John Lucas (Australian politician)
John Lucas was an Australian politician and a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly from 1860 to 1869 and 1871 to 1880 and the New South Wales Legislative Council from 1880 until his death. He was a member for Canterbury from 1860 to 1864 and from 1871 to 1880 and a member for Hartley from 1864 to 1869. From 1875 to 1877 he was Secretary of Mines, he was noted patron of the Jenolan Caves in the Blue Mountains where a cave and a tour have since been named in his honour. He maintained a holiday cottage on Lapstone Hill at the Eastern edge of the Blue Mountains. On the original Lapstone Zig Zag a station was named Lucasville; the remains of the station are still visible today. Photograph of John Lucas at the National Library of Australia http://nla.gov.au/nla.pic-an23460676
Sydney sandstone is the common name for Sydney Basin Hawkesbury Sandstone, one variety of, known as Yellowblock, as "yellow gold" a sedimentary rock named after the Hawkesbury River north of Sydney, where this sandstone is common. It forms the bedrock for much of the region of Australia. Well known for its durable quality, it is the reason many Aboriginal rock carvings and drawings in the area still exist; as a favoured building material preferred during the city's early years—from the late 1790s to the 1890s—its use in public buildings, gives the city its distinctive appearance. The stone is notable for its geological characteristics; this bedrock gives the city some of its "personality" by dint of its meteorological, horticultural and historical impact. One author describes Sydney's sandstone as "a kind of base note, an ever-present reminder of its Georgian beginnings and more ancient past."Sydney sandstone was deposited in the Triassic Period in a freshwater delta and is the caprock which controls the erosion and scarp retreat of the Illawarra escarpment.
Six kilometres of sandstone and shale lie under Sydney. In Sydney sandstone, the ripple marks from the ancient river that brought the grains of sand are distinctive and seen, telling geologists that the sand comes from rocks formed between 500 and 700 million years ago far to the south; this means that the highest part of the visible lines always faces south. It is a porous stone and acts as a giant filter, it is composed of pure silica grains and a small amount of the iron mineral siderite in varying proportions, bound with a clay matrix. It oxidises to the warm yellow-brown colour, notable in the buildings which are constructed of it; the sand was washed from Broken Hill, laid down in a bed, about 200 metres thick. Currents washed through it, leaching out most of the minerals and leaving a poor rock that made an insipid soil, they washed out channels in some places, while in others, the currents formed sand banks that show a characteristic current bedding or cross-bedding that can be seen in cuttings.
At a time in the past, monocline formed to the west of Sydney. The monocline is a sloping bend that raises the sandstone well above where it is expected to be seen, this is why the whole of the visible top of the Blue Mountains is made of sandstone. From the beginnings of the colony in 1788, settlers and convicts had to work with the stone, using it for building and trying to grow crops on the soil over it; the sandstone had a negative effect on farming because it underlay most of the available flat land at a shallow depth. In the late 19th century, it was thought; some efforts were made at the University to test this idea. Reporting on them in 1892, Professor Liversidge said "The Hawkesbury sandstone and Waianamatta shale was, of course, derived from older and gold-bearing rocks hence it was not unreasonable to expect to find gold in them."The sandstone is the basis of the nutrient-poor soils found in Sydney that developed over millennia and'came to nurture a brilliant and immensely diverse array of plants'.
It is, for example, the "heartland of those most characteristic of Australian trees, the eucalypts". As plants cannot afford to lose leaves to herbivores when nutrients are scarce so they defend their foliage with toxins. In eucalypts, these toxins give the bush its distinctive smell. Sandstone escarpments box in the Sydney area on three sides: to the west the Blue Mountains, to the north and south, the Hornsby and Woronora plateaux'; these escarpments, avoided by the early settlers, kept Sydney in its bounds and some people still regard the spatial boundaries of the city in these terms. Other rock types found in Sydney include Narrabeen shale and the younger Wianamatta shale and Mittagong formation. Other less common types of sandstone may be found in Sydney; such as Newport Formation Sandstone, Bulgo Sandstone, Minchinbury Sandstone, sandstones which occur within other layers of sedimentary rocks. Bald Hill Claystone is considered by geologists to be a variety of sandstone. Iron and aluminium oxides are found within laterite, formed by the weathering of Hawkesbury sandstone.
The quality of the sandstone known to Sydneysiders as Yellow block became well known early. Called on by the Colonial Architect, for example, to be used in the main buildings of the University of Sydney, the stone was supplied from the Pyrmont quarries where there were at least 22 quarrymen working by 1858. Among them was Charles Saunders, licensee of the hotel'The Quarryman's Arms' who became Pyrmont's biggest quarrymaster. Pyrmont yellowblock not only had good hardness and colour, it was suitable for carving and so it could be incorporated into buildings in the form of sculptures and finely carved details; the sculptor, William Priestly MacIntosh, for example, carved ten of the explorers' statues for the niches in the Lands Department building in "Pyrmont Freestone". Saunders' quarries, known locally as Paradise, Purgatory. and Hellhole, were so named by the Scottish quarrymen who worked there in the 1850s. The names related to the degree of difficulty in working its quality; the best stone was'Paradise', a soft rock, easy to carve and weathers to a warm, golden straw colour.
The Paradise quarry was near present-day Quarry Master and Saunders Streets, Purgatory quarry was near present-day Pyrmont Bridge Road
Zig zag (railway)
A railway zig zag called a switchback, is a method of climbing steep gradients with minimal need for tunnels and heavy earthworks. For a short distance, the direction of travel is reversed. Not all switchbacks come in pairs, in which case the train may need to travel backwards for a considerable distance. A location on railways constructed by using a zig-zag alignment at which trains have to reverse direction in order to continue is a reversing station. One of the best examples is the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, a UNESCO World Heritage site railway in India, that has six full zig zags and 3 spirals. Zig zags tend to be cheaper to construct. Civil engineers can find a series of shorter segments going back and forth up the side of a hill more and with less grading than they can a continuous grade which has to contend with the larger scale geography of the hills to be surmounted. Zig zags suffer from a number of limitations: The length of a train is limited to what will fit on the shortest stub track in the zig zag.
The Lithgow Zig Zag stub was extended at great cost in 1908, only to be deviated in 1910. Reversing a locomotive-hauled train without running an engine around to the rear of the train is hazardous. Top and tail or push pull; the process is slow due to the need to reverse the switch. If wagons in a freight train are marshalled poorly, with a light vehicle located between heavy ones, the move on the middle road of a zig zag can cause derailment of the light wagon. Argentina Tren a las Nubes Australia Lithgow Zig Zag, New South Wales preserved - see Zig Zag Railway Out of use: Thornleigh Zig Zag, New South Wales Yarraglen Kalamunda Zig Zag, Western Australia – two reversals Lake Margaret Tram, Tasmania, 610 mm Lapstone Zig Zag, New South Wales – two reversals Mundaring Weir Branch Railway, Western Australia Yarloop, Western Australia Myanmar Passenger line between Thazi and Kalaw, with four switchbacks. In reality only half a'Z' as only one reversal is needed. Ecuador Sibambe on the Quito-Guayaquil line France Froissy Dompierre Light Railway Germany In use: Rauenstein Lauscha Ernstthal am Rennsteig: created by close of the Ernstthal–Probstzella railway Lüttmoorsiel-Nordstrandischmoor island railway Rennsteig Michaelstein Wurzbach Altenkirchen station, Limburg–Altenkirchen railway out of use Schillingsfürst Lenzkirch in the Black Forest Elm (replaced in 1914 by Distelrasen Tunnel, but the structure is conserved within the Frankfurt-Fulda and Fulda-Gemünden railways and the connecting curve between the stations at Elm and Schlüchtern Steinhelle-Medebach railway Mainspitze station in Frankfurt am Main, used from 1846–1848 to reach the provisional Frankfurt terminal of the Main-Neckar Railway Hungary The Szob-Nagybörzsöny forest railway has a simple zig zag at the middle of the railway line between Kisirtás and Tolmács-hegy stations, with a loop in the middle of the Z shape India Darjeeling Himalayan Railway has six full zig zags and 3 spirals, most are from the construction of the current railway but one was added in the 1940s and at least one other was used temporarily following storm damage Italy Saline-Volterra Ferrovia Genova-Casella has one zig zag in regular use at Casella Deposito.
Japan Hakone Tozan Line has three zig zags, namely at Deyama S. B. Ōhiradai Station, Kami-Ōhidradai S. B. Hōhi Main Line at Tateno Station Kisuki Line at Izumo-Sakane Station Hisatsu Line at Okoba and Masaki stations Tateyama Sabō Erosion Control Works Service Train, the work train for an erosion control construction, is not open to general public, but deserves a mention for its 38 zig zags, 18 of them in a row. Niyama Station on Hakodate Main Line Obasute Station on the Shinonoi Line in Chikuma, Nagano is on a switchback. North Korea Kanggye Line, between Hwangp'o and Simrip'yŏng stations Kŭmgangsan Electric Railway, between Tanballyŏng and Malhwiri stations. Entire line destroyed during the Korean War and not rebuilt. Paengmu Line, between Yugok and Rajŏk stations, at Samyu station in addition, there are numerous switchbacks on spurs into underground facilities located off main lines. South Korea Yeongdong Line, between Heungjeon station and Nahanjeong station; this section replaced by Solan tunnel.
Mexico Ferrocarril Noroeste de México, between Juan Mata Ortiz to Chico. New Zealand Driving Creek Railway, Coromandel Pakistan Khyber Pass Peru Seven full Zigzags and one single reverse on the Central Railway of Peru PeruRail between Cuzco to Machu Picchu – Five switchbacks Slovakia Historical Logging Switchback Railway in Vychylovka Sweden Lövsjöväxeln on Hällefors-Fredriksbergs Järnvägar Switzerland Chambrelien required the use of a turntable to allow large tender locomotives to be turned as they ran-roun
Main Western railway line, New South Wales
The Main Western Railway is a major railway in New South Wales, Australia. It runs through Central West, North West Slopes and the Far West regions; the Main Western Railway Line is a westwards continuation of what is known as the Main Suburban Line between Sydney Central station and Granville. The line is six electrified railway tracks between Central and Strathfield, where the Main Northern line branches off; the line is four tracks as it passes through Lidcombe, where the Main Southern line branches off, through the Sydney suburbs of Parramatta and Blacktown, where the Richmond railway line branches off. At St Marys, the line becomes two tracks as it passes through Penrith and Emu Plains, the extent of Sydney suburban passenger train operation. From Emu Plains, the line traverses the Blue Mountains passing through Katoomba and Mount Victoria before descending down the western side of the Blue Mountains through ten tunnels to Lithgow. Lithgow is the extent of urban electric passenger train services, although the electric wires extend to Bowenfels.
The line proceeds through Wallerawang, where the line becomes single track, passes through Tarana, Blayney, Wellington, Narromine, Nyngan, Byrock and to Bourke. The section between Nyngan and Bourke is now closed; the Central West XPT operates as far as Dubbo. The Sydney Railway Company, a private company established to serve the interests of the port of Sydney, announced proposals to build a railway line to Bathurst in 1848; the company was taken over by the New South Wales Government in 1854, in 1855 the first railway in the state was opened between Sydney and the present-day Granville. This railway was extended from Granville to the current Parramatta station and Blacktown in 1860 and Penrith in 1863; the railway crossed the Blue Mountains between 1867 and 1869. The Blue Mountains were a significant geographical barrier to the development of western New South Wales, the crossing required significant feats of engineering for the railways, including two'Zig Zags': one for the ascent at Lapstone, another for the western descent.
The first "little" zigzag line opened near Glenbrook in 1867 as part of the ascent of Lapstone Hill on a gradient of 1 in 30-33. It was built with comparatively light earthwork, although it included a substantial seven-span sandstone viaduct built by engineer, John Whitton. By 1910, the line was replaced with a gentler alignment with 1 in 60 grades; the line reached Wentworth Falls in 1867 and Mount Victoria in 1868. On the western descent from the Blue Mountains, the Lithgow Zig Zag was constructed between 1866 and 1869, it was laid out in the shape of a'Z' including reversing points. It involved heavy rock cuttings, three fine stone viaducts with 30-foot semi-circular arches and a short tunnel; the Lithgow Zig Zag was replaced in 1910 by a deviation. From the western foot of the Blue Mountains, the line was promptly extended to Wallerawang by 1870, Tarana in 1872, Blayney in 1876 and Orange in 1877. By 1877, there was significant political pressure to minimise the diversion of trade from western New South Wales to Victoria and South Australia via river trade along the Darling and Murray Rivers.
The town of Bourke had become the key centre for pastoralists in western New South Wales since its formation in 1861. Provision was thus made to extend the line to Dubbo, reaching Wellington in 1880 and Dubbo in 1881. At the time, Dubbo had grown into a town of strategic importance on the stock routes between northern New South Wales and the Victorian goldfields. Beyond Dubbo, the railway opened up new land to European settlement, was directly responsible for the development of townships; the line reached the future site of Narromine in 1883, the railway station was the first building in the future settlement. The line reached the site of Nevertire in 1882. Construction reached the site of Nyngan in 1883, with the nearby coach-stop village of Canonbar moving in its to establish the town of Nyngan. Beyond Nyngan, the line swept across the plains in a straight line for 116 miles the longest stretch of straight railway line in the world, it reached the temporary terminus of Byrock in 1884 before reaching its final destination of Bourke in 1885.
Wool and livestock was the main source of goods traffic on the line throughout its life. In the 1890s, a severe drought caused a significant downturn in traffic, additional lines to Brewarrina and Walgett reduced its catchment area; the line beyond Dubbo became loss-making in 1901, continued that way throughout its existence. Tonnages declined from the 1970s. Passenger services beyond Dubbo ended in 1974. Electrification reached Parramatta in 1928 and Penrith in 1955. In the 1950s, the section of the line over the Blue Mountains was electrified as a means of easing the haulage of coal freight from the western coalfields to the coastal ports, but a by-product of this programme was the introduction of electric interurban passenger services as far west as Bowenfels cut back to the current terminus of Lithgow. Since the late 1990s goods trains are now diesel hauled, with the only electric trains being passenger services using double deck interurban cars. In 1980, quadruplication of the track between Blacktown and St Marys was completed.
In the 1990s the operator of interstate freight, the National Rail Corporation, made the decision to divert Sydney- Perth traffic from the Blue Mountains section, to travel via the Ma
Bird vocalization includes both bird calls and bird songs. In non-technical use, bird songs are the bird sounds. In ornithology and birding, songs are distinguished by function from calls; the distinction between songs and calls is based upon complexity and context. Songs are longer and more complex and are associated with courtship and mating, while calls tend to serve such functions as alarms or keeping members of a flock in contact. Other authorities such as Howell and Webb make the distinction based on function, so that short vocalizations, such as those of pigeons, non-vocal sounds, such as the drumming of woodpeckers and the "winnowing" of snipes' wings in display flight, are considered songs. Still others require song to have syllabic diversity and temporal regularity akin to the repetitive and transformative patterns that define music, it is agreed upon in birding and ornithology which sounds are songs and which are calls, a good field guide will differentiate between the two. Bird song is best developed in the order Passeriformes.
Some groups are nearly voiceless, producing only percussive and rhythmic sounds, such as the storks, which clatter their bills. In some manakins, the males have evolved several mechanisms for mechanical sound production, including mechanisms for stridulation not unlike those found in some insects. Song is delivered from prominent perches, although some species may sing when flying; the production of sounds by mechanical means as opposed to the use of the syrinx has been termed variously instrumental music by Charles Darwin, mechanical sounds and more sonation. The term sonate has been defined as the act of producing non-vocal sounds that are intentionally modulated communicative signals, produced using non-syringeal structures such as the bill, tail and body feathers. In extratropical Eurasia and the Americas all song is produced by male birds; these differences have been known for a long time and are attributed to the much less regular and seasonal climate of Australian and African arid zones requiring that birds breed at any time when conditions are favourable, although they cannot breed in many years because food supply never increases above a minimal level.
With aseasonal irregular breeding, both sexes must be brought into breeding condition and vocalisation duetting, serves this purpose. The high frequency of female vocalisations in the tropics and Southern Africa may relate to low mortality rates producing much stronger pair-bonding and territoriality; the avian vocal organ is called the syrinx. The syrinx and sometimes a surrounding air sac resonate to sound waves that are made by membranes past which the bird forces air; the bird controls the pitch by changing the tension on the membranes and controls both pitch and volume by changing the force of exhalation. It can control the two sides of the trachea independently, how some species can produce two notes at once. One of the two main functions of bird song is mate attraction. Scientists hypothesize that bird song evolved through sexual selection, experiments suggest that the quality of bird song may be a good indicator of fitness. Experiments suggest that parasites and diseases may directly affect song characteristics such as song rate, which thereby act as reliable indicators of health.
The song repertoire appears to indicate fitness in some species. The ability of male birds to hold and advertise territories using song demonstrates their fitness. Therefore, a female bird may select males based on the quality of their songs and the size of their song repertoire; the second principal function of bird song is territory defense. Territorial birds will interact with each other using song to negotiate territory boundaries. Since song may be a reliable indicator of quality, individuals may be able to discern the quality of rivals and prevent an energetically costly fight. In birds with song repertoires, individuals may share the same song type and use these song types for more complex communication; some birds will respond to a shared song type with a song-type match. This may be an aggressive signal, however results are mixed. Birds may interact using repertoire-matches, wherein a bird responds with a song type, in its rival's repertoire but is not the song that it is singing; this may be a less aggressive act than song-type matching.
Song complexity is linked to male territorial defense, with more complex songs being perceived as a greater territorial threat. Communication through bird calls can be between individuals of the same species or across species. Birds communicate alarm through vocalizations and movements that are specific to the threat, bird alarms can be understood by other animal species, including other birds, in order to identify and protect against the specific threat. Mobbing calls are used to recruit individuals in an area where an owl or other predator may be present; these calls are characterized by wide-frequency spectra, sharp onset and termination, repetitiveness that are common across species and are believed to be helpful to other potential "mobbers" by being easy to locate. The alarm calls of most species, on the other hand, are characteristically high-pitched, making the caller difficult to locate. Individual birds may be sensitive enough to identify each other through their calls. Many birds t
The Glenbrook Tunnel is a heritage-listed single-track former railway tunnel and mustard gas storage facility and now mushroom farm located on the former Main Western Line at the Great Western Highway, Glenbrook, in the City of Blue Mountains local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was built from 1891 to 1892 by Department of Railways, it is known as Lapstone Hill tunnel and Former Glenbrook Railway and World War Two Mustard Gas Storage Tunnel. The property is owned by Blue Mountains City Council and Land and Property Management Authority, an agency of the Government of New South Wales, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 5 August 2011. The railway tunnel was part of the 1892 single-track deviation, which bypassed the Lapstone Zig Zag across the Blue Mountains, it is 634 metres. The tunnel was built to the east of Glenbrook railway station and opened on 18 December 1892. Due to the steep gradient, seepage keeping the rails wet causing slippage, poor ventilation and planned duplication of the track, plans were drawn up to bypass the steep route.
Trains stalled in the tunnel for some time before having to back the locomotive out of the tunnel for another attempt. The tunnel was closed on 25 September 1913, was utilised for growing mushrooms. In 1942, during World War II, the Royal Australian Air Force stockpiled bulk mustard gas stocks in preparation for a possible Japanese chemical weapons attack; the facility was known as No. 2 Sub Depot of No. 1 Central Reserve RAAF and was vacated by the RAAF after the war. It features in the "Alcatraz Down Under" episode of Cities of the Underworld on the History Channel, its past secret history has been revealed by Geoff Plunkett. The Glenbrook area is located in Darug Country; the original line of railway was opened in 1867, scaling the escarpment above Emu Plains by the Lapstone Zig Zag. At the top of the Zig Zag the railway followed the route now occupied by the Great Western Highway through Glenbrook as far as Blaxland; when increased rail traffic caused delays on the Lapstone Zig Zag, it was decided in 1891 that a tunnel should be built bypassing the Zig Zag.
The tunnel and its new approaches were designed to form an elegant S-shape, starting at the Bottom Points of the Zig Zag and ending at old Glenbrook station. The building of the tunnel in 1891-2 was contracted to George Proudfoot, whose labourers and their families were established in two substantial camps at either end of the works, one at Glenbrook, the other at Lapstone. Sir Arthur Streeton's famous painting'Fire's On!', saw the building of the tunnel and the fatal blasting accident which killed Thomas Lawless become a part of Australian mythology as well as railway history. Streeton was spending three months at