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Laotian Civil War

The Laotian Civil War was a civil war in Laos fought between the Communist Pathet Lao and the Royal Lao Government from 23 May 1959 to 2 December 1975. It is associated with the Cambodian Civil War and the Vietnam War, with both sides receiving heavy external support in a proxy war between the global Cold War superpowers, it is called the Secret War among the CIA Special Activities Division and Hmong veterans of the conflict. The Kingdom of Laos was a covert theater for other belligerents during the Vietnam War; the Franco–Lao Treaty of Amity and Association transferred remaining French powers to the Royal Lao Government, establishing Laos as an independent member of the French Union. However, this government did not include representatives from the Lao Issara anti-colonial armed nationalist movement; the following years were marked by a rivalry between the neutralists under Prince Souvanna Phouma, the right wing under Prince Boun Oum of Champassak, the left-wing Lao Patriotic Front under Prince Souphanouvong and half-Vietnamese future Prime Minister Kaysone Phomvihane.

Several attempts were made to establish coalition governments, a "tri-coalition" government was seated in Vientiane. The actual fighting in Laos involved the North Vietnamese Army, U. S. troops and Thai forces and South Vietnamese army forces directly and through irregular proxies in a struggle for control over the Laotian Panhandle. The North Vietnamese Army occupied the area to use for its Ho Chi Minh Trail supply corridor and as staging area for offensives into South Vietnam. There was a second major theater of action near the northern Plain of Jars; the North Vietnamese and Pathet Lao emerged victorious in 1975, as part of the general communist victory in all of former French Indochina that year. A total of up to 300,000 people from Laos fled to neighboring Thailand following the Pathet Lao takeover. After the communists took power in Laos, Hmong rebels fought the new government; the Hmong were persecuted as traitors and "lackeys" of the Americans, with the government and its Vietnamese allies carrying out human rights abuses against Hmong civilians.

The incipient conflict between Vietnam and China played a role with Hmong rebels being accused of receiving support from China. Over 40,000 people died in the conflict; the Lao royal family were arrested by the Pathet Lao after the war and sent to labor camps, where most of them died in the late 1970s and 1980s, including King Savang Vatthana, Queen Khamphoui, Crown Prince Vong Savang. The Geneva Conference established Laotian neutrality; the People's Army of Vietnam, continued to operate in both northern and southeastern Laos. There were repeated attempts from 1954 onward to force the North Vietnamese out of Laos, but regardless of any agreements or concessions, Hanoi had no intention of withdrawing from the country or abandoning its Laotian communist allies. North Vietnam established the Ho Chi Minh trail as a paved highway in southeast Laos paralleling the Vietnamese border; the trail was designed to transport North Vietnamese troops and supplies to the Republic of Vietnam, as well as to aid the National Liberation Front.

North Vietnam had a sizable military effort in northern Laos, while sponsoring and maintaining an indigenous communist rebellion, the Pathet Lao, to put pressure on the Royal Lao Government. The U. S. Central Intelligence Agency, in an attempt to disrupt these operations in northern Laos without direct military involvement, responded by training a guerrilla force of about thirty thousand Laotian hill tribesmen local Hmong tribesmen along with the Mien and Khmu, led by Royal Lao Army General Vang Pao, a Hmong military leader; this army, supported by the CIA proprietary airline Air America, the Royal Lao Air Force, a covert air operation directed by the United States ambassador to Laos, fought the People's Army of Vietnam, the National Liberation Front, their Pathet Lao allies to a seesaw stalemate aiding U. S. interests in the war in Vietnam. The status of the war in the north throughout the year depended on the weather; as the dry season started, in November or December, so did North Vietnamese military operations, as fresh troops and supplies flowed down out of North Vietnam on newly passable routes, either down from Dien Bien Phu, across Phong Saly Province on all-weather highways, or on Route 7 through Ban Ban, Laos on the northeast corner of the Plain of Jars.

The CIA's covert operation's clandestine army would give way, harrying the PAVN and Pathet Lao as they retreated. When the rainy season six months rendered North Vietnamese supply lines impassable, the Vietnamese communists would recede toward Vietnam; the war in the southeastern panhandle against the Ho Chi Minh Trail was a massive air interdiction program by the USAF and United States Navy because political constraints kept the trail safe from ground assault from South Vietnam. Raven FACs directed air strikes in the southeast. Other Forward Air Controllers from South Vietnam, such as Covey FACs from the 20th Tactical Air Support Squadron and Nail FACs from the 23rd Tactical Air Support Squadron directed strikes. Other air strikes were planned ahead. Overall coordination of the air campaign was directed by an Airborne Command and Control Center, such as those deployed in Operation Igloo White; the existence of the conflict in Laos was sometimes reported in the U. S. and described in press reports as the CIA's "Secret War in

Noel Hush

Noel Sydney Hush AO FRS FNAS FAA FRACI FRSN was an Australian chemist at the University of Sydney. Hush was born in Sydney on 15 December 1924 and obtained his degrees at the University of Sydney, where he worked as a Research Fellow in the Department of Chemistry, he accepted an invitation from M. G. Evans FRS to work in England as an Assistant Lecturer at the University of Manchester in the department created by Michael Polanyi, he was subsequently Lecturer and Reader in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Bristol. He returned to Australia in 1971 to found The Department of Theoretical Chemistry at the University of Sydney, the first such department in Australia; this became established as a centre for excellence in teaching, from undergraduate to postdoctoral level, research. In 1989 he became Emeritus Professor engaged in full-time research, he has held numerous prestigious visiting scientist positions at universities in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.

A unifying theme of Hush's research is elucidation of chemical electron transfer. This is the basis of oxidation-reduction processes, which are ubiquitous in Nature in both the inorganic and biological spheres; the mechanism of these reactions - the simplest of which proceed without making or breaking chemical bonds - remained unknown until the mid nineteen-fifties, when several independent theoretical studies showed that it was due to modulation of coupling between electronic and vibrational motions. According to his Royal Society election citation, Hush's research in the area of homogeneous and heterogeneous electron transfer showed that electron transfer occurring during a collision between a molecule and either another molecule or else an electrode surface occurs adiabatically on a continuous potential-energy surface, that electron transfer can occur by either optical or thermal mechanisms with the corresponding rates being connected. Figure 1 sketches the basic elements of adiabatic electron-transfer theory.

Two chemical species labelled D and A become a distance R apart, either through collisions, covalent bonding, location in a material, protein or polymer structure, etc. These species have different chemical bonding environments and they polarize any surrounding condensed media. A key feature is. Electron-transfer theories specify equations describing the rate of charge transfer processes that utilize these different charged states. All electrochemical reactions occur by this mechanism. Adiabatic electron-transfer theory stresses that intricately coupled to such charge transfer is the ability of any D-A system to absorb or emit light. Hence fundamental understanding of any electrochemical process demands simultaneous understanding of the optical processes that the system can undergo. Figure 2 sketches what happens if light is absorbed by just one of the chemical species, taken to be the charge donor; this produces an excited state of the donor. As the donor and acceptor are close to each other and surrounding matter, they experience a coupling V D A.

If the free energy change Δ G 0 is favorable, this coupling facilitates primary charge separation to produce D+-A−, producing charged species. In this way, solar energy is converted to electrical energy; this process is typical of natural photosynthesis as well as modern organic photovoltaic and artificial photosynthesis solar-energy capture devices. The inverse of this process is used to make organic light-emitting diodes. Unifying standard electrochemical electron-transfer processes with this type of solar energy harvesting, adiabatic electron-transfer theory depicts a third application in which the donor and acceptor are both involved in light absorption, as sketched in Figure 3. Here, light absorption directly leads to charge separation D+-A−. Hush's theory for this process considers the donor-acceptor coupling V D A, the energy λ required to rearrange the atoms from their initial geometry to the preferred local geometry and environment polarization of the charge-separated state, the energy change Δ G 0 associated with charge separation.

In the weak-coupling limit, Hush showed that the rate of light absorption is given from the Einstein equation by k ∝ V D A 2 R 2 λ + Δ G 0. … This theory explained how the worlds first modern synthetic dye, Prussian blue absorbes light, creating the field of intervalence charge transfer spectroscopy. Hush's theory provides theoretical underpinning for the Robin-Day classification system for mixed-valence systems. Mixed valence is widespread in chemistry, from superconductors to minerals, magnetic molecular clusters and enzymes, it occurs when the same chemical species is found in two formally different oxidation states in the same system. The synthesis of the mixed-valenc

Nikolay Kun

Nikolay Albertovich Kun was a Russian historian and educator. He is best known for his book Greek Myths and Legends, popular with readers in the Soviet Union. First published in 1914, it has been republished many times since and translated into a number of European languages. After graduating from Moscow University in 1903, he worked in a women's seminary in Tver, went to Germany in 1905 where he worked for one year in the Berlin University came back to Tver to give lectures on the history of culture in the Tver People's University. Since 1908 he lectured in several Moscow universities, he spent 1911 and 1912 in Rome making excursions to museums for Russian teachers and giving lectures on the arts of ancient Greece and Rome. In 1915 he was appointed professor of history at the Moscow City People's University, professor of social science at the Moscow University in 1920. Since 1933 he was one of the editors of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia and the Small Soviet Encyclopedia, he died in 1940. Nikolay Kun