May Fourth Movement
The May Fourth Movement was an anti-imperialist and political movement which grew out of student participants in Beijing on 4 May 1919. They protested against the Chinese government's weak responses to the stipulations of the Treaty of Versailles it allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong, surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao in 1914. China had fallen victim to the expansionist policies of the Empire of Japan, which had conquered large areas of Chinese-controlled territory with the support of France, the UK, the US; this was finalized at the Treaty of Versailles. The demonstrations sparked national protests and marked an upsurge of Chinese nationalism, a shift towards political mobilization and away from cultural activities, a move towards a populist base rather than intellectual elites. Many of the radical political and social leaders of the next two decades emerged at this time; the term "May Fourth Movement" in a broader sense refers to the period during 1915–1921 more called the New Culture Movement.
"The atmosphere and political mood that emerged around 1919," in the words of Mitter, "are at the centre of a set of ideas that has shaped China's momentous twentieth century." Following the Xinhai Revolution in 1911, the Qing dynasty disintegrated. This marked the end of thousands of years of powerful imperial rule, theoretically ushered a new era in which political power rested with the people. However, the reality was that China was a fragmented nation dominated by warlords, who were more concerned with their own political powers and private armies than national interests; the Chinese Beiyang government was occupied with suppressing internal affairs and did little to counter the influence exerted by foreign powers. The March 1st Movement that happened in Korea in 1919, the Russian Revolution of 1917, defeats by foreign powers and the presence of spheres of influence inflamed a sense of Chinese nationalism among the emerging middle class and cultural leaders. Leaders of the New Culture Movement believed that traditional Confucian values were responsible for the political weakness of the nation.
Chinese nationalists called for a rejection of traditional values and the selective adoption of Western ideals of "Mr. Science" and "Mr. Democracy" in place of "Mr. Confucius" in order to strengthen the new nation; these iconoclastic and anti-traditional views and programs have shaped China's politics and culture down until the present. China had entered World War I on the side of the Allied Triple Entente in 1917 with the condition that all German spheres of influence, such as Shandong, would be returned to China. Although in that year 140,000 Chinese labourers were sent to France, the Versailles Treaty of April 1919 awarded German rights in Shandong Province to Japan; the representatives of the Chinese government put forth the following requests: abolition of all privileges of foreign powers in China, such as extraterritoriality cancelling of the "Twenty-One Demands" with the Japanese return to China of the territory and rights of Shandong, which Japan had taken from Germany during World War I.
The Western Allies dominated the meeting at Versailles, paid little heed to Chinese demands. Britain and France were interested in punishing Germany. Although the United States promoted Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points and the ideals of self-determination, they were unable to advance these ideals in the face of stubborn resistance by David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau and the U. S. Congress. American advocacy of self-determination at the League of Nations was attractive to Chinese intellectuals, but their failure to follow through was seen as a betrayal. Chinese diplomatic failure at the Paris Peace Conference touched off the May Fourth Movement, became known as the "Shandong Problem". On the morning of 4 May 1919, student representatives from thirteen different local universities met in Beijing and drafted five resolutions: to oppose the granting of Shandong to the Japanese under former German concessions. To draw awareness of China's precarious position to the masses in China. To recommend a large-scale gathering in Beijing.
To promote the creation of a Beijing student union. To hold a demonstration that afternoon in protest to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. On the afternoon of May 4 over 4,000 students of Yenching University, Peking University and other schools marched from many points to gather in front of Tiananmen, they shouted such slogans as "Struggle for the sovereignty externally, get rid of the national traitors at home", "Do away with the'Twenty-One Demands'", "Don't sign the Versailles Treaty". They voiced their anger at the Allied betrayal of China, denounced the government's spineless inability to protect Chinese interests, called for a boycott of Japanese products. Demonstrators insisted on the resignation of three Chinese officials they accused of being collaborators with the Japanese. After burning the residence of one of these officials and beating his servants, student protesters were arrested and beaten; the next day, students in Beijing as a whole went on strike and in the larger cities across China, patriotic merchants, workers joined protests.
