Christianshavns Vold is a former rampart which was part of the bastioned fortification ring which used to surround Copenhagen, Denmark. Running along the full perimeter of Christianshavn and Holmen, it used to form a protective barrier towards the island of Amager. It consists of earthworks with 12 bastions and in front of it ran a moat, Stadsgraven, on the other side of Stadsgraven. On Amager, was a system of outworks called Christianshavns Enveloppe of which only the northern half survives. Along with Kastellet on the side of the harbour, it is the only intact part of the fortification system. Today Christianshavns Vold serves as an important greenspace for Christianshavns inhabitants, the southern half of the rampart is a municipal park whereas the northern portion is part of Freetown Christiania, a self-built, semi-autonomous community which has existed since the early 1970s. Part of Christiania is located on the far side of Stadsgraven, the town was laid out with low earthworks facing Amager.
The rampart was constructed with four and a half bastions and a city gate, known as Amagerport, through which all traffic to, in the 1670s, when Vestervold was extended to reach the sea, Christiansvold was moved and extended to match the new course of Vestervold. Only the two northernmost bastions, today known as Løvens Bastion and Elefantens Bastion, remained on their original location, the new Christianshavns Vold had 5 very large bastions. Around the entire complex was a moat with a protecting counterscarp, from 1682-92 Christianshavns Vold was again extended this time in northwards, to guard the entrance to the harbour and protect the new base for the Royal Fleet at what was to become known as Nyholm. The extension included 7 new bastions, named for members of the Royal family, the last extension of Christianshavns Vold was constructed as late as 1878-82, when a rampart was constructed along the eastside of the newly reclaimed Refshaleø. Kalvebod Bastion takes its name after Kalveboderne, the waters which were located to the south of Copenhagen in what is now its Southern Docklands.
Magasinbygningen, the larger of the two, is a two-storey, L-shaped storage building from 1800, the other one is a small forge from 1757. Both are today owned by Karberghus, a privately owned property which mainly invests in historic properties, the bastion contains a gunpowder magazine from c.1675 which was formerly used as a storage space by Copenhagen Municipalitys park authority. It now serves as club house for Qajaq København, a kayak cluv, the bastion has for centuries housed various industrial enterprises. A large defunct chimney is left at the site, panterens Bastion contains a former military training facility for shooting with hand guns. The buildings, a complex of red brick buildings, has now converted into apartments. Am unnamed footbridge connects the bastion to Amager Boulevard on the side of Stadsgraven
For legal purposes motor vehicles are often identified within a number of vehicle classes including cars, motorcycles, off-road vehicles, light trucks and regular trucks. These classifications vary according to the codes of each country. ISO3833,1977 is the standard for road vehicles types, terms, as of 2010 there were more than one billion motor vehicles in use in the world excluding off-road vehicles and heavy construction equipment. Global vehicle ownership per capita in 2010 was 148 vehicles in operation per 1000 people, the United States has the largest fleet of motor vehicles in the world, with 239.8 million in 2010. Vehicle ownership per capita in the US is the highest in the world with 769 vehicles in operation per 1000 people. The Peoples Republic of China has the second largest fleet in the world, with more than 78 million vehicles. In 2011, a total of 80 million cars and commercial vehicles were built, led by China, the US publisher Wards, estimate that as of 2010 there were 1.015 billion motor vehicles in use in the world.
This figure represents the number of cars, light and heavy duty trucks, and buses, the world vehicle population passed the 500 million-unit mark in 1986, from 250 million motor vehicles in 1970. Between 1950 and 1970, the population doubled roughly every 10 years. Two US researchers estimate that the fleet will reach 2 billion motor vehicles by 2020. Navigant Consulting forecasts that the stock of light-duty motor vehicles will reach 2 billion units in 2035. The global rate of motorization increased in 2013 to 174 vehicles per 1000 inhabitants, in developing countries vehicle ownership rates rarely exceed 200 cars per 1,000 population. The five largest markets, Italy, the UK, the EU-27 member countries had in 2009 an estimated ownership rate of 473 passenger cars per 1000 people. According to Wards, Italy had the second highest vehicle ownership per capita in 2010, Germany had a rate of motorization of 534 vehicles per 1000 people and the UK of 525 vehicles per 1000 inhabitants, both in 2008.
