Laos the Lao People's Democratic Republic referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao, is a socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia. Located at the heart of the Indochinese peninsula, Laos is bordered by Myanmar and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southeast and Thailand to the west and southwest. Present Laos traces historic and cultural identity to the kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao, which existed from the mid-fourteenth century to early eighteenth century as one of the largest kingdoms in Southeast Asia. Due to its central geographical location in Southeast Asia, the kingdom became a hub for overland trade, turned wealthy economically and culturally. After a period of internal conflict, Lan Xang broke off into three separate kingdoms—Luang Phrabang and Champasak. In 1893, the three territories came under French protectorate and were united to form what is now known as Laos, it gained independence in 1945 after Japanese occupation, but was recolonised by France until it won autonomy in 1949.

Laos became independent with a constitutional monarchy under Sisavang Vong. A post-independence civil war began, which saw the communist resistance, supported by the Soviet Union and North Vietnam, fight against the monarchy that came under influence of military regimes supported by the United States. After the Vietnam War ended in 1975, the communist Pathet Lao movement came to power, ending the civil war and establishing a one-party state. Laos was dependent on military and economic aid from the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991. In 2018, the country had the fourth highest GDP per capita in Southeast Asia, after Singapore and Thailand. In the same year, the country ranked 139th on the Human Development Index, indicating medium development. Laos is a member of the Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement, ASEAN, East Asia Summit, La Francophonie. Laos applied for membership of the World Trade Organization in 1997, it is a one-party socialist republic, espousing Marxism–Leninism governed by the Lao People's Revolutionary Party.

The capital and largest city in Laos is Vientiane. Other major cities include Luang Prabang and Pakse. Laos is a multi-ethnic country, with the politically and culturally dominant Lao people making up about 55 percent of the population in the lowlands. Mon-Khmer groups, the Hmong, other indigenous hill tribes, accounting for 45 percent of the population, live in the foothills and mountains. Laos's strategies for development are based on generating electricity from its rivers and selling the power to its neighbours, namely Thailand and Vietnam, as well as its initiative to become a "land-linked" nation, shown by the construction of four new railways connecting Laos to its neighbours. Laos has been referred to as one of Southeast Asia and Pacific's Fastest Growing Economies by the World Bank with annual GDP growth averaging 7.7% since 2009. The English word Laos was coined by the French, who united the three Lao kingdoms in French Indochina in 1893 and named the country as the plural of the dominant and most common ethnic group, which are the Lao people.

English speakers sometimes mispronounce "Laos", falsely believing that it should be pronounced with a silent's', however the's' in Laos is never silent. In the Lao language, the country's name is "Muang Lao" or "Pathet Lao", both mean "Lao Country". An ancient human skull was recovered from the Tam Pa Ling Cave in the Annamite Mountains in northern Laos. Stone artifacts including Hoabinhian types have been found at sites dating to the Late Pleistocene in northern Laos. Archaeological evidence suggests an agriculturist society developed during the 4th millennium BC. Burial jars and other kinds of sepulchers suggest a complex society in which bronze objects appeared around 1500 BC, iron tools were known from 700 BC; the proto-historic period is characterised by contact with Indian civilizations. According to linguistic and other historical evidence, Tai-speaking tribes migrated southwestward to the modern territories of Laos and Thailand from Guangxi sometime between the 8th–10th centuries. Laos traces its history to the kingdom of Lan Xang, founded in the 14th century by a Lao prince, Fa Ngum, whose father had his family exiled from the Khmer Empire.

Fa Ngum, with 10,000 Khmer troops, conquered many Lao principalities in the Mekong River Basin, culminating in the capture of Vientiane. Ngum was descended from a long line of Lao kings, he made Theravada Buddhism Lan Xang prospered. Within 20 years of its formation, the kingdom expanded eastward to Champa and along the Annamite mountains in Vietnam, his ministers, unable to tolerate his ruthlessness, forced him into exile to the present-day Thai province of Nan in 1373, where he died. Fa Ngum's eldest son, Oun Heuan, ascended to the throne under the name Samsenthai and reigned for 43 years. Lan Xang became an important trade centre during Samsenthai's reign, but after his death in 1421 it collapsed into warring factions for 100 years. In 1520, Photisarath came to the throne and moved the capital from Luang Prabang to Vientiane to avoid a Burmese invasion. Settathirath became king in 1548, after his father was killed, ordered the construction of what becam

