British Railways, which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the state-owned company that operated most of the overground rail transport in Great Britain between 1948 and 1997. It was formed from the nationalisation of the "Big Four" British railway companies and lasted until the gradual privatisation of British Rail, in stages between 1994 and 1997. A trading brand of the Railway Executive of the British Transport Commission, it became an independent statutory corporation in 1962 designated as the British Railways Board; the period of nationalisation saw sweeping changes in the national railway network. A process of dieselisation and electrification took place, by 1968 steam locomotion had been replaced by diesel and electric traction, except for the Vale of Rheidol Railway. Passengers replaced freight as the main source of business, one third of the network was closed by the Beeching Axe of the 1960s in an effort to reduce rail subsidies. On privatisation, responsibility for track and stations was transferred to Railtrack and that for trains to the train operating companies.
The British Rail "double arrow" logo is formed of two interlocked arrows showing the direction of travel on a double track railway and was nicknamed "the arrow of indecision". It is now employed as a generic symbol on street signs in Great Britain denoting railway stations, as part of the Rail Delivery Group's jointly-managed National Rail brand is still printed on railway tickets; the rail transport system in Great Britain developed during the 19th century. After the grouping of 1923 under the Railways Act 1921, there were four large railway companies, each dominating its own geographic area: the Great Western Railway, the London and Scottish Railway, the London and North Eastern Railway and the Southern Railway. During World War I the railways were under state control, which continued until 1921. Complete nationalisation had been considered, the Railways Act 1921 is sometimes considered as a precursor to that, but the concept was rejected. Nationalisation was subsequently carried out after World War II, under the Transport Act 1947.
This Act made provision for the nationalisation of the network, as part of a policy of nationalising public services by Clement Attlee's Labour Government. British Railways came into existence as the business name of the Railway Executive of the British Transport Commission on 1 January 1948 when it took over the assets of the Big Four. There were joint railways between the Big Four and a few light railways to consider. Excluded from nationalisation were industrial lines like the Oxfordshire Ironstone Railway; the London Underground – publicly owned since 1933 – was nationalised, becoming the London Transport Executive of the British Transport Commission. The Bicester Military Railway was run by the government; the electric Liverpool Overhead Railway was excluded from nationalisation. The Railway Executive was conscious that some lines on the network were unprofitable and hard to justify and a programme of closures began immediately after nationalisation. However, the general financial position of BR became poorer, until an operating loss was recorded in 1955.
The Executive itself had been abolished in 1953 by the Conservative government, control of BR transferred to the parent Commission. Other changes to the British Transport Commission at the same time included the return of road haulage to the private sector. British Railways was divided into regions which were based on the areas the former Big Four operated in. Notably, these included the former Great Central lines from the Eastern Region to the London Midland Region, the West of England Main Line from the Southern Region to Western Region Southern Region: former Southern Railway lines. Western Region: former Great Western Railway lines. London Midland Region: former London Midland and Scottish Railway lines in England and Wales. Eastern Region: former London and North Eastern Railway lines south of York. North Eastern Region: former London and North Eastern Railway lines in England north of York. Scottish Region: all lines, regardless of original company, in Scotland; the North Eastern Region was merged with the Eastern Region in 1967.
In 1982, the regions were abolished and replaced by "business sectors", a process known as sectorisation. The Anglia Region was created in late 1987, its first General Manager being John Edmonds, who began his appointment on 19 October 1987. Full separation from the Eastern Region – apart from engineering design needs – occurred on 29 April 1988, it handled the services from Fenchurch Street and Liverpool Street, its western boundary being Hertford East and Whittlesea. The report, latterly known as the "Modernisation Plan", was published in January 1955, it was intended to bring the railway system into the 20th century. A government White Paper produced in 1956 stated that modernisation would help eliminate BR's financial deficit by 1962, but the figures in both this and the original plan were produced for political reasons and not based on detailed analysis; the aim was to increase speed, reliability and line capacity through a series of measures that would make services more attractive to passengers and freight operators, thus recovering traffic lost to the roads.
Important areas included: Electrification of principal main lines, in the Eastern Region, Birmingham to Liverpool/Manchester and Central Scotland Large-scale dieselisation to replace steam locomotives New passenger and freight rolling stock R
Abellio ScotRail, operating services under the name ScotRail, is the Dutch-owned national train operating company of Scotland. A subsidiary of Abellio, it has operated the ScotRail franchise since 1 April 2015. In November 2013, Transport Scotland announced that Abellio, FirstGroup, MTR Corporation and National Express had been shortlisted to bid for the new ScotRail franchise. In October 2014, the franchise was awarded to Abellio; the franchise will operate for 7 years with a 3-year extension available contingent on performance criteria being met. Abellio began operating the franchise on 1 April 2015 and it opened the Borders Railway on 6 September 2015. In June 2016, the RMT union announced that train guards would be going on strike several times during the summer months in protest at more driver only trains. Six 24-hour and three 48-hour strikes were held on ScotRail services during June and July 2016. An agreement was reached in September 2016, it was agreed that the new Class 385 trains will have the doors controlled by both the driver and guard, with the driver opening the doors and the guard closing them.
On 20 January 2017 the Managing Director of ScotRail and the ScotRail alliance stepped down from his role after 18 months in the company. Within a few days Alex Hynes was named as the new Managing Director. Abellio ScotRail took over all of the services operated by First ScotRail on 1 April 2015, except for the Caledonian Sleeper services, which were transferred to a separate franchise operated by Serco; the franchise agreement requires the introduction of'Great Scottish Scenic Railway' trains on the West Highland, Far North, Borders Railway and Glasgow South Western lines. Steam special services are promoted by Abellio ScotRail. Current off-peak services are as follows. Abellio ScotRail operates 352 stations in Scotland. Not included are Glasgow Prestwick Airport station and operated by the airport, as well as both Edinburgh Waverley and Glasgow Central, which are managed by Network Rail. Abellio ScotRail operates Lockerbie though none of its services call there, it took over management of Dunbar operated by Virgin Trains East Coast, in June 2015.
Abellio ScotRail's fleet is maintained at Edinburgh Haymarket, Glasgow Eastfield, Glasgow Shields Road, Corkerhill Glasgow Yoker, Ayr Townhead and Inverness as well as a newly built EMU stabling depot at Millerhill in Midlothian. Abellio ScotRail operates a diverse fleet of EMUs and loco-hauled stock. From Sunday 10 December 2017, Class 380 EMUs were introduced onto services between Glasgow and Edinburgh via Falkirk High; this was the first step in creating an electric service between the two cities, now expected to start in October 2018 with Class 385 EMUs, which should have entered service in December 2017, but have been delayed due to a windscreen fault. Abellio ScotRail began operations with the rolling stock below transferred from First ScotRail: Abellio ScotRail has mentioned the following as part of the future rolling stock. Abellio ScotRail were meant to introduce a brand new fleet of 46 three-car and 24 four-car Class 385 electric trains from December 2017, to operate services on the lines being electrified as part of the Edinburgh to Glasgow Improvement Programme.
However, due to infrastructure problems, issues with the trains involving software and windscreen issues, their introduction was delayed until September. In the meantime Abellio ScotRail hired 10 Class 365 units from Great Northern. If Abellio is granted a three-year optional franchise extension, it will order a further 10 three-car Class 385 units. From October 2018, Abellio ScotRail introduced former GWR HSTs on services between Edinburgh, Glasgow and Inverness, branded as "Inter7City" in reference to Scotland's seven main cities; the Mark 3 coaches, up to 40 years old, were intended to all have refurbished interiors and are fitted with powered doors. There will be 26 sets: 9 four-car trains; as with the Class 385’s there have been delays getting the refurbished trains into service. As a result a considerable number have been pressed in to service without refurbishment to allow for others to have refurbishment completed; this new rolling stock will result in ten Class 156, eight Class 158 and 21 Class 170 sets returning to their leasing companies when their leases expire in 2018.
Transport Scotland negotiated to retain an extra 13 Class 170s to support services through Fife to Aberdeen and the Borders railway. Northern will receive five of all the 158s and 16 of the 170s. In June 2018 it was announced that ScotRail will lease 5 Class 153 and reconfigure them to accommodate bikes and other outdoors sports equipment; the Class 153 will be attached to ScotRail Class 156s which will operate the line from Summer 2019 travelling between Glasgow, Fort William and Mallaig and may be introduced on Northern lines between Inverness, Kyle of Lochalsh and Wick. Media related to Abellio ScotRail at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat
Cathcart railway station
Cathcart railway station is a railway station serving the Cathcart area of Glasgow, Scotland. It is located on the Cathcart Circle Line, 3.7 miles south of Glasgow Central. Services are provided by Abellio ScotRail on behalf of Strathclyde Partnership for Transport; the station here was opened on 19 March 1894, shortly before the commissioning of the western side of the Cathcart Circle Lines on 2 April that year. It replaced an earlier temporary station opened in 1886, which served as the terminus of the line from Glasgow via Queens Park; the Caledonian Railway-backed Lanarkshire and Ayrshire Railway extension from Giffen to Newton was subsequently opened in 1904, which passed a short distance to the south of the station but was linked to it by a spur, which allowed through running from the Neilston direction towards Glasgow Central. The station could be served by local trains between Neilston & Uplawmoor and Glasgow Central as well as those in both directions around the Circle. Train services were progressively dieselised from 1958, prior to being electrified in May 1962.
As part of the electrification scheme, the track layout to the south was altered so that through running from the western side of the Circle towards Newton was possible, though these trains still could not call at Cathcart station itself. Services were henceforth operated by Class 303 Electric Multiple Units, with the similar Class 311 sets appearing; these were withdrawn from service in 2002 and replaced by Class 314 units, which are now used on most trains. The station is staffed on a part-time basis, with a ticket machine available for purchases outside these times. There is a waiting room in the main building, along with P. A system and digital information screens for train information provision. No step-free access is provided. Monday to Saturday two trains per hour were provided in each direction between Glasgow Central and Neilston, in each direction on the Cathcart Circle. There was no Sunday service. Seven days a week two trains per hour are provided in each direction between Glasgow Central and Neilston.
Additionally, on Mondays to Saturdays, one train per hour is provided in each direction on the Cathcart Circle. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Kernahan, Jack; the Cathcart Circle. Falkirk, Stirlingshire: Scottish Railway Preservation Society. ISBN 0-9043-9601-0. OCLC 85045869. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Nationalised Railway Atlas. Penryn, Cornwall: Atlantic Transport Publishers. ISBN 978-0-906899-99-1. OCLC 228266687
Motherwell railway station
Motherwell railway station serves Motherwell in North Lanarkshire, Scotland. It lies on the West Coast Main Line, is served by Argyle Line trains of the Glasgow suburban railway network, it is the penultimate stop on the northbound WCML before Glasgow. There are four platforms of various length in use at Motherwell; the station is located next to Motherwell Shopping Centre. The first station in Motherwell was opened by the Wishaw and Coltness Railway on 8 May 1843 and was located at Orbiston; as Orbiston station was quite some distance from the expanding Motherwell town centre, the decision was taken by the Caledonian Railway to build a station at'Lesmahagow Junction', the point where the Motherwell Deviation branch of the Caledonian Railway Main Line met the lines to Mossend and Lesmahagow. That Motherwell station was opened on 31 July 1885 on a site conveniently in the heart of the town which replaced the original station; the current station was built by British Rail during the 1970s on the same site of that more convenient one to coincide with the electrification of the West Coast Main Line.
It has four through platforms, crossed by two overbridges with the main buildings being above the level of the line between Platforms 2 and 3. At platform level between Platforms 2 and 3 there is a Abellio ScotRail traincrew depot, staff car park and an office of the British Transport Police; these are accessible via a gated rampway leading to street level. Beyond Platform 4 are some electrified sidings used for the stabling of trains overnight. Diagrams are nominally worked so that these units will only stay at Motherwell for one night before returning to their allocated depot. Local services departing to and from the station are provided by Abellio ScotRail and the majority of northbound services serve Glasgow Central, whilst southbound Argyle Line services terminate at Lanark or Carstairs; some services are provided by other operators. As of 2016 these are follows, Provide a 2 hourly service to both Glasgow Central and Manchester Airport Provide 8 trains per day with 4 trains per day to Glasgow Central and 4 trains per day to London Euston one of which operates via Birmingham.
Provide 1 train per day to both Glasgow Central and London Kings Cross Provide a regular service to Glasgow Central and Edinburgh Waverley with most eastbound services extending to Birmingham New Street, Bristol Temple Meads and Plymouth via Newcastle and Leeds. A limited number run beyond Plymouth through to Penzance. Provide limited services in addition to their normal services: There is 1 train per day to Edinburgh Waverley via Shotts, this returns in the evening. There are 2 trains per day to North Berwick, There is a 2 hourly service to Edinburgh Waverley via Carstairs - several of these run to/from Ayr A few peak time services operate to/from Carstairs Motherwell is unusual in that Glasgow Central can be reached via trains from three different platforms going in two different directions. Glasgow is north-west of Motherwell, but trains can depart via the West Coast Main Line and Motherwell Deviation going North, or by the Hamilton Circle going South; the same can be said for services to Lanark, south-east of Motherwell.
Trains can depart towards Lanark going south via Shieldmuir, or north via Holytown. During times of disruption such as the closure of the West Coast Main Line between Uddingston and Law Junction for engineering works, Virgin Trains services and those of CrossCountry can be diverted along the Hamilton Circle and Wishaw Deviation and will use Platforms 3 and 4. Trains provided by London North Eastern Railway will be suspended in this event as their drivers do not have the required route knowledge. In general, a replacement bus service will operate from Motherwell, passengers from Glasgow are advised to travel to Edinburgh via Glasgow Queen Street. Platform 1 is used for all southbound InterCity services as well as local services to Carstairs and Edinburgh. Services to Lanark use this platform every half hour. Lanark departures from this platform travel via Shieldmuir. Platform 2 is used for all northbound InterCity services to Glasgow Central as well as local northbound services to Glasgow Central from Edinburgh and Carstairs.
Services from Lanark to Glasgow Central via Bellshill use this platform. Platform 3 is used by services to Glasgow Central via Hamilton. Services on the Hamilton Circle line to Glasgow which have arrived via Whifflet use this platform. One train a day from Edinburgh via Shotts terminates here. In addition on Sundays,trains from Motherwell to Glasgow Central via Bellshill use this platform. Platform 4 is used by all services on the Hamilton Circle to Glasgow which have arrived via Hamilton, as well as those terminating here to return via Hamilton. Trains to Cumbernauld use this platform hourly. Train times and station information for Motherwell railway station from National Rail