SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Lao kip

The kip is the currency of Laos since 1955. One kip was divided into 100 att. In 1945–1946, the Free Lao government in Vientiane issued a series of paper money in denominations of 10, 20 and 50 att and 100 kip before the French authorities took control of the region; the kip was reintroduced in 1955. The kip was sub-divided into cents. Coins were issued in denominations of 10, 20 and 50 att or cents with Lao inscriptions. All had a hole in the centre, like the Chinese cash coins; the only year of issue was 1952. In 1953, the Laos branch of the Institut d'Emission des Etats du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam issued notes dual denominated in piastre and kip. At the same time, the two other branches had the similar arrangement with the riel in Cambodia and the đồng in South Vietnam. There were notes for 5, 100 and 100 kip/piastres. In 1957, the government issued notes denominated in kip; the notes were for 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 kip printed by the Security Banknote Company, 100 kip printed by the Banque de France and a commemorative 500 kip printed by Thomas De la Rue.

1 and 5 kip notes printed by Bradbury & Wilkinson, a 10 kip by De la Rue were introduced by 1962. In 1963, 20, 50, 200 and 1000 kip notes were added, all printed by De la Rue; these were followed by 500 and 5000 kip notes in 1974 -- 75, again by De La Rue. A 1975 10 kip by Bradbury & Wilkinson and a 1000 kip by De la Rue were printed but not circulated; the Pathet Lao kip was introduced sometime before 1976 in the areas which were under the control of the Pathet Lao. Banknote denominations of 1, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 kip were issued; the notes were printed in China. In 1976, the Pathet Lao kip replaced the Royal kip throughout Laos following the Pathet Lao's take over of the country; the exchange rate between the two kip was 1 Pathet Lao kip = 20 royal kip. On 16 December 1979, the old Pathet Lao “Liberation” kip was replaced by the new Lao kip at a rate of 100 to 1. Coins were again issued in Laos for the first time in 28 years in 1980 with denominations of 10, 20 and 50 att, with each being struck in aluminum and depicting the state emblem on the obverse and agricultural themes on the reverse.

These were followed by commemorative 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 kip coins issued in 1985 for the 10th anniversary of the establishment of the Lao People's Democratic Republic. However, due to the economic toll of the Soviet collapse in 1991 and the persistence of chronic inflation, there are no coins in circulation in Laos. In 1979, banknotes were introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 kip. 500 kip notes were added in 1988, followed by 1000 kip in 1992, 2000 and 5000 kip in 1997, 10,000 and 20,000 kip in 2002 and 50,000 kip on January 17, 2006. On November 15, 2010 a 100,000 kip banknote was issued to commemorate the 450th anniversary of the founding of the capital and the 35th anniversary of the establishment of the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Kaysone Phomvihane is pictured on the obverse of the 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 50,000, 100,000 kip banknotes; the Bank of Laos governor announced on January 25, 2012 that the Bank of Laos would issue 100,000 Kip banknotes as a regular issue on February 1, 2012 to encourage Lao people to use the national currency instead of U.

S. dollars and Thai baht

Nieuw-Lekkerland

Nieuw-Lekkerland is a town and former municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. It is situated on the southern shores of the Lek River, in the north-western part of the Alblasserwaard; the former municipality covered an area of 12.77 km². Since 2013 Nieuw-Lekkerland has been a part of the new municipality of Molenwaard; the former municipality included the population centres of Kinderdijk. The town's name evolved over time: in 1280 Leckerlant, in 1331 Niewe Leckerland, in 1903 Nieuw Lekkerland, it means "land of or near the river Lek" with the addition of "nieuw" to distinguish it from Old Lekkerland across the river. The name Nieue-Leckelant appears for the first time around 1325 and distinguishes it from Oudt-Leckelant; the most notable building used to be Castle Schoonenburg. Because of its elevated location on a mount, it served as a refuge for the people during floods before the reclamation of the Alblasserwaard. After 1456, the castle became a ruin, its remains were thereafter used to rebuild a church tower.

Only the mount is still visible. The Reformed Church is from 1848, its economy was based on agriculture, cattle raising, fishing. In the 19th century ship building and industry developed, resulting in an increasing population: from 770 in 1820, 1153 in 1840, 2000 in 1867, to 9400 in 2004. Till 2013, Nieuw-Lekkerland was one of the few remaining municipalities in the Alblasserwaard that never merged with any other municipality; the retirement home on the Lek dike was built in 1885, designed by Aart den Boer. Commissioned as a dike management house by Mr. Leendert Smit Fopzoon, Ambachtsheer van Nieuw-Lekkerland and his spouse Neeltje Smit; the eclectic-styled building has space for a landlord. The basement houses the kitchen, the ground floor holds the common room and the second floor contains the room of the regent. Nieuw-Lekkerland had the second highest Natural Growth Rate of Population in Netherlands in 2007, but the birth rate is falling and approaching below replaceable fertility. Birth Rate: 15.57 per 1000 Death Rate: 3.49 per 1000 NGR: +1.21% per year.

Plattegronden.nl

HMS Nelson (1814)

HMS Nelson was a 126-gun first rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 4 July 1814 at Woolwich Dockyard, but laid up incomplete at Portsmouth until 1854, when work began with a view to commissioning her for service in the Crimean War, but this ended before much work had been done, the ship returned to reserve. She was converted into a screw ship in 1860, being cut down to a two-decker and fitted with an engine of 2,102 indicated horsepower for a speed of 10.5 knots. In 1865, Nelson was given to the colony of Victoria as a training ship, she was outfitted and rigged for £42,000 and sailed for Australia in October 1867. Travelling via the Cape of Good Hope, she arrived in February 1868, she was the first ship to dock in the newly constructed Alfred Graving Dock. Her armament in 1874 was listed as two 7-in RML, twenty 64 lb guns, twenty 32 lb guns and six 12 lb howitzers. During 1879–1882, Nelson was further cut down to a single deck and her rig reduced to the main mast only, the ship being reclassified as a frigate.

Her old armament was replaced by modern breech-loaders. She was laid up at Willamstown in 1891, her boilers being removed in 1893. On 28 April 1898 she was put up for auction and sold to Bernard Einerson of Sydney for £2,400. In 1900 Nelson was cut down yet again to create a coal lighter that kept the name Nelson, the upper timbers being used to build a drogher named Oceanic. In 1908 Nelson was sold to the Union Steamship Co. of New Zealand, in July was towed from Sydney to Beauty Point on the Tamar River, for use as a coal storage hulk. She foundered there with 1,400 tons of coal on board and remained submerged for forty days until refloated. In January 1915 she was towed to Hobart for further service as a coal hulk, until sold in August 1920 to Mr. H Gray for £500 and towed an up river to Shag Bay for gradual breaking up, work continuing into the 1930s, although some of her timbers still survive; the ship's figurehead was preserved by the NSW Naval Brigade the Royal Australian Navy, before it was presented to the Australian National Maritime Museum for display.

Several RML 64-pounder 58 cwt guns from Nelson can be found scattered around the State of Victoria, Australia in public areas, as well as two on military premises at Victoria Barracks and one at Fort Queenscliff. HMVS Nelson SlideShow