Teachings of the Seven Grandfathers

Among the Anishinaabe people, the Teachings of the Seven Grandfathers known as either the Seven Teachings or Seven Grandfathers, is a set of teachings on human conduct towards others. Originating from traditional Anishinaabe teachings from elders, Edward Benton-Banai describes an in-depth understanding of what each means, in his novel "The Mishomis Book". Benton-Banai's book is an example of contemporary Anishinaabe teachings to be used in contemporary situations. In Edward Benton-Banai's story "The Mishomis Book" it is stated that the aadizookaan or the teachings of the seven grandfathers were given to the Anishinaabeg early in their history. Seven Grandfathers asked their messenger to take a survey of the human condition. At that time the human condition was not good. In his quest, the messenger came across a child. After receiving approval from the Seven Grandfathers, tutored the child in the "Good way of Life". Before departing from the Seven Grandfathers, each of the Grandfathers instructed the child with a principle.

A thorough re-formulation of a variety of ancient Anishinaabe/Midewiwin teachings on the ethics of proper behaviour and conduct. Benton-Banai manages to incorporate many traditional teachings into his story about the Seven Grandfather Teachings. Benton-Banai succeeds in showing how an Anishinaabe Traditional Teacher can borrow from traditional teachings and recombine and change them to make them relevant to contemporary issues faced by Anishinaabe people. Nibwaakaawin—Wisdom: To cherish knowledge is to know Wisdom. Wisdom is given by the Creator to be used for the good of the people. In the Anishinaabe language, this word expresses not only "wisdom," but means "prudence," or "intelligence." In some communities, Gikendaasowin is used. Zaagi'idiwin—Love: To know peace is to know Love. Love must be unconditional; when people are weak they need love the most. In the Anishinaabe language, this word with the reciprocal theme /idi/ indicates that this form of love is mutual. In some communities, Gizhaawenidiwin is used, which in most context means "jealousy" but in this context is translated as either "love" or "zeal".

Again, the reciprocal theme / idi / indicates. Minaadendamowin—Respect: To honor all creation is to have Respect. All of creation should be treated with respect. You must give respect; some communities instead use Manazoonidiwin. Aakode'ewin—Bravery: Bravery is to face the foe with integrity. In the Anishinaabe language, this word means "state of having a fearless heart." To do what is right when the consequences are unpleasant. Some communities instead use either Zoongide'ewin. Gwayakwaadiziwin—Honesty: Honesty in facing a situation is to be brave. Always be honest in word and action. Be honest first with yourself, you will more be able to be honest with others. In the Anishinaabe language, this word can mean "righteousness." Dabaadendiziwin—Humility: Humility is to know yourself as a sacred part of Creation. In the Anishinaabe language, this word can mean "compassion." You are equal to others. Some communities instead express this with Bekaadiziwin, which in addition to "humility" can be translated as "calmness," "meekness," "gentility" or "patience."

Debwewin—Truth: Truth is to know all of these things. Speak the truth. Do not deceive yourself or others. Seven Laws of Noah—Seven universal teachings in Judaism Virtue Okichitaw Traditional Teaching Narratives in the Eastern Upper Peninsula of Michigan by Mary Magoulick Seven Teachings from Grand Council of Treaty 3 Cultural Teachings from Nishnawbe Aski Nation Re-telling the "Seven Grandfather" by Don Able Rekindling the Spirit: The Rebirth of American Indian Spirituality — The Seven Grandfathers from Minnesota Public Radio Audio files from Little River Band of Ottawa Indians, Anishinaabemowin Program The Seven Teachings of the Anishinaabe by Cindy O'Hora Benton-Banai, Edward; the Mishomis Book: The Voice of the Ojibway. Hayward, WI: Indian Country Communications, 1988

Fun on a Bun

"Fun on a Bun" is the eighth episode of the seventh season of the animated sitcom Futurama. It aired on Comedy Central on August 1, 2012; the episode was directed by Stephen Sandoval. Professor Farnsworth takes the Planet Express crew to Germany for Oktoberfest. Fry is disappointed to discover that the celebration has become much more refined since the 20th century, he gets intoxicated and performs "The Chicken Dance", embarrassing his fellow workers Leela, who breaks up with him. Meanwhile, Bender discovers that Elzar is there, ready to win the sausage-making challenge using pork, aged over 3000 years. Bender is determined to win the event, takes a despondent Fry with him in the Planet Express ship to look for woolly mammoths frozen in a nearby glacier within Neander Valley, believing that meat aged over 30,000 years should win. Bender is successful at finding a woolly mammoth, with Fry's help, proceeds to grind the woolly mammoth into sausages. Bender is unaware; as the rest of the crew tastes Bender's sausages, they find traces of Fry's hair and clothing, assume he has been killed and made into sausage meat.

Leela is so upset that she decides to have all of her memories of Fry removed from her working memory. The Planet Express crew do their best to avoid mentioning Fry to Leela after this process. A flashback shows that Fry had managed to pull himself out of the shredder in time, losing his clothes and some hair in the process, he falls down a deep pit, hits his head, is frozen. Fry is soon discovered by a lost society of Neanderthal cavemen and other prehistoric animals that have lived within the glacier for more than 30,000 years; these Neanderthals were long ago driven into exile by the emerging Homo sapiens. The fall, having given Fry both amnesia and an enlarged Neanderthal-like brow, leaves him unaware of his past, he joins the tribe, he and Leela see certain objects that remind them both of each other, though they still cannot remember who the other is. Fry soon convinces the Neanderthals to return to the surface through a hole found in the ice. At Oktoberfest, Bender is dissatisfied. Fry leads the Neanderthals out of the pit, they attack the attendees of Oktoberfest with woolly mammoths, a woolly rhinoceros, a Megatherium.

Bender uses the chaos of the attack to secretly dispose of the chefs that won first and second place, so that he can be the first-place winner. Zapp Brannigan tries to attack from his ship only for the Neanderthals to catapult a saber-toothed cat into the ship, causing it to crash; the battle culminates with Leela having a face-off on the deck of the Planet Express Ship. The pair, still lacking memories of each other make peace with each other and embrace in a kiss; the two warring sides are inspired by this act of affection and decide to end the conflict before Fry and Leela's memories are restored. A new and much-less-refined Oktoberfest celebration is restarted and the episode ends as Fry sits back while Leela performs the "Chicken Dance", allowing her to embarrass him for a change; the episode is set in a futuristic Oktoberfest, which has evolved into a highbrow event. The futuristic Oktoberfest is located in the Neander Valley, located in the German state North Rhine-Westphalia. Although the real Oktoberfest is held in Munich, Bavaria.

Leela's visit to the memory eraser Annie's Forgettery parodies the premise of Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, where the character Clementine visits a clinic called Lacuna, Inc. to erase the memories of her relationship with Jim Carrey's character Joel. The episode includes two original songs by Denton, Texas-based nuclear polka band Brave Combo plus a cover version of "The Chicken Dance". Sight gag at end celebration feast, referring to the closing credits of The Flintstones with large order of'Ribs' served including the table tipping over. Bender receives a message via Raven in a reference to Game of Thrones with Scruffy playing the part of a Maester of the Citadel. Two weeks after the show was aired, a scientific debate was raised about whether the early homo-sapiens have mated with Neanderthals or not, due to recent discoveries; when amnesiac Fry & Leela are fighting each other on the Planet Express Ship, Fry's neanderthal garb and fighting style are that of San's first appearance in Princess Mononoke.

Fry and Leela's not knowing each other at that moment, their underlying attraction to each other, engaging each other in a fight, are additional themes inspired from Princess Mononoke's protagonist and hero. Fry leads the Neanderthal assault while riding on a mammoth, referencing Hannibal's invasion of Rome with war-elephants. Zack Handlen from The A. V. Club gave the episode a B grade. Max Nicholson of IGN an 8/10 "Great" rating, stating the episode was one of the most memorable of the season. "Fun on a Bun" on IMDb "Fun on a Bun" at "Fun on a Bun" at the Infosphere, the Futurama Wiki