The Megalong Valley is part of the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia. It is located west of Katoomba. On its eastern side, the valley is separated from the Jamison Valley by Narrow Neck Plateau; the Shipley Plateau overlooks part of the valley. The name Megalong Valley is derived from an Aboriginal word thought to mean'Valley Under The Rock'; the first record of a European coming to the valley was of Thomas Jones, a natural history specimen collector, who followed the course of Coxs River from Hartley, New South Wales to Burragorang in 1818. The first land was taken up in 1838, by settlers who travelled from Burragorang and Camden, New South Wales. In the 19th century, a shale mine was operated by one J. B. North, he named a nearby glen after his daughter Nellie and it is still known as Nellies Glen today. The shale mine went the way of all shale mines because they were not viable in the long run. Today the valley is still used for farming, but tourism has increased since the historic Six Foot Track was restored.
This track was marked out in the 19th century as a bridle trail from Katoomba to Jenolan Caves. It was called the Six Foot Track because it had to be that wide in order to accommodate two to three riders riding abreast, it fell into disuse but was restored as a walking trail by the Department of Lands in 1984. It begins at the Explorers Tree at Katoomba, goes down through Nellies Glen and across the Megalong Valley to Coxs River. On the other side of the river, the trail crosses some ranges before reaching Jenolan Caves Road, it heads south to finish at Jenolan. List of valleys of Australia
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
Great Western Highway
The Great Western Highway is a 201-kilometre-long state highway in New South Wales, Australia. From east to west, the highway links Sydney with Bathurst, on the state's Central Tablelands; the eastern terminus of the Great Western Highway is west of Railway Square near the southern fringe of the Sydney CBD where Broadway reaches its western terminus. At the intersection of City Road, it meets the junction of the Princes Highway and its local name changes to Parramatta Road and heads west towards Parramatta, with the majority of traffic diverted off the highway and onto the M4 Western Motorway at North Strathfield. At Parramatta, the highway passes the southern fringe of the Parramatta central business district, continues due west across western metropolitan Sydney to Penrith, north of the central business district, where it crosses the Nepean River via the 1867 Victoria Bridge. At Leonay, the M4 Western Motorway reconnects with the Great Western Highway and the highway ascends the Blue Mountains, reaching its highest point at Mount Boyce, at an elevation of 1,093 metres.
It intersects at Mount Victoria with the Darling Causeway which heads north to connect with the Bells Line of Road. From Mount Victoria, the highway descends via Victoria Pass into the Hartley Valley and passes through the western suburbs of Lithgow where it is joined by the Chifley Road, which links eastward back to the Bells Line of Road; the highway continues west, intersecting with the Castlereagh Highway west of Marrangaroo, crosses Coxs River to ascend the Great Dividing Range and over the western ridge of the Sydney basin before dropping into the Macquarie Valley to reach its western terminus at Bathurst, at the junction of the Mitchell Highway and the Mid-Western Highway. At numerous points along its journey, the highway transverses or is transversed by the Main Western railway line. Major river crossings occur east of Emu Plains, near Wallerawang, east of Bathurst, it consists of two of Australia's most historic roads - the greater length of Parramatta Road, the full length of the Great Western Road, from Parramatta to Bathurst.
Initial travel between Sydney and the settlement of Parramatta was by water along the Parramatta River. Sometime between 1789 and 1791 an overland track was made to provide an official land route between the two settlements. Parramatta Road dates to the 1792 formation of a route linking Sydney to the settlement of Parramatta, formalised under the direction of Surveyor-General Augustus Alt in 1797. Parramatta Road became one of the colony's most important early roadways, for many years remained one of Sydney's premier thoroughfares. By 1810, Parramatta Road had open to traffic and was financed during a large portion of the 1800s by a toll, with toll booths located at what now is Sydney University and the Duck River. From Parramatta to Penrith, a road along the 2013 alignment of the Great Western Highway was constructed soon after completion of the Sydney-Parramatta Road. In 1813, acting on the instructions of Governor of New South Wales Lachlan Macquarie, Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson and William Wentworth led an 1813 expedition that travelled west from Emu Plains and, by staying to the ridges, were able to confirm the existence of a passable route directly west from Sydney across the Blue Mountains.