The demonstrators skillfully appealed to the newspapers and sent representatives to carry the word across the country. From early June and businessmen in Shanghai went on strike as the center of the movement shifted from Beijing to Shanghai. Chancellors from thirteen universities arranged for the release of student prisoners, Cai Yuanpei, the principal of Peking University resigned in protest. Newspapers, magazines, ci
Red Guards were a mass student-led paramilitary social movement mobilized and guided by Mao Zedong in 1966 and 1967, during the first phase of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, which he had instituted. According to a Red Guard leader, the movement's aims were as follows: Chairman Mao has defined our future as an armed revolutionary youth organization... So if Chairman Mao is our Red-Commander-in-Chief and we are his Red Guards, who can stop us? First we will make China Maoist from inside out and we will help the working people of other countries make the world red... And the whole universe. Despite being met with resistance early on, the Red Guards received personal support from Mao, the movement grew. Mao made use of the group as propaganda and to accomplish goals such as destroying symbols of China's pre-communist past, including ancient artifacts and gravesites of notable Chinese figures. Moreover, the government was permissive of the Red Guards, allowed the Red Guards to inflict bodily harm on people viewed as dissidents.
The movement grew out of control coming into conflict with authority and threatening public security until the government made efforts to rein the youths in. The Red Guard groups suffered from in-fighting as factions developed among them. By the end of 1968, the group as a formal movement had dissolved; the first students to call themselves "Red Guards" in China were a group of students at the Tsinghua University Middle School who were given the name Red Guards to sign two big-character posters issued on 25 May – 2 June 1966. The students believed that the criticism of the play Hai Rui Dismissed from Office was a political issue and needed greater attention; the group of students, led by Zhang Chengzhi at Tsinghua University Middle School and Nie Yuanzi at Peking University wrote the posters as a constructive criticism of Tsinghua University and Peking University's administration, who were accused of harboring intellectual elitism and bourgeois tendencies. The Red Guards were denounced as counter-revolutionaries and radicals by the school administration and fellow students, were forced to secretly meet amongst the ruins of the Old Summer Palace.
Chairman Mao Zedong ordered that the manifesto of the Red Guards be broadcast on national radio and published in the People's Daily newspaper. This action gave the Red Guards political legitimacy, student groups began to appear across China. Due to the factionalism beginning to emerge in the Red Guard movement, Liu Shaoqi made the decision in early June 1966 to send in Communist Party of China work teams; these work groups were led by Zhang Chunqiao, head of China's Propaganda Department, were the attempt by the Party to keep the movement under its control. Rival Red Guard groups led by the sons and daughters of cadres were formed by these work teams to deflect attacks from those in positions of power towards bourgeois elements in society intellectuals. In addition, these Party-backed rebel groups attacked students with'bad' class backgrounds; these actions were all attempts by the CPC to preserve apparatus. Mao, concerned that these work teams were hindering the course of the Cultural Revolution, dispatched Chen Boda, Jiang Qing, Kang Sheng, others to join the Red Guards and combat the work teams.
In July 1966, Mao ordered the removal of the remaining work teams and condemned their'fifty days of White Terror'. The Red Guards were now free to organise without the restrictions of the Party and, within a few weeks, on the encouragement of Mao's supporters, Red Guard groups had appeared in every school in China. Mao expressed personal approval and support for the Red Guards in a letter to Tsinghua University Red Guards on 1 August 1966, he gave the movement a more public boost at a massive rally on 18 August at Tiananmen Square. Mao appeared atop Tiananmen wearing an olive green military uniform, the type favored by Red Guards, but which he had not worn in many years, he greeted 1,500 Red Guards and waved to 800,000 Red Guards and onlookers below. The rally was led by Chen Boda, Lin Biao gave a keynote speech. Red Guard leaders led by Nie Yuanzi gave speeches. A high school Red Guard put a red arm band inscribed with the characters for "Red Guard" on the Chairman, who stood for six hours; the 8-18 rally, as it was known, was the first of eight receptions the Chairman gave to Red Guards in Tienanmen in the fall of 1966.
It was this rally that signified the beginning of the Red Guards' involvement in implementing the aims of the Cultural Revolution. A second rally, held on 31 August, was led by Kang Sheng and Lin Biao donned a red arm band; the last rally was held on 26 November 1966. In all, the Chairman greeted eleven to twelve million Red Guards, most of whom traveled from afar to attend the rallies including one held on National Day 1966, which included the usual civil-military parade; the 11th Plenum of the CPC Central Committee had ratified the'Sixteen Articles' in August 1966, a document that stated the aims of the Cultural Revolution. It highlighted the role students would be asked to play in the movement. After the 18 August rally, the Cultural Revolution Group directed the Red Guards to attack the'Four Olds' of Chinese society. For the rest of the year, Red Guards marched across China in a campaign to eradicate the'Four Olds'. Old books and art were destroyed, museums were ransacked, streets were renamed with new revolutionary names and adorned with pictures and the sayi
Leo Ou-fan Lee
Leo Ou-fan Lee is a Chinese commentator and author, elected Fellow of Academia Sinica in 2002. Lee was a professor at Chinese University of Hong Kong, Princeton University, Indiana University, University of Chicago, University of California, Los Angeles, Harvard University. Lee has served as columnist of several publications, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, Hong Kong Economic Journal, Ming Pao, Muse. Lee was born in a wealthy and educated family in Taikang County, Henan in 1942. Both his father Li Yonggang and mother Zhou Yuan were educators, his given name "Ou-fan" is the Chinese version of the Greek god of music. Lee graduated from National Taiwan University, he first took a master's degree form University of Chicago, where he was inspired by T. H. Tsien to study Chinese literature, he went on to study at Harvard University, where his mentors included Benjamin I. Schwartz and John King Fairbank. received his Doctor of Arts degree from Harvard University, in 1970, majoring in history and East Asian languages.
After graduating he taught at Chung Chi College of Chinese University of Hong Kong, Princeton University, Indiana University, University of Chicago, University of California, Los Angeles, Harvard University. In 2002, Lee was elected Fellow of Academia Sinica. My Harvard University Years The Romantic Generation of Modern Chinese Writers Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1973. ISBN 0674779304 Voices from the Iron House: A Study of Lu Xun Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987. ISBN 0253362636 Shanghai Modern: The Flowering of a New Urban Culture in China, 1930–1945 1999, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-80551-4 City Between Worlds: My Hong Kong. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. 2008 ISBN 978-0-674-02701-5 An Intellectual History of Modern China, Merle Goldman and Leo Ou-fan Lee, Ed, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2002. ISBN 0521801206 Land Without Ghosts: Chinese Impressions of America From the Mid-Nineteenth Century to the Present. Translated and edited by R. David Arkush and Leo O. Lee.
Berkeley: University of California Press,1989. ISBN 978-0-520-06256-6 The Lyrical and the Epic: Studies of Modern Chinese Literature, Author: Jaroslav Průšek. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1980. ISBN 0253102839 The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China's May Fourth Project Milena Doleželová-Velingerová, Oldrich Kral, Graham Sanders Ed, Harvard University Asia Center, 2002. ISBN 978-0674007864 Musings: Reading Hong Kong and the World, Leo Lee Ou-fan, Muse Books/East Slope Publishing: Hong Kong, 2011. ISBN 978-988-15005-0-2 Lee was first wed to dancer Wang Xiaolan, the daughter of Hualing Nieh Engle and poet Paul Engle. After a turbulent divorce, he remarried in September 2000. Li Yuying, his second wife, the former wife of Deng Wenzheng; the couple was divorced, Lee has since remarried. Leo Ou-fan Lee on Kafka in China Goethe-Institut China, Online Magazine, October 2014
Mr Ma and Son
Mr Ma and Son is a satirical novel written by Chinese author Lao She, first serialized in 1929 in the journal Fiction Monthly. Lao She's third novel, it tells of the experiences of a Chinese father and his son in London after taking over the antique shop of his newly deceased brother; the novel is divided into five parts. It chronicles the experiences of a Chinese widower, Ma Zeren referred to in the text as Mr Ma, his son Ma Wei, as they journey to London to take over an antique shop left by Mr Ma's deceased brother, located near St Paul's Cathedral, they are recommended as lodgers to an English landlady, Mrs Wedderburn, by Mr Ma's English clergyman, Reverend Ely. In the course of the novel, Mr Ma and his son face anti-Chinese racism of all kinds, while Mr Ma falls in love with Mrs Wedderburn and Ma Wei falls for Mrs Wedderburn's daughter, Mary; the novel is an acerbic satire revealing both the West's prejudice against the Chinese and China's "failure to stand up for itself in the world", according to academic Julia Lovell.
Ma Zeren Ma Wei Li Zirong Reverend Ely Mrs Wedderburn Mary Wedderburn Catherine Ely
Dongcheng District, Beijing
The Dongcheng District of Beijing covers the eastern half of Beijing's urban core, including all of the eastern half of the Old City inside of the 2nd Ring Road with the northernmost extent crossing into the area within the 3rd Ring Road. Its 40.6 km2 area is further subdivided into 17 subdistricts. Settlement in the area dates back over a millennium, it did not formally become a district of the city until the establishment of the Republic of China in 1911. The name Dongcheng was first given to it in a 1958 reorganization. Dongcheng includes many of Beijing's major cultural attractions, such as the Forbidden City and Temple of Heaven, both UNESCO World Heritage Sites. More than a quarter of the city's Major National Historical and Cultural Sites are inside its boundaries, with a similar percentage of those protected at the municipal level. Tiananmen Square is in Dongcheng, along with other popular destinations for domestic and international tourists such as the bars and nightlife in the hutongs of Nanluoguxiang and the shopping in Wangfujing.
Over three-quarters of the district's economic activity is in the service sector. Dongcheng is described, depicted on simplified maps, as the eastern half of the area inside the 2nd Ring Road. However, the district boundaries include some areas outside it as well on the north and east. In the former direction a small projection crosses the 3rd Ring Road; the 2010 merger with Chongwen added some land beyond the Ring Road on the south. From Tiananmen Gate at the north end of the eponymous square the district boundary follows West Chang'an Avenue to Chang Street, where it turns north, taking in Zhongshan Park as it follows the western moat of the Forbidden City. At Wenzhin Street it turns eastward to follow Jingshan Front Street between the Forbidden City and Jingshan Park, it resumes its northward course along Jingshan East Street, turning west along Jingshan Back Street, thus leaving all of Jingshan in the Xicheng District to the west. At Di'anmen Inner Street it turns north again, following the east-west line that formally divided Beijing in the mid-15th century.
After a short turn to the west at the Bell and Drum Towers along Gulou West Street, it resumes its northward course along Jiugulou Street, which it follows north for several kilometers, past the 2nd Ring Road to Andeli Street North, where it turns west. At the street's end, the edge of Rendinghu Park, it follows the park edge to the northeast; the boundary turns east at Huangsi Street, following the rear property lines of buildings on the north side. It crosses the street again a block east of Gulou Outer Street, where it follows the northern edge of Liuyin Park. From the park's northeastern corner it goes due east to Andingmen Outer Street, where it turns north, it continues north across the 3rd Ring Road for a kilometer to Jian'an East Road, where it turns east, just south of Yuandadu Chengyuan Ruins Park. This is the district's northernmost section. After 500 m, it zigzags south and west again along local streets to Shenggu Middle Road. There it crosses the Ring Road again, continuing on Xiaohangzhuang North Street.
Another zigzag takes it along Xiaohangzhuang and Qingniangou roads to Heipingli East Street, where it turns south, to turn east again along Heiplingli North Street. At Jiaolin Alley it turns south again, following another irregular path through the neighborhoods here to just east of Minwang Hutong. At the river paralleling the Second Ring Road on its north, it turns east to follow that, cross under the Airport Expressway along Xiangheyuan Middle Street. A short section detours north to take in some of the buildings on the north side of Xiangheyuan Road, after which it returns to what is now Xiangheyuan North Street. Turning southeast along Zuojiazhuang West Street, the boundary turns to follow the north bank of the Landmark River eastward at the Chunxiu Road intersection; the river bends to the east and southeast, where a short tributary comes in 200 m west of Chunxiu. It follows that back to Chunxiu at its intersection with Dongzhimen Outer Street. Rejoining Chunxiu, the boundary stays with it for another 1 km to Beijing Workers' Stadium, where it becomes Workers' Stadium West Road, with Workers Indoor Arena on the east side.
At Dongyingfang Hutong, it turns west again. Following Jishikou East Road north for a block turning west on Panjiapao Hutong, a brief northward turn at Dongzhong Street brings it back to the Second Ring Road via Fuhua Dasha South Street. From that point the boundary follows the ring road south, with a few diversions to take in all of the exit ramps at the Jianguomen Street interchange and some open land at the Tonghui River to its south. At Longtan Park in the southeast corner of the district, it curves west with the road to form the district's southern boundary with the Fengtai District. Just past Temple of Heaven Park, in the Yongdingmen area, it leaves the ring road to take in a triangular area to the south that includes the Beijing South Railway Station at its eastern corner, it follows Yongdingmen and Qianmen streets due north back to the southern end of Tian'anmen Square. There it turns west then goes up the square's west road between the China Numismatic Museum and the Great Hall of the People.