France had a rate of 575 vehicles per 1000 people and Spain 608 vehicles per 1000 people in 2007, between 1991 and 2002 grew up 220% on its motorization rate, having had in 2002,560 cars per 1000 people. Italy leads in alternative fuel vehicles, with a fleet of 779,090 natural gas vehicles as of June 2012, with 225,000 flexible-fuel vehicles, has the largest flexifuel fleet in Europe by mid-2011. According to Wards, the United States has the largest fleet of vehicles in the world. Vehicle ownership per capita in the U. S. is the highest in the world with 769 vehicles in operation per 1000 inhabitants, or a ratio of 1,1.3 vehicles to people
Christian's Church, Copenhagen
Christians Church is a magnificent Rococo church in the Christianshavn district of Copenhagen, Denmark. Designed by Nicolai Eigtved, it was built 1754–59, the church was originally built by the German community as a church for the large German community at Christianshavn and served this purpose until the end of the 19th century. Today it is a parish church for Christians Parish within the Danish National Church. Its name is a reference to King Christian IV. who founded the Christianshavn district in 1611, after Christian IV founded Christianshavn in 1617 as a town specially for merchants, a large community of German tradrers and craftsmen settled there. This lasted until they finally asked King Christian VI for permission to build their own church, the King approved the plans and contributed with a lot, a former saltern, located at the end of Strandgade in the southern part of the neighbourhood. He granted permission for a lottery to be held to cover the financing with the result that the finished church used to be colloquially known as the Lottery Church.
In return for his approaval and donation of the lot, the laid down very specific guidelines for the placement. Nicolai Eigtved, the preferred architect at the time, was charged with the design of the new church but died in 1754. Instead his son-in-law, Royal Master Builder Georg David Anthon, was entrusted with supervising the construction of the church which was completed in 1759. Anthon designed the spire which is an addition from 1769, the church originally called Frederiks German Church, and served its original purpose as a church for the German congregation until it was dissolved in 1886. Since 1991 it has been a parish church for Christians Parish which includes part of Christianshavn as well as Slotsholmen. The church has a layout, the nave occupying the space between the shorter rather than the longer sides of the rectangle, giving it exceptional width. Standing on a plinth, the church is a yellow brick building with sandstone finishing for the portal. Ionic pilasters decorate the portal and the windows are tall.
The tower stands 70 metres high, designed by Eigtveds son-in-law D. G. Anthon, the spire was added in 1769. The tower is positioned at the centre of the side which serves as the main facade. The unusual interior of Christians Church is reminiscent of a theatre, in addition to the benches on either side of the nave, three tiers of galleries complete with boxes rise the full height of the building on the northern and southern sides. They are all arranged to provide the congregation with an excellent view of the podium on the side which is reminiscent of a stage
Joan Chandos Baez is an American folk singer, songwriter and activist whose contemporary folk music often includes songs of protest or social justice. Baez has performed publicly for over 55 years, releasing over 30 albums, fluent in Spanish and English, she has recorded songs in at least six other languages. She is regarded as a singer, although her music has diversified since the counterculture days of the 1960s and now encompasses everything from folk rock and pop to country. In recent years, she has found success interpreting songs of modern songwriters such as Ryan Adams, Josh Ritter, Steve Earle and her recordings include many topical songs and material dealing with social issues. She began her career in 1960 and achieved immediate success. Her first three albums, Joan Baez, Joan Baez, Vol.2, and Joan Baez in Concert all achieved gold status and stayed on the Billboard. Songs of acclaim include Diamonds & Rust and covers of Phil Ochss There but for Fortune and she is known for Farewell, Love Is Just a Four-Letter Word, Forever Young, Joe Hill, Sweet Sir Galahad and We Shall Overcome.
Baez will be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on April 7,2017, Baez was born on Staten Island, New York, on January 9,1941. Joans grandfather, the Reverend Alberto Baez, left Catholicism to become a Methodist minister and her father, Albert Baez, was born in Puebla and grew up in Brooklyn, New York, where his father preached to—and advocated for—a Spanish-speaking congregation. Albert first considered becoming a minister but instead he turned to the study of mathematics and physics, Albert was credited as a co-inventor of the x-ray microscope. Baez, is a mathematical physicist, whom Albert interested in physics as a child, born in April 1913, she died on April 20,2013, days after her one hundredth birthday. Baez had two sisters — the elder, Pauline Thalia Baez Bryan, and the younger, Mimi Fariña, Mimi, a musician and activist, died of cancer in California in 2001. The Baez family converted to Quakerism during Joans early childhood, and she has continued to identify with the tradition, particularly in her commitment to pacifism, while growing up, Baez was subjected to racial slurs and discrimination due to her Mexican heritage.
Consequently, she became involved with a variety of social causes early in her career and she declined to play in any venues that were segregated, which meant that when she toured the Southern states she would play only at black colleges. Joan graduated from Palo Alto High School in 1958, Joan Baez became involved with a variety of social causes early in her career, including civil rights and non-violence. Social justice, she stated in the PBS series American Masters, is the core of her life. The opening line of Baezs memoir And a Voice to Sing With is I was born gifted, a friend of Joans father gave her a ukulele. She learned four chords, which enabled her to play rhythm and blues and her parents, were fearful that the music would lead her into a life of drug addiction
Reptilicus is 1961 Danish-American giant monster film about a prehistoric reptile. The film was produced by American International Pictures and Saga Studio, the original Danish-language version was directed by Danish director Poul Bang and released in Denmark on February 25,1961. After Pink and others viewed the English-language version, the lawsuit was dropped, Danish miners Svend Viltorft dig up a section of a giant reptiles tail from the frozen grounds in Lapland, where they are drilling. The section is flown to the Danish Aquarium in Copenhagen, where it is preserved in a room for scientific study. But due to careless mishandling, the room is left open, professor Otto Martens, who is in charge of the Aquarium, dubs the reptilian species Reptilicus and compares its regeneration abilities to that of other animals like earthworms and starfish. However, the foot is not destroyed and sinks to the bottom of the sea. The movie is left open-ended, with the possibility that the foot could regenerate, peter Dalby Dirch Passer as Peterson Ole Wisborg as Captain Einer Brandt Filming took place in several locations in Denmark, including Copenhagen, Sjælland, and Jylland.
Several versions were filmed, the film was filmed using the native Danish language. Each version of the featured the same actors speaking in English with the exception of Bodil Miller who was replaced by actress Marlies Behrens since the Danish actress could not speak English. However the English version of the film was edited and the actors voices dubbed over by American International Pictures for its release in the United States. As Denmarks first and only giant monster film, this film has a following in its home country. Sidney Pink attempted to produce a remake of the film in 2001, due to the box office hit of Godzilla in 1998, the American version of Reptilicus was released on DVD on April 1,2003 by MGM Home Entertainment under the Midnight Movies banner. The Danish version was released on DVD from Sandrew Metronome in 2002, on June 16,2015, the film was released in the Blu-ray format by Scream Factory as a double feature with the 1977 film Tentacles. A novelization of the film was released in paperback at the time of its original release, in 1961, Charlton Comics produced a comic book based on the film.
After the copyright had lapsed, Charlton modified the creatures look, the series was now renamed Reptisaurus the Terrible and would continue from issue #3 before being cancelled with issue #8 in 1962. This was followed by a one-shot called Reptisaurus Special Edition in 1963, in 2012, Scary Monsters Magazine reprinted the Reptisaurus the Terrible series as a black and white collection called Scarysaurus the Scary. A clip of the movie was featured in the South Park episode Cancelled, the movie appears in the Netflix revival of Mystery Science Theater 3000. Dean Owen, Reptilicus Sidney W. dk Reptilicus at Rotten Tomatoes Official website
Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen (/ˈhɑːnz ˈkrɪstʃən ˈændərsən/, often referred to in Scandinavia as H. C. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues and poems, Andersens popularity is not limited to children, his stories, called eventyr in Danish, express themes that transcend age and nationality. Some of his most famous fairy tales include The Emperors New Clothes, The Little Mermaid, The Nightingale, The Snow Queen, The Ugly Duckling and his stories have inspired ballets and live-action films and plays. Hans Christian Andersen was born in the town of Odense, Andersens father, considered himself related to nobility. His paternal grandmother had told his father that their family had in the past belonged to a social class. A persistent theory suggests that Andersen was a son of King Christian VIII. Andersens father, who had received an education, introduced Andersen to literature. Andersens mother, Anne Marie Andersdatter, was uneducated and worked as a washerwoman following his fathers death in 1816, she remarried in 1818.
Andersen was sent to a school for poor children where he received a basic education and was forced to support himself, working as an apprentice for a weaver and, later. At 14, he moved to Copenhagen to seek employment as an actor, having an excellent soprano voice, he was accepted into the Royal Danish Theatre, but his voice soon changed. A colleague at the theatre told him that he considered Andersen a poet, taking the suggestion seriously, Andersen began to focus on writing. Jonas Collin, director of the Royal Danish Theatre, felt a great affection for Andersen and sent him to a school in Slagelse. Andersen had already published his first story, The Ghost at Palnatokes Grave, though not a keen pupil, he attended school at Elsinore until 1827. He said his years in school were the darkest and most bitter of his life, at one school, he lived at his schoolmasters home. There he was abused and was told that it was to improve his character and he said the faculty had discouraged him from writing in general, causing him to enter a state of depression.
A very early fairy tale by Andersen, called The Tallow Candle, was discovered in a Danish archive in October 2012, the story, written in the 1820s, was about a candle who did not feel appreciated. It was written while Andersen was still in school and dedicated to a benefactor, in 1829, Andersen enjoyed considerable success with the short story A Journey on Foot from Holmens Canal to the East Point of Amager. Its protagonist meets characters ranging from Saint Peter to a talking cat, Andersen followed this success with a theatrical piece, Love on St. Nicholas Church Tower, and a short volume of poems
After qualifying from Borgerdyd School in 1905, Gottlob attended the Technical School and the Royal Academy, graduating as an architect in 1914. At the time, he was one of the young neoclassicists who used to meet at the Free Architecture Society and he taught at the Technical School and was an assistant at the Royal Academys Building School. Between 1912 and 1923, he travelled to Greece, North Africa, Paris, after first working as an assistant at the Academys School of Architecture in 1917, he was appointed professor in 1924. In 1936, he succeeded Kristoffer Varming as royal building inspector and, in 1938, as a young man, Gottlob showed interest in classical architecture, influenced in part by the English Arts and Crafts movement. Works in the 1920s include a residence at 45 Dalgas Boulevard, but like his peers, he soon turned to Nordic Neoclassicism, appreciating its sober, contemporary style. This can be seen in his Danish Student Hostel in Paris, though it was hardly international modernism, it was something of a breakthrough for Scandinavia.
In designing Ørstedhus in 1934, Gottlob maintained some of the ideals, especially with the symmetry. Standing on the corner of Gyldenløvsgade and Vester Farimagsgade in Copenhagen and it is therefore not surprising that it was made of concrete and that, unusually for an office building, the facade remained uncovered. The windows were mounted in finely shaped frames and the pillars at the entrance were lined with stainless steel. Gottlobs designs for a series of Copenhagen schools represented a break with classicism, in Katrinedal School, the large central hall or aula served as an example for many Danish schools in subsequent years. Svagbørnsskole, constructed in conjunction with Skolen ved Sundet, has south-facing fully glazed windows, both schools have aulas, symbolising modernisms concern for light, air and nature. Gottlobs largest project was for the university buildings at Nørrefælled, the additions, which include the school of denstistry and the zoological museum, were completed in stages in the 1940s and the 1950s.
The area was conceived as an open park development where the played a important role. Gottlobs relatively low buildings, clad in travertine, respected the approach. As the architect responsible for the renewal of the two old bridges over Copenhagens harbour, he demonstrated his ability to combine attractive design with components created by engineers. Knippelsbro and Langebro, which such an important part in the city, are among the finest examples of 1930s modernism in Denmark. Other meaningful contributions by Gottlob in the 1930s were the furniture and he designed furniture for the Danish pavilion at the 1925 World Exhibition in Paris which was successfully exhibited by the cabinetmaker A. J. Iversen with whom he worked for a number of years. His furniture in a modern style could often be seen in the exhibitions at the Design Museum
H. C. Andersens Boulevard
Andersens Boulevard is the most densely trafficated artery in central Copenhagen, Denmark. The 1.3 km long six-lane street passes City Hall Square on its way from Jarmers Plads, from Jarmers Plads traffic continues along Gyldenløvegade which on the far side of The Lakes splits into Aaboulevard and Rosenørns Allé. It was inspired by Viennas Ringstraße as well as Haussmanns wide boulevards in Paris and its final course was determined in a plan from 1872. As it was not intended for traffic, most traffic to. In 1890, Vestre Boulevard was laid out as a promenade with an abundance of trees. When Lange Bridge was replaced with a new bridge in 1903, the Dante Column was installed in front of the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in 1922 and the surrounding section of the street was renamed Dantes Plads. During World War II, the central reservation was used for construction of bunkers. Soon after the war, the lanes were widened in response to increasing car traffic, in 1954, a new Lange Bridge opened as a direct continuation of Vestre Boulevard to release the pressure on the more narrow Vester Voldgade.
No.10 was built as an art school for women, Copenhagen Central Fire Station was built in 1898. The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters and the Carlsberg Foundation shares the building at No.35