Heck was named chief of the Oberste Naturschütz Behörde im Reichsforstamt by his friend Hermann Göring in the summer of 1938 and in this capacity he was the senior responsible person for the entire nature management. During World War II, the zoo area was hit by Allied bombs for the first time on 8 September 1941. Most damage was done during the bombardments on 22 and 23 November 1943. In less than 15 minutes, 30% of the zoo population was killed on the first day. On the second day the aquarium building was destroyed by a direct hit. Of the eight elephants only one survived, the bull Siam. 2-year-old hippo bull Knautschke was saved from the fire in his animal house.
Most damage was done during the Battle of Berlin. From 22 April 1945 onwards, the zoo was under constant artillery fire of the Red Army. Heavy fighting took place on the zoo area till 30 April; because of safety measures, some predators and other dangerous animals were killed by the zoo keepers. By the end of the war, the zoo was fortified with the Zoo Tower, a huge flak tower, one of the last remaining areas of Nazi German resistance against the Red Army, with its bunkers and anti-aircraft weapons defending against Allied air forces. At the entrance of the zoo, there was a small underground shelter for zoo keepers. During the battle, wounded German soldiers were taken care for here by female personnel and the wives of zookeepers. On 30 April, the zoo flak bunker surrendered. A count on May 31, 1945, revealed only 91 of 3,715 animals had survived, including two lion cubs, two hyenas, Asian bull elephant Siam, hippo bull Knautschke, ten hamadryas baboons, a chimpanzee, a black stork. After the battle, some animals were eaten by Red Army soldiers.
Following the zoo's destruction, it and the associated aquarium was reconstructed on modern principles so as to display the animals in as close to their natural environment as feasible. The success in breeding animals, including some rare species, demonstrates the efficacy of these new methods; the zoo came to be located in West Berlin, hence a second zoo – Tierpark Berlin – was built in the East. The Berlin Zoo is the most visited zoo in Europe, with more than 3.3 million visitors per year from all over the world. It is open all year long and can be reached by public transportation; the Berlin Zoologischer Garten railway station is one of Berlin's most important stations. Several modes of transport such as U-Bahn, S-Bahn and buses are interlinked here. Visitors can either enter the zoo through the exotically designed Elephant Gate beside the aquarium on Budapester Straße or through the Lion Gate on Hardenbergplatz; the zoo gaurs. The populations of rare deer and pigs are part of several captive breeding projects.
Berlin Zoo supports conservationists in other countries and as a partner of the Stiftung Artenschutz, a species protection foundation. Most of the animals are housed in enclosures designed to recreate their natural habitat; the zoo houses four types of great ape: orangutans, gorillas and bonobos. The carnivore house displays all big cats and many rare small predators, such as ring-tailed mongooses and narrow-striped mongooses from Madagascar. In the basement, visitors are invited to a view into the world of nocturnal animals; the bird house presents a walk-through aviary and offers a broad variety of forms, including several breeding species of hornbills and many parrots. Numerous big aviaries show waders and many other species; the Berlin Zoo is one of the few zoos to exhibit Luzon tarictic hornbills. The aquarium was built in 1913 as part of the Zoologischer Garten complex. In addition to fish and other aquatic life, it is home to most of the zoo's reptiles and invertebrates. Polar bear Knut was born in captivity at the zoo on 5 December 2006.
He and his twin brother or sister were directly rejected by their mother at day of birth. He was subsequently raised by zookeeper Thomas Dörflein and became the center of a mass media phenomenon that spanned the globe spawning numerous toys, media specials, DVDs, a
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol
The Shell-Haus is a classical modernist architectural masterpiece that stands overlooking the Landwehrkanal in the Tiergarten district of Berlin, Germany. It was designed by Emil Fahrenkamp and was built in 1930–31. In 1929 a competition was held between five architects to determine the designer of a prestigious new office block to house the headquarters of the mineral oil company, Royal Dutch Shell subsidiary, Rhenania-Ossag; the victor was professor Emil Fahrenkamp. After two years in construction, Shell-Haus opened in 1932. At the time the building was noted for its modernist design, for its striking wave-like facade, for being one of the first steel-framed high-rise buildings in Berlin. In retrospect it is regarded as Fahrenkamp’s masterpiece and one of the most significant office block designs of the Weimar Republic. Shell-Haus' simple graceful forms are stylistically reminiscent of the German modern realist movement New Objectivity, but Fahrenkamp incorporated more traditional aspects to his design.
The most eye-catching feature of Shell-Haus is its main facade, which jumps forward in six gentle waves whilst at the same time increasing in height from six levels to ten. The building itself comprises four wings situated around a four-sided inner courtyard. Before the building of Shell-Haus, the Tiergarten section of Berlin was the location of expensive and luxurious private residences. Afterwards, after World War II, the area housed more offices, with some of the former townhouses and villas gone and others having been converted to office use; the street itself became a significant connecting thoroughfare. During the Second World War Shell-Haus was used by the naval high command and the cellars were converted into a makeshift hospital. Despite the upper floors being damaged in the Battle of Berlin at the close of the war, Shell-Haus was one of Berlin’s few great edifices to survive the widespread destruction of the city unscathed. After clearing away the war damage, in 1946 the Berlin electricity board BEWAG made Shell-Haus its head office.
In 1958 Shell-Haus was designated an historical monument in order to protect it. However, this acknowledgement of its architectural importance did not save the building from post-war dilapidation, it remained in a degraded state for many years to follow. Between 1965 and 1967, the Shell-Haus site was extended northwards with the construction of two steel-framed buildings designed by the German architect Paul Baumgarten. Being comparatively conventional and unremarkable in design, they were not included under the original building’s historical monument protection, a 1995 application to rectify this was squashed; when the subject of the building's long overdue restoration was raised in the 1980s progress was hampered by a dispute over the investment needed that continued into the mid-1990s. Renovation work had been carried out on the courtyard façade in the early 80s but this had failed to meet the required standards. In 1995 Bewag moved out of Shell-Haus in readiness for the renovation project.
In 1997, after 13 years of discord, the restoration work began. At the time the total cost was estimated at around 50 million deutschmarks, but by the time work was completed in February 2000, the expenditure had escalated to around 80 million marks. A major contributory factor to the considerable expense was the need to reopen the Longarina quarry near Rome, owned by company CIMEP in Tivoli, in order to supply the appropriate travertine rock for the building façade; the expenditure and painstaking detail invested in Shell-Haus did not go unrewarded – the year 2000 saw the renovation work awarded the monument preservation prize, the Ferdinand von Quast Medal. In March 2000 the Berlin energy supplier GASAG became the new occupant of Shell-Haus. Shell-Haus has several high-profile fans including the acclaimed German film director Wim Wenders – who featured the building in his 1970 directorial debut Summer in the City – and the architect Meinhard von Gerkan, who said that for him it was the most beautiful building in Berlin.
On the other hand, one of the only times on record that Adolf Hitler inveighed against a specific building in Berlin, as opposed to modern urban architecture in general, was when he insulted Fahrenkamp with "You're the man who committed the crime of the Shell Building." Despite this criticism, Fahrenkamp received some commissions for exhibition buildings, had dealings with Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels, Hermann Göring, the head of the Luftwaffe and the Four Year Plan, Albert Speer, Hitler's favorite architect and Minister of Armaments and War Production. Media related to Shell-Haus at Wikimedia Commons
Anna Anderson was the best known of several impostors who claimed to be Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia. Anastasia, the youngest daughter of the last Tsar and Tsarina of Russia, Nicholas II and Alexandra, was killed along with her parents and siblings on 17 July 1918 by communist revolutionaries in Yekaterinburg, but the location of her body was unknown until 2007. In 1920, Anderson was institutionalized in a mental hospital after a suicide attempt in Berlin. At first, she went by the name Fräulein Unbekannt, she used the name Tschaikovsky and Anderson. In March 1922, claims that Anderson was a Russian grand duchess first received public attention. Most members of Grand Duchess Anastasia's family and those who had known her, including court tutor Pierre Gilliard, said Anderson was an impostor but others were convinced she was Anastasia. In 1927, a private investigation funded by the Tsarina's brother, Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse, identified Anderson as Franziska Schanzkowska, a Polish factory worker with a history of mental illness.
After a lawsuit lasting many years, the German courts ruled that Anderson had failed to prove she was Anastasia, but through media coverage, her claim gained notoriety. Between 1922 and 1968, Anderson lived in Germany and the United States with various supporters and in nursing homes and sanatoria, including at least one asylum, she emigrated to the United States in 1968. Shortly before the expiration of her visa she married history professor Jack Manahan, characterized as "probably Charlottesville's best-loved eccentric". Upon her death in 1984, Anderson's body was cremated, her ashes were buried in the churchyard at Castle Seeon, Germany. After the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union, the locations of the bodies of the Tsar and all five of their children were revealed. Multiple laboratories in different countries confirmed their identity through DNA testing. DNA tests on a lock of Anderson's hair and surviving medical samples of her tissue showed that her DNA did not match that of the Romanov remains or that of living relatives of the Romanovs.
Instead, Anderson's mitochondrial DNA matched that of Karl Maucher, a great-nephew of Franziska Schanzkowska. Most scientists and journalists who have discussed the case accept that Anderson and Schanzkowska were the same person. On 27 February 1920, a young woman attempted to take her own life in Berlin by jumping off a bridge called the Bendlerbrücke into the Landwehrkanal, she was admitted to the Elisabeth Hospital on Lützowstrasse. As she was without papers and refused to identify herself, she was admitted as Fräulein Unbekannt to a mental hospital in Dalldorf, where she remained for the next two years; the unknown patient had scars on her head and body and spoke German with an accent described as "Russian" by medical staff. In early 1922, Clara Peuthert, a fellow psychiatric patient, claimed that the unknown woman was Grand Duchess Tatiana of Russia, one of the four daughters of Tsar Nicholas II. On her release, Peuthert told Russian émigré Captain Nicholas von Schwabe that she had seen Tatiana at Dalldorf.
Schwabe accepted the woman as Tatiana. Schwabe persuaded other émigrés to visit the unknown woman, including Zinaida Tolstoy, a friend of Tsarina Alexandra. Baroness Sophie Buxhoeveden, a former lady-in-waiting to the Tsarina, visited the asylum with Tolstoy. On seeing the woman, Buxhoeveden declared "She's too short for Tatiana," and left convinced the woman was not a Russian grand duchess. A few days the unknown woman noted, "I did not say I was Tatiana."A nurse at Dalldorf, Thea Malinovsky, claimed years after the patient's release from the asylum that the woman had told her she was another daughter of the Tsar, Anastasia, in the autumn of 1921. However, the patient herself could not recall the incident, her biographers weave it into their narrative. By May 1922, the woman was believed by Peuthert and Tolstoy to be Anastasia, although Buxhoeveden said there was no resemblance; the woman was taken out of the asylum and given a room in the Berlin home of Baron Arthur von Kleist, a Russian émigré, a police chief in Russian Poland before the fall of the Tsar.
The Berlin policeman who handled the case, Detective Inspector Franz Grünberg, thought that Kleist "may have had ulterior motives, as was hinted at in émigré circles: if the old conditions should be restored in Russia, he hoped for great advancement from having looked after the young woman."She began calling herself Anna Tschaikovsky, choosing "Anna" as a short form of "Anastasia", although Peuthert "described her everywhere as Anastasia". Tschaikovsky stayed in the houses of acquaintances, including Kleist, Peuthert, a poor working-class family called Bachmann, at Inspector Grünberg's estate at Funkenmühle, near Zossen. At Funkenmühle, Grünberg arranged for the Tsarina's sister, Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine, to meet Tschaikovsky, but Irene did not recognize her. Grünberg arranged a visit from Crown Princess Cecilie of Prussia, but Tschaikovsky refused to speak to her, Cecilie was left perplexed by the encounter. In the 1950s, Cecilie signed a declaration that Tschaikovsky was Anastasia, but Cecilie's family disputed her statement and implied that she was suffering from dementia.
By 1925, Tschaikovsky had developed a tuberculous infection of her arm, she was placed in a succession of hospitals for treatment. Sick and near death, she suffered significant loss of weight, she was visited by the Tsarina's groom of the chamber Alexei Volkov.
U1 (Berlin U-Bahn)
U1 is a line on the Berlin U-Bahn, 8.8 kilometres long and has 13 stations. Its traditional line designation was BII, it runs east-west and its eastern end is south of the route of the historical Schlesischen Bahn at the Warschauer Straße S-Bahn station and runs through Kreuzberg, Wittenbergplatz on to the Kurfürstendamm. The eastern section of the line is the oldest part of the Berlin U-Bahn, although it is above ground; the U1 route was part of BII until 1957, where it was renamed to BIV until 1 March 1966. While the main section between Wittenbergplatz and Schlesisches Tor has been designated as line 1 since 1966, the western end of the line has changed twice, it was renumbered to Line "3" and "U3" in 1993, before being renamed U15 until 2004. The increasing traffic problems in Berlin at the end of the 19th century led to a search for new efficient means of transport. Inspired by Werner von Siemens, numerous suggestions were made for overhead conveyors, such as a suspension railway, as was built in Wuppertal, or a tube railway as was built in London.
Siemens and some prominent Berliners submitted a plan for an elevated railway on the model of New York. These people opposed Siemens' suggestion of building an overhead railway in the major street of Friedrichstrasse, but the city of Berlin opposed underground railways, since it feared damage to one of its new sewers. After many years and negotiations, Siemens proposal for an elevated railway line from Warschauer Brücke via Hallesches Tor to Bülowstraße was approved; this was only possible, because it passed through poor areas. The richer residents of Leipziger Straße pressed the city administration to prevent the line using their street. Siemens & Halske carried out all construction work and owned the line; the first sod was turned on 10 September 1896 in Gitschiner Straße. The construction work had to be carried out because the contract with the city of Berlin, signed with the granting of the concession, specified that the line had to be finished within two years, or a penalty of 50,000 marks would be payable.
The railway engineers developed a design for the supporting columns for the elevated railway, but it was unpopular and the architect Alfred Grenander was asked to submit an artistic solution for this problem. For the next 30 years Grenander was the house architect for the underground railway. After tough negotiations with the city of Charlottenburg it was decided to extend the line to Knie along the Tauentzienstrasse, but instead of being elevated it would be a subsurface railway; the management of the city of Berlin board of works regarded the idea of an underground railway sympathetically. Since the underground caused no apparent damage to the new sewer, an underground branch could be built from a junction at Gleisdreieck to Potsdamer Platz, Berlin’s city centre; the national government granted permission for the planning changes on 1 November 1900. The total length of the elevated and underground railway was now 10.1 kilometres. The largest part of the route 8 kilometres, would be established on viaducts and connect eleven elevated stations.
In addition there would be 2 kilometres of underground line with three underground stations. The planners believed that 8-carriage trains would not be needed and therefore designed it with 80 m-long platforms, sufficient only for 6-carriage trains; the first 6 kilometres of the line was finished in 1901 and on 15 February 1902 the first train ran on the line from Potsdamer Platz to Zoologischer Garten to Stralauer Tor and back to Potsdamer Platz. This allowed many prominent Berliners to participate in the opening trip, including the Prussian minister for public works, Karl von Thielen. On 18 February 1902 the first stage of the Berlin U-Bahn was opened. In March the line was extended to Zoologischer Garten and on 17 August it was extended by 380 m from Stralauer Tor to Warschauer Brücke. There were at that time only two lines: From Warschauer Brücke to Zoologischer Garten via Potsdamer Platz. From Warschauer Brücke directly to Zoologischer Garten. On 14 December the line was extended to Knie; the section between Gleisdreieck and Knie is now part of U2.
In the summer of 1907, the elevated railway company of the new city of Wilmersdorf suggested the building of an underground line to the Wilmersdorf area. It suggested a line to Nürnberger Platz and, if Wilmersdorf would pay to Breitenbachplatz. Since Wilmersdorf municipality had poor transport connections, the Wilmersdorf city fathers were pleased to take up this suggestion; the royal domain of Dahlem, south of Wilmersdorf and was still undeveloped supported a U-bahn connection and wanted it extended from Breitenbachplatz to Thielplatz. However, the future line would run through the city of Charlottenburg, which saw the city of Wilmersdorf as a major competitor for the settlement of wealthy ratepayers. Long negotiations ensued, until in the summer 1910 a solution was found: an additional line would be built under the Kurfürstendamm to Uhlandstraße. Work began on these lines in the same summer; the double-track Wittenbergplatz station, which only had two side platforms, had to be rebuilt. The new station required five platforms with a sixth prepared for an entrance hall.
The cities of Wilmersdorf and Charlottenburg submitted many suggestions for its design. The house architect of the elevated railway company, Alfred Grenander, was appointed to design the station on the recommendation of the royal police chief; the add
The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788; the Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently, have only had common ownership since 1967. In 1959, the historian of journalism Allan Nevins analysed the importance of The Times in shaping the views of events of London's elite: For much more than a century The Times has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain, its news and its editorial comment have in general been coordinated, have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain.
To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street. The Times is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, such as The Times of India and The New York Times. In countries where these other titles are popular, the newspaper is referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution; the Times is the originator of the used Times Roman typeface developed by Stanley Morison of The Times in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in Times Modern; the Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. The Sunday Times remains a broadsheet; the Times had an average daily circulation of 417,298 in January 2019. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006.
It has been used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning; the Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, with Walter in the role of editor. Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company where he worked went bankrupt due to losses from a Jamaican hurricane. Unemployed, Walter began a new business venture. Henry Johnson had invented the logography, a new typography, reputedly faster and more precise. Walter bought the logography's patent and with it opened a printing house to produce a daily advertising sheet; the first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register in Great Britain was 1 January 1785. Unhappy because the word Universal was omitted from the name, Walter changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times. In 1803, Walter handed editorship to his son of the same name.
In spite of Walter Sr's sixteen-month stay in Newgate Prison for libel printed in The Times, his pioneering efforts to obtain Continental news from France, helped build the paper's reputation among policy makers and financiers. The Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of The Times were large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig. In 1815, The Times had a circulation of 5,000. Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson. Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane, the influence of The Times rose to great heights in politics and amongst the City of London.
Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, gained for The Times the pompous/satirical nickname'The Thunderer'. The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence; the Times was the first newspaper to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. W. H. Russell, the paper's correspondent with the army in the Crimean War, was immensely influential with his dispatches back to England. In other events of the nineteenth century, The Times opposed the repeal of the Corn Laws until the number of demonstrations convinced the editorial board otherwise, only reluctantly supported aid to victims of the Irish Potato Famine, it enthusiastically supported the Great Reform Bill of 1832, which reduced corruption and increased the electorate from 400,000 people to 800,000 people.
During the American Civil War, The Times represented the view of the wealthy classes, favouring the secessionists, but it was not a supporter of slavery. The third John Walter, the founder's grandson, succeeded his father in 1847; the paper continued as more or less independent, but from t