At the square's north end is West Chang'an Avenue. Like most of Beijing, the district is level, with an elevation of 30–50 metres above sea level, reflecting the city's location on the North China Plain. There are a few significant bodies of wate
Nicholas Nickleby. Published as a serial from 1838 to 1839, it was Dickens's third novel; the novel centres on the life and adventures of Nicholas Nickleby, a young man who must support his mother and sister after his father dies. Nicholas Nickleby is Charles Dickens's third published novel, he returned to his favourite publishers and to the format, considered so successful with The Pickwick Papers. The story first appeared in monthly parts; the style is considered to be episodic and humorous, though the second half of the novel becomes more serious and plotted. Dickens began writing Nickleby while still working on Oliver Twist and while the mood is lighter, his depiction of the Yorkshire school run by Wackford Squeers is as moving and influential as those of the workhouse and criminal underclass in Twist. Nickleby marks a new development in a further sense; when it was published the book was an immediate and complete success and established Dickens's lasting reputation. The cruelty of a real Yorkshire schoolmaster named William Shaw became the basis for Dickens's brutal character of Wackford Squeers.
Dickens visited Shaw's school in Bowes and based the school section of Nicholas Nickleby on his visit. Like most of Dickens's early works, the novel had a contemporary setting. Much of the action takes place in London, with several chapters taking place in Dickens's birthplace of Portsmouth, as well as settings in Yorkshire and Devon; the tone of the work is that of ironic social satire, with Dickens taking aim at what he perceives to be social injustices. Many memorable characters are introduced, including Nicholas's malevolent Uncle Ralph, the villainous Wackford Squeers, who operates an abusive all-boys boarding school at which Nicholas temporarily serves as a tutor. Nicholas Nickleby's father dies unexpectedly after losing all of his money in a poor investment. Nicholas, his mother and his younger sister, are forced to give up their comfortable lifestyle in Devonshire and travel to London to seek the aid of their only relative, Nicholas's uncle, Ralph Nickleby. Ralph, a cold and ruthless businessman, has no desire to help his destitute relations and hates Nicholas, who reminds him of his dead brother, on sight.
He gets Nicholas a low-paying job as an assistant to Wackford Squeers, who runs the school Dotheboys Hall in Yorkshire. Nicholas is wary of Squeers because he is gruff and violent towards his young charges, but he tries to quell his suspicions; as Nicholas boards the stagecoach for Greta Bridge, he is handed a letter by Ralph's clerk, Newman Noggs. A once-wealthy businessman, Noggs lost his fortune, became a drunk, had no other recourse but to seek employment with Ralph, whom he loathes; the letter expresses concern for him as an innocent young man, offers assistance if Nicholas requires it. Once he arrives in Yorkshire, Nicholas comes to realise that Squeers is running a scam: he takes in unwanted children for a high fee, starves and mistreats them while using the money sent by their parents, who only want to get them out of their way, to pad his own pockets. Squeers and his monstrous wife whip and beat the children while spoiling their own son. Lessons are no better. While he is there, Nicholas befriends a "simple" boy named Smike, older than the other "students" and now acts as an unpaid servant.
Nicholas attracts the attention of Fanny Squeers, his employer's plain and shrewish daughter, who deludes herself into thinking that Nicholas is in love with her. She attempts to disclose her affections during a game of cards, but Nicholas doesn't catch her meaning. Instead he ends up flirting with her friend Tilda Price, to the consternation of both Fanny and Tilda's friendly but crude-mannered fiancé John Browdie. After being accosted by Fanny again, Nicholas bluntly tells her he does not return her affections and wishes to be free of the horrible atmosphere of Dotheboys Hall, earning her enmity. Fanny uses her new-found loathing of Nicholas to make life difficult for the only friend he has at the school: Smike, whom Squeers takes to beating more and more frequently. One day Smike is caught and brought back to Dotheboys. Squeers begins to beat him. Squeers strikes him across Nicholas snaps, beating the schoolmaster violently. During the fight, Fanny attacks Nicholas, hating him for rejecting her love.
Nicholas goes on to beat Squeers bloody. Packing his belongings and leaving Dotheboys Hall, he meets John Browdie on the way. Browdie finds the idea that Squeers himself has been beaten uproariously funny, gives Nicholas money and a walking staff to aid him on his trip back to London. At dawn, he is found by Smike. Nicholas and Smike set out towards London. Among other things, Nicholas wants to find out. Meanwhile and her mother are forced by Ralph to move out of their lodgings in the house of the kindly portrait painter Miss LaCreevy and into a cold and draughty house Ralph owns in a London slum. Ralph finds employment for Kate working for Madame Mantalini, her husband, Mr Mantalini, is a gigolo who depends on his wife to supply his extravagant tastes, offends Kate by leering at her. Kate proves clumsy at her job, which endears her to the head of the showroom, Miss Knag, a vain and foolish woman who uses
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim