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Flying and gliding animals

A number of animals have evolved aerial locomotion, either by powered flight or by gliding. Flying and gliding animals have evolved separately many times, without any single ancestor. Flight has evolved at least four times, in the insects, pterosaurs and bats. Gliding has evolved on many more occasions; the development is to aid canopy animals in getting from tree to tree, although there are other possibilities. Gliding, in particular, has evolved among rainforest animals in the rainforests in Asia where the trees are tall and spaced. Several species of aquatic animals, a few amphibians and reptiles have evolved to acquire this gliding flight ability as a means of evading predators. Animal aerial locomotion can be divided into two categories -- unpowered. In unpowered modes of locomotion, the animal uses aerodynamics forces exerted on the body due to wind or falling through the air. In powered flight, the animal uses muscular power to generate aerodynamic forces to climb or to maintain steady, level flight.

Those who can find air, rising faster than they are falling can gain altitude by soaring. These modes of locomotion require an animal start from a raised location, converting that potential energy into kinetic energy and using aerodynamic forces to control trajectory and angle of descent. Energy is continually lost to drag without being replaced, thus these methods of locomotion have limited range and duration. Falling: decreasing altitude under the force of gravity, using no adaptations to increase drag or provide lift. Parachuting: falling at an angle greater than 45° from the horizontal with adaptations to increase drag forces. Small animals may be carried up by the wind; some gliding animals may use their gliding membranes for drag rather than lift. Gliding flight: falling at an angle less than 45° from the horizontal with lift from adapted aerofoil membranes; this allows falling directed horizontal movement, with streamlining to decrease drag forces for aerofoil efficiency and with some maneuverability in air.

Gliding animals have a lower aspect ratio than true flyers. Powered flight has evolved only four times: first in the insects in pterosaurs, next in birds, last in bats. Powered flight uses muscles to generate aerodynamic force, which allows the animal to produce lift and thrust; the animal may ascend without the aid of rising air. Ballooning and soaring are not powered by muscle, but rather by external aerodynamic sources of energy: the wind and rising thermals, respectively. Both can continue as long. Soaring is only seen in species capable of powered flight, as it requires large wings. Ballooning: being carried up into the air from the aerodynamic effect on long strands of silk in the wind. Certain silk-producing arthropods small or young spiders, secrete a special light-weight gossamer silk for ballooning, sometimes traveling great distances at high altitude. Soaring: gliding in rising or otherwise moving air that requires specific physiological and morphological adaptations that can sustain the animal aloft without flapping its wings.

The rising air is due to ridge lift or other meteorological features. Under the right conditions, soaring creates a gain of altitude without expending energy. Large wingspans are needed for efficient soaring. Many species will use multiple of these modes at various times. While gliding occurs independently from powered flight, it has some ecological advantages of its own. Gliding is a energy-efficient way of travelling from tree to tree. An argument made is that many gliding animals eat low energy foods such as leaves and are restricted to gliding because of this, whereas flying animals eat more high energy foods such as fruits and insects. In contrast to flight, gliding has evolved independently many times. Worldwide, the distribution of gliding animals is uneven as most inhabit rain forests in Southeast Asia. Additionally, a variety of gliding vertebrates are found in Africa, a family of hylids lives in South America and several species of gliding squirrels are found in the forests of northern Asia and North America.

Various factors produce these disparities. In the forests of Southeast Asia, the dominant canopy trees are taller than the canopy trees of the other forests. A higher start farther travel. Gliding predators may more efficiently search for prey; the lower abundance of insect and small vertebrate prey for carnivorous animals in Asian forests may be a factor. In Australia, many mammals possess, to prehensile tails. Powered flight has evolved unambiguously only four times—birds, bats and insects. In contrast to gliding, which has evolved more but gives rise to only a handful of species, all three extant groups of powered flyers have a huge number of species, suggesting that flight is a successful strategy once evolved. Bats, after rodents, have the most species of any mammalian order, about 20% of all mammalian species. Birds have the most species of any class of terrestrial vertebrates. Insects have more species than all other animal gr

Hero, Hero

Hero, Hero is a compilation album of early Judas Priest recordings, released in between British Steel and Point of Entry by Gull Records. It consists of all ten tracks from the Rocka Rolla album, six tracks from the Sad Wings of Destiny album, an alternate version of "Diamonds And Rust"; the tracks from Rocka Rolla and "Diamonds And Rust" were remixed by Rodger Bain in 1981. The tracks from Sad Wings of Destiny were not remixed. Hero, Hero was released under the Gull Records - the band's former record label - in an effort to "capitalize on Judas Priest's popularity." Judas Priest's management states that people should not buy these compilations, because though it would seem like a new album on the surface, it's just a re-issue of material recorded. Despite this, the remixed songs on the album appeal to collectors; the CD releases of the album have produced a few alternate versions. Some European CDs sequenced the tracks differently so that the tracks from sides 3 and 4 of the LP come before the tracks from sides 1 and 2.

The US CDs released by Transluxe and Koch Records used the mixes from the original Rocka Rolla album rather than the remixed tracks from the original Hero, Hero LP. Rob Halford - lead vocals, harmonica K. K. Downing - guitar Glenn Tipton - guitar, backing vocals Ian Hill - bass John Hinch - drums Alan Moore - drums

Clyde L. Herring

Clyde LaVerne Herring, an American politician and Democrat, served as the 26th Governor of Iowa, one of its U. S. Senators, during the last part of the Great Depression and the first part of World War II, he was born in 1879 and raised in Jackson County, where he attended public schools. His parents farmed until he was 14 years old, when the Panic of 1893 caused failing finances that made it necessary for them to move to town. In 1897, at 18, he moved to Detroit and became a jewelry clerk. Enlisting in the military, he served during the Spanish–American War as a private in Company D of the Third Michigan Regiment. After the war, he moved to Colorado Springs, where he engaged in ranching from 1902 to 1906, he moved to Massena, where he farmed for two years. As Time Magazine would recount in a 1935 cover story featuring him, "in Detroit he had fixed Henry Ford's watch, thus came to know that rising automobile manufacturer. From 1910 until the distributing system was reshuffled after the War, Clyde Herring was Ford agent for Iowa.

By that time he had acquired $3,000,000 worth of Des Moines real estate."In 1916–17, he served with the Iowa National Guard on the Mexican border. Returning to civilian life in Des Moines, as America entered the First World War, Herring led local fundraising efforts as the chair of the Greater Des Moines Committee, he was invited to Washington to advise the federal government on speeding up production of war supplies. Herring was the unsuccessful Democratic nominee for Governor of Iowa in 1920, losing to Republican Nathan E. Kendall, for the United States Senate in a 1922 special election, losing to Republican Smith W. Brookhart, he held one of Iowa's seats on the Democratic National Committee from 1924 to 1928. In 1932, Herring ran again for Governor of Iowa, now against incumbent Republican Daniel Webster Turner. Herring and other Democratic candidates in Iowa won an unprecedented number of races that year, Herring became only the second Democrat to serve as Governor of Iowa since the founding of the Republican Party, in 1854.

In a 1934 rematch, Herring again defeated Turner while he led a Democratic sweep of statewide offices that kept Democrats in six of Iowa's nine U. S. House seats. In 1936, his fourth year as governor, Herring chose not to run for re-election but instead challenged incumbent Republican U. S. Senator L. J. Dickinson. Herring defeated Dickinson by fewer than 36,000 votes. Both senators from Iowa were Democrats for the first time since 1855, his service as senator was delayed to await the end of his term as Iowa's governor. Herring's reaction to Orson Welles' 1938 "War of the Worlds" broadcast received national attention. To protect listeners, he urged adoption of federal legislation "inducing" broadcasters to first submit radio programming to the Federal Communications Commission before it could be aired, he declared that "radio has no more right to present programs like that than someone has to come knocking on our door and screaming." However, neither he nor anyone else presented a bill, no such legislation was adopted.

At the 1940 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Herring aspired to be picked as Franklin D. Roosevelt's vice-presidential candidate, but Roosevelt and the Convention instead nominated fellow Iowan Henry A. Wallace, who had served as Roosevelt's Secretary of Agriculture. Herring failed in his first re-election bid. Roosevelt's popularity in Iowa had waned after 1936, Democratic candidates lost re-election. In addition, disagreements or rivalries between Herring and other leading Iowa Democrats, including fellow Senator Guy M. Gillette, former governor Nelson G. Kraschel, Vice-President Henry Wallace, hampered party unity. Herring was defeated by George A. Wilson. Herring was the last of the successful 1932 Democratic candidates in Iowa to lose a re-election bid. After serving in the Senate, he returned to the automobile business and was named by Roosevelt as the assistant administrator of the Office of Price Administration, the wartime price regulatory agency. Herring died in Washington, D.

C. on September 15, 1945. He is interred at the Glendale cemetery in Iowa. Herring Motor Car Company Building

Dame Janet Smith Review

On 11 October 2012, Dame Janet Smith was appointed by the BBC to lead an inquiry into the corporation's connection to the sexual abuse committed by Jimmy Savile, a popular television and radio host. The final report, titled The Dame Janet Smith Review Report, was published on 25 February 2016. In her investigation, Smith called for evidence from people who were the subject of inappropriate sexual conduct by Jimmy Savile on BBC premises, or on location for the BBC; the Report was announced on 11 October 2011, Dame Janet Smith, who had led The Shipman Inquiry, was selected to lead the inquiry. The investigation was delayed when Dame Janet Smith was contacted by the Metropolitan Police regarding their investigations into offences against children, their investigation on Savile, Operation Yewtree, was completed in December 2012 and their report on his alleged offending, Giving Victims a Voice, was released the following month. In January 2014, it was claimed in The Observer that Smith's review had concluded Savile had abused "many hundreds and up to 1,000 people" on BBC premises, according to a source connected with the investigation.

However, this Observer report was denounced by the Dame Janet Smith Review as "speculative and unreliable". The report was delayed again in 2014 so it would not prejudice the second trial of ex-BBC presenter Stuart Hall, convicted of child sex offences. On 1 May 2015, it was announced that the review report was finished, but it could not be published as it might prejudice ongoing police investigations. In January 2016, investigative news site Exaro leaked extracts of Smith's report; the extracts detailed numerous sex offences committed by Savile, all "in some way associated with the BBC", concluded that it was possible that a predatory child sex offender could be "lurking undiscovered" today, but stopped short of criticizing the BBC for failing to uncover Savile's behavior. Smith responded by stating that the leaked draft should never had been made public as it was out of date and unreliable. Early that week, police confirmed they were no longer concerned about the review prejudicing ongoing investigations.

The full report was released 25 February 2016. In her report, Smith addressed the following questions: Did Savile commit acts of inappropriate sexual conduct in connection with his work for the BBC? Were any concerns raised within the BBC whether formally or informally about Savile’s inappropriate sexual conduct? To what extent were BBC personnel aware of inappropriate sexual conduct by Savile in connection with his work for the BBC? To what extent ought BBC personnel to have been aware of inappropriate sexual conduct by Savile in connection with his work for the BBC? Did the culture and practices within the BBC during the years of Savile’s employment enable Savile’s inappropriate sexual conduct to continue unchecked? She provided a number of recommendations for reform of the BBC's internal processes based on her investigation; the review, which totalled more than 700 pages, found Savile had sexually abused 72 people and had raped eight people, including an eight-year-old, at "virtually every one of the BBC premises at which he worked".

Smith stated that some BBC staff members were aware of complaints against Savile but did not pass the information to senior management due to the "culture of not complaining." She described an "atmosphere of fear" still existing at the BBC and that some of those interviewed for the inquiry did so only after being assured their names would not be published as they feared reprisal. A separate review into the offending of Stuart Hall found that he had assaulted 21 female victims at the BBC, the youngest of whom was aged ten, between 1967 and 1991; the report found that some BBC staff members were aware he was bringing underage girls into his dressing room for sex, but his "untouchable" celebrity status stopped them from passing complaints to senior management. Prior to the release of the report on 25 February 2016, the DJ Tony Blackburn, identified only as'A7' in the Exaro leaks, released a statement announcing that he had been sacked by the BBC; the report criticized the BBC for failing to properly investigate allegations made by a 15-year-old Top of the Pops audience member, Claire McAlpine, who claimed Blackburn seduced her in 1971 and killed herself not long afterwards.

Blackburn, who denies the allegations, told the inquiry that he was not asked about the allegations by light entertainment head Bill Cotton and Sir Brian Neill QC in 1971 and 1972, although memos from the time indicated that he had been. He has accused the BBC of a cover-up and that he intends to take legal action against the corporation. BBC Trust: The Dame Janet Smith Review

Mark Dyer

James Michael Mark Dyer was bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Bethlehem from 1982 to 1995. Dyer was born on June 7, 1930 in Manchester, New Hampshire, the son of James M. Dyer and Anna Mahoney, both of Irish descent, he was baptised as a Roman Catholic in the Church of St Anne in Manchester, New Hampshire on June 21, 1930. He was educated at St Joseph's Cathedral High School and graduated in 1948. During the Korean War, he served in the US Navy, he was discharged on November 18, 1954 and studied at the American College of the University of Louvain in Belgium, where he studied contemporary philosophy between 1957 and 1959. Once returning to Manchester, he completed his studies at Saint Anselm College and graduated magna cum laude with a Bachelor of Arts in June 1959. Dyer joined the Benedictines at Saint Anselm Abbey in Goffstown, New Hampshire and took his vows on July 11, 1960 and his name was changed to Mark, he was ordained a priest on August 25, 1963. He graduated with a Master of Theology and a Licentiate of Sacred Theology from the University of Ottawa in 1965.

He was professor of Systematic and Ascetical Theology at St Anselm Abbey Seminary between 1965 and 1969 and professor of Systematic Theology at Queen of Peace Mission Seminary between 1968 and 1969. He remained as a member of the order and of the Roman Catholic Church till 1969, when he joined the Anglican Church of Canada at St Matthew's Church in Ottawa in September 1969. On April 17, 1971, he married a former nun of the Anglican Order of St Anne, they adopted and raised three children. In 1971, Dyer was invited by Bishop John Burgess of Massachusetts to serve as a missioner to the clergy of his diocese and on June 15, 1971, he was received as an Episcopal priest. In 1976 he became priest-in-charge of Trinity Church in Bridgewater, Massachusetts, at a time when most of the congregation had voted to leave the Episcopal Church. In 1978, he became rector of Christ Church Hamilton and Wenham in Massachusetts, he was a supplementary professor of Patristic and Medieval Theology at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary in Massachusetts.

In 1975 he was a nominee for the bishopric of Massachusetts after Bishop Burgess' retirement however he was not elected. On June 26, 1982, Dyer was elected Coadjutor Bishop of Bethlehem during a special convention which took place in the Cathedral of the Nativity, he was elected on the third ballot from a list of five candidates. He was consecrated on November 1982 in the Packer Memorial Chapel by Presiding Bishop John Allin. By this time his wife was ordained as an Episcopal priest, who read the litany during his consecration, he succeeded as diocesan bishop in December 1983. During his tenure in Bethlehem he addressed divisions concerning the ordination of women and same-sex marriage, he was an advocate for dialogues between the Episcopal Church and Lutheran and Orthodox churches in the United States. Following retirement in 1995, Dyer served as professor of theology and director of spiritual formation at Virginia Theological Seminary in Alexandria, Virginia, he died in Alexandria of multiple myeloma in 2014.

"Prayer and the Priesthood", Bulletin of the General Theological Seminary of New York, Vol. LX, Number 3. "Principles of Spiritual Direction", Office of Pastoral Development. "Some Religious Aspects of Support Systems", in Supporting Systems and Mutual Help: Multidisciplinary Explorations, ed. By Gerald Caplan, M. D. Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, New York: Grime and Stratton, Inc. 1976. "Going Forth, Reflections on the Christian Life, Bible Reading Fellowship", Winter Park, Volume 12, Number 3, 1983. "Theological Reflection on the Patristic Development of Episcopal Ministry" in On Being a Bishop, ed. J. Robert Wright, Church Hymnal Corporation, New York, 1992. "Revelation – Covenant-Torah", House of Bishops Publication ECUSA, 1993. "Your Spirituality Matters", Episcopal Life, 1993. Doing Theology in a Covenant Community, Forward Movement, Ohio, 1994. "The Historic Episcopate in the Context of Apostolic Succession" in Discovering Common Mission, ed. R. B. Slocum, Don Armentrout.

CPI, New York, 2003. Online CV From Bishop Mark Dyer: Statement on Windsor Report Obituary from The Living Church Grace and Equanimity, by Sean Rowe, from The Living Church