Languedoc is a former province of France. Its territory is now contained in the modern-day region of Occitanie in the south of France, its capital city was Toulouse. It had an area of 42,700 square kilometers; the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis fell to the Visigothic Kingdom from the 5th to the 8th centuries. Occupied by the Emirate of Córdoba in the 750s, it was conquered and incorporated into the Kingdom of the Franks by Pippin the Short in 759 following the Siege of Narbonne. Under the Carolingians, the Counts of Toulouse were appointed by the royal court; this office became hereditary. Part of the territory where Occitan was spoken came to be called langue d'oc, Languedoc. In the 13th century, the spiritual beliefs of the area were challenged by the See of Rome and the region became attached to the Kingdom of France following the Albigensian Crusade; this crusade aimed to put an end to what the Church considered the Cathar heresy, enabled the Capetian dynasty to extend its influence south of the Loire.

As part of this process, the former principalities of Trencavel were integrated into the Royal French Domain in 1224. The Counts of Toulouse followed them in 1271; the remaining feudal enclaves were absorbed progressively up to the beginning of the 16th century. The territory falling within the jurisdiction of the Estates of Languedoc, which convened for the first time in 1346, shrank progressively, becoming known during the Ancien Régime as the province of Languedoc; the year 1359 marked a turning point in the history of the province. The three bailiwicks of Bèucaire and Tolosa had the status of bonnes villes. In that year, the three entered into a perpetual union, after which their contribution of royal officers was summoned jointly rather than separately for each of the three sénéchaussées. Towards the end of 14th century, the term "country of the three seneschalties" to become known as Languedoc, designated the two bailiwicks of Bèucaire-Nîmes and Carcassona, the eastern part of Tolosa, retained under the Treaty of Brétigny.

At that time, the County of Foix, which belonged to the seneschal of Carcassona until 1333 before passing to Toulouse, ceased to belong to Languedoc. In 1542, the province was divided into two généralités: Toulouse for Haut-Languedoc, Montpellier for Bas-Languedoc; this lasted until the French Revolution in 1789. From the 17th century onward, there was only one intendance for the whole of Languedoc, with its seat in Montpellier; the traditional provinces of the kingdom of France were not formally defined. A province was a territory of common traditions and customs, but it had no political organization. Today, when people refer to the old provinces of France, they are referring to the gouvernements as they existed in 1789, before the French Revolution. Gouvernements were military regions established by the Crown in the middle of the 16th century. However, in some cases, small provinces were merged with a large one into a single gouvernement, so gouvernements are not the same as the traditional provinces.

The region was called the County of Toulouse, a county independent from the kings of France. The County of Toulouse was made up of what would be called Languedoc, but it included the province of Quercy and the province of Rouergue, both to the northwest of Languedoc. At some times it included the province of Agenais to the west of Languedoc, the province of Gévaudan, the province of Velay, the southern part of the province of Vivarais, all the northern half of Provence. After the French conquest the entire county was dismantled, the central part of it being now called Languedoc; the gouvernement of Languedoc was created in the mid-16th century. In addition to Languedoc proper, it included the three small provinces of Gévaudan and Vivarais, these three provinces being to the northeast of Languedoc; some people consider that the region around Albi was a traditional province, called Albigeois, although it is most considered as being part of Languedoc proper. The provinces of Quercy and Rouergue, despite their old ties with Toulouse, were not incorporated into the gouvernement of Languedoc.

They were attached to the gouvernement of its far-away capital Bordeaux. This decision was intentional, to avoid reviving the independently spirited County of Toulouse. In the rest of this article, Languedoc refers to the territory of this gouvernement of Languedoc; the province of Languedoc covered an area of 42,700 km² in the central part of southern France the region between the river Rhône and the Garonne, extending northwards to the Cévennes and the Massif Central. As the center of the County of Toulouse and the regional parlement, Toulouse is considered the "capital" of Languedoc. On ma

Cameron Allan

Cameron Beck Allan was an Australian-born American-based composer, record producer and former label owner. In September 1978 he co-founded the record label Regular Records with fellow filmmaker Martin Fabinyi, their first signing was the new wave group Mental As Anything, their second was the pub rock band Flowers. Allan produced both groups' early work, his TV and film music compositions include Stir, The Umbrella Woman Kojak: Ariana, Kojak: Flowers for Matty. In 1986 he relocated to the United States and in July 1992 he married Margaret Wertheim, a science writer; the couple had separated by 2007. Cameron Allan died of liver failure, after a transplant, aged 57. Cameron Beck Allan was born on July 9, 1955, in Melbourne but grew up in Sydney with a younger brother, Richard, he attended Meadowbank Boys High School and the Sydney Conservatorium of Music. While at the conservatorium he became a member of David Ahern's AZ Music ensemble, which included fellow composers Alan Holley, Robert Irving and Carl Vine.

In July 1973 Allan published a classical music composition, Madrigal for String Orchestra, for a four-piece ensemble: violin, viola and double bass. During 1974 he provided the music arrangements for three episodes of the Australian Broadcasting Commission TV series Ten Australians, covering Fred Williams, Michael Taylor, Ron Robertson-Swann. By 1978 Allan had turned to filmmaking and teamed up with Martin Fabinyi to finance a film project, The Lipstick Killers. To raise money they formed Regular Records, in September of that year; the first artists they signed to the label was Mental As Anything, a Sydney-based new wave music group. Allan produced their debut three-track extended play, Mental As Anything Plays at Your Party. According to Fabinyi, "We had no experience in the record business; this didn't faze Cameron. He was obsessively optimistic. A friend at EMI gave us some time to record the band while Cameron learnt how to work the equipment." Allan produced Mental As Anything's first two full-length studio albums, Get Wet and Espresso Bongo.

Luis Feliu of The Canberra Times described how Get Wet "was recorded in Sydney and mixed in London by Cameron Allan, the band's producer, who did a great job. I couldn't pick a bad track on Get Wet and there's 14 of them."Regular Records' second signing was the pub rock band Flowers. At the TV Week / Countdown Music Awards for 1980 Allan was nominated for Best Australian Producer but lost out to Mark Opitz. Allan was the music director for the feature film Stir. Allan produced the Sports' fourth studio album, after their previous two were produced by Peter Solley. According to their guitarist, Martin Armiger, "Solley was an international producer, who jetted in, there was always a deadline of three or four weeks. In that situation you can't have a big argument. With Cameron, we knew. We had more time to get the sound we wanted." In 1983 Allan visited the United States, "to test the waters". In that decade he relocated to Los Angeles, where he worked as a TV and film music composer, although he returned to Australia.

In June 1984 he produced the self-titled album by singer-songwriter Broderick Smith, issued via Wheatley Records/RCA Records. The Canberra Times' Virginia Cook felt, " testifies to the successful marriage of soul and synthesiser, a marriage helped along by the expertise of producer... with the use of every synthesiser the production team could think of. Allan and Tim Kramer mixed the album using the Sony 1610 digital mastering system which, Smith said, gave his album a'clean sound'." Allan described his personal record collection to Meg Stewart of The Canberra Times, in February 1986, "Mainly classical and sound tracks. I used to own a pop company so there are a lot of pop records as well."Allan provided the music score for the Australian feature film The Umbrella Woman and the associated soundtrack album. At the 1987 AFI Awards he received another nomination for Best Original Music Score but lost to Paul Schütze, his work in America included music composition for The Equalizer for season four.

Allan worked on a documentary film, My Crasy Life, which he co-produced with Mark Daniels: it was written by French filmmaker Jean-Pierre Gorin and investigates the lives of Samoan Americans in Long Beach's streets. Cameron Allan's second marriage was to Margaret Wertheim on July 1992, in Minden, Nevada. Wertheim is an Australian-born American-based science writer. In 1998 Allan and Wertheim co-produced and co-directed a documentary, Faith & Reason, on the interaction between science and religion; the couple co-produced and co-directed It's Jim's World... We Just Live in It on the theories of fringe scientist Jim Carter. Allan composed its music and Wertheim was its writer. By 2007 the couple had separated. Cameron Allan was diagnosed with a liver disease, he received a transplant and died in June 2013, aged 57. Block Broderick Smith Ten Australians: Fred Williams (TV series, 197

Outlaws of the Rockies

Outlaws of the Rockies is a 1945 American Western film directed by Ray Nazarro and written by J. Benton Cheney; the film stars Charles Starrett, Tex Harding, Dub Taylor, Carole Mathews, Carolina Cotton and Spade Cooley. The film was released on September 1945, by Columbia Pictures. Charles Starrett as Steve Williams / The Durango Kid Tex Harding as Tex Harding Dub Taylor as Cannonball Carole Mathews as Jane Stuart Carolina Cotton as Carolina Cotton Spade Cooley as Spade Cooley Philip Van Zandt as Dan Chantry I. Stanford Jolley as Ace Lanning George Chesebro as Bill Jason Steve Clark as Potter Jack Rockwell as Sheriff Hall Frank LaRue as Drake James T. "Bud" Nelson as Pete Outlaws of the Rockies on IMDb