The existence of other, less direct routes had been known as far back as 1797, but due to the need to prevent convicts from believing that escape from the hemmed-in Sydney region was possible, knowledge of the expeditions confirming the existence of routes across the Blue Mountains was suppressed. Blaxland and Wentworth travelled as far west as the point they named Mount Blaxland, 25 kilometres southwest of where Lithgow now stands. From this point they were able to see that the worst of the impenetrable terrain of the Blue Mountains was behind them, that there were easy routes available to reach the rolling countryside they could see off to the west. Macquarie despatched Surveyor George Evans to follow Blaxland and Wentworth's route and to push further west until he reached arable land. Evans travelled west until he reached the Fish River, followed it downstream until he reached the site of Bathurst. Within a year, Macquarie commissioned William Cox to construct a road west from Emu Plains, following Evans' route, this road was finished in 1815.
Macquarie himself travelled across it soon after completion and named Bathurst, named the road the Great Western Road. The section of the Great Western Road as far west as Mount Victoria, with a small number of minor deviations, is still in use today as part of the Great Western Highway. West of Mount Victoria, Evans' route has been superseded, chiefly by Mitchell's new route constructed between 1832 and 1836. Between present-day Flemington and Dogtrap Road, Parramatta Road travelled in a wide arc some 2 kilometres south of the present route, in order to avoid marshy areas around Haslams Creek and the Duck River; this was deviated in the 1920s to follow the present route. At Mount Victoria, at the western edge of the Blue Mountains, the route of Cox's road turned north to Mount York, from where it descended into the Hartley Valley; this pass was the major piece of engineering on the original route, when Macquarie travelled the new road in 1815, he named it Cox's Pass in honour of the builder.
From the foot of Mount York the road resumed its westerly direction to. However, from here it ran via the present-day Glenroy, Mount Blaxland, Cut Hill Road, Pitts Corner, Phils Falls, Mount Olive Rd, Carlwood Road and Sidmouth Valley to a point 2 kilometres (
Division of Macquarie
The Division of Macquarie is an Australian electoral division in the state of New South Wales. The division was created in 1900 and was one of the original 65 divisions contested at the first federal election, it is named for Lachlan Macquarie, Governor of New South Wales between 1810 and 1821. The division is located to the west of Sydney, today it covers a large part of the Blue Mountains, as well as the Hawkesbury region on Sydney's western fringe; the current Member for Macquarie, since the 2016 federal election, is Susan Templeman, a member of the Australian Labor Party. The most prominent former member is Ben Chifley, Prime Minister of Australia from 1945 to 1949, was a member of the Australian Labor Party. Voting patterns within the electorate vary between the Blue Mountains and the Hawkesbury region. At the 2004 election, the two-party preferred vote favoured the Liberal candidate by more than 70:30 in the Hawkesbury region; the result was reversed in the Blue Mountains where the result was 60:40, favouring the Labor candidate.
This voting pattern was evident in the three previous federal elections up to 2007. For most of the first seven decades after Federation, it was a hybrid urban-rural seat that stretched from the outer western suburbs of Sydney to the Central Tablelands, including Penrith and St Marys in Sydney and Bathurst, Lithgow and Oberon in the Central Tablelands. However, in 1977, the Central Tablelands were replaced by the Hawkesbury towns, a 1984 redistribution carved the new seat of Lindsay out of much of its share of Sydney; the division has changed hands many times during its long history, but in elections previous to 2007 Kerry Bartlett consolidated his 1996 win to make the electorate a safe Liberal seat. On 13 September 2006, however the Australian Electoral Commission announced that the seat was to be redistributed; the Hawkesbury towns moved to Greenway while Macquarie was pushed some distance into the Central Tablelands, as far west as Bathurst. The seat contained the rural service and university town of Bathurst and the working-class towns of Lithgow and Oberon with the Blue Mountains.
This not only erased Bartlett's majority. While Bartlett had sat on a majority of eight percent, he now found himself in a seat with a notionally marginal Labor majority of 0.5 percent. Bartlett was defeated by former New South Wales Minister for the Environment and Attorney General Bob Debus, whose state seat of Blue Mountains covered much of the eastern portion of the seat, at the 2007 election on a 7.04 percent margin, turning it into a safe Labor seat in one stroke. During the 2009 redistribution, however and Lithgow were shifted to Calare, restoring its pre-2007 boundaries; the redistribution nearly wiped out Labor's majority in the electorate, reducing it to an marginal 0.3 percent. Debus retired before the 2010 election. Louise Markus the Member for Greenway, reclaimed the seat for the Liberals in this election, she was ousted in the 2016 election by Labor's Susan Templeman. Division of Macquarie - Australian Electoral Commission
NSW TrainLink is an Australian brand for the medium and long distance passenger rail and coach services in New South Wales. It operates services throughout New South Wales and into the neighbouring states and territories of Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory. Train services are operated by the government's NSW Trains. Coach services are contracted to private operators, it is an agency of Transport for NSW. In May 2012, the Minister for Transport announced a restructure of RailCorp. On 1 July 2013 NSW TrainLink took over the operation of regional rail and coach services operated by CountryLink, non-metropolitan Sydney services operated by CityRail and responsibility for granting access to and maintaining the Main Northern line from Berowra to Newcastle, the Main Western line from Emu Plains to Bowenfels and the Illawarra line from Waterfall to Bomaderry; the NSW TrainLink network is divided into two tiers, branded as Regional. Intercity services operate commuter style services to and from Sydney with limited stops within the metropolitan area.
The Intercity network is part of Transport for NSW's Opal ticketing system. Seats on Intercity services are available on a first-served basis. Regional services operate in areas of lower population density, providing passenger transport between regional NSW and Sydney. Regional services use a ticketing system. Intercity services operate to a distance 200 kilometres from Sydney, bounded by Dungog in the north, Scone in the north-west, Bathurst to the west, Goulburn in the south-west and Bomaderry to the south. Electric services extend from Sydney north to Newcastle, west to Lithgow and south to Port Kembla and Kiama. Most electric services terminate at Central. Diesel trains serve the less populated parts of the Intercity network. Hunter Line services operate from Newcastle to Telarah with some extending to Scone. Southern Highlands Line services operate between Campbelltown and Moss Vale with a limited number extending to Sydney and Goulburn. Diesel services operate on the South Coast Line between Kiama and Bomaderry.
The Bathurst Bullet provides a limited stop service between Sydney and Bathurst. The Opal fare system for Intercity services is integrated with the Sydney Trains network - trips involving both Intercity and Sydney suburban services are calculated as a single fare and there is no interchange penalty. Opal is valid on bus and light rail services in the Greater Sydney region but separate fares apply for these modes; the following table lists Opal fares for reusable smartcards and single trip tickets as of 2 July 2018: ^ = $2.50 for Senior/Pensioner cardholders NSW TrainLink operates several bus routes along corridors where the railway line has been closed to passengers or as a supplement to rail services. These bus services are operated by private sector bus companies contracted by NSW TrainLink. Wollongong to Moss Vale/Bundanoon Moss Vale to Goulburn Picton to Bowral via Picton-Mittagong loop line on weekdays only NSW TrainLink operates passenger services throughout New South Wales and interstate to Brisbane and Melbourne.
All rail services feature diesel rolling stock. For more details of each train line see List of NSW TrainLink train routes; the North Coast services operate through the Mid North Coast, Northern Rivers and South East Queensland regions. The Government of Queensland makes a financial contribution to the provision of these services. Services operate on the Main North and North Coast lines from Sydney Central station to Roma Street station in Brisbane. Principal stations served by XPT trains are: Taree Kempsey Coffs Harbour Grafton Casino BrisbaneCities and towns served by NSW TrainLink coaches connecting off North Coast services include: Tea Gardens, Port Macquarie, Moree, Lismore, Byron Bay, Tweed Heads and Surfers Paradise; the North Western region services operate through the Hunter, New England and North West Slopes & Plains regions. Services operate on the Main North line from Sydney Central station to Werris Creek. Where the service divides for Armidale and Moree. Principal stations served by Xplorer trains are: Singleton Scone Tamworth Armidale Gunnedah Narrabri MoreeCities and towns served by NSW TrainLink coaches connecting off North Western services include: Wee Waa, Grafton, Glen Innes and Tenterfield.
The Western region services operate through the Central Tablelands and Far West regions. Services operate on the Main Western line from Sydney Central station to Dubbo and the Broken Hill line to Broken Hill. Principal stations served by XPT trains are: Bathurst Orange DubboPrincipal stations served by Xplorer trains are: Bathurst Orange Parkes Broken HillCities and towns served by NSW TrainLink coaches connecting off Western services include: Oberon, Baradine, Grenfell, Parkes, Lightning Ridge Brewarrina, Bourke and Broken Hill; the Southern region services operate through the Illawarra, South Coast, South West Slopes, Southern Tablelands and Sunraysia regions, plus the Australian Capital Territory and parts of Victoria. The Government of Victoria contributes financially to the provision of the interstate services; the ACT Government does not make a financial contribution. Services operate on the: Main South line from Sydney Central station to Albury continue on the North East line to Southern Cross station in Melbourne Bombala line from south of Goulburn to Queanbeyan where services join the Canberra line to terminate inside the Australian Capital Territory at Canberra Hay
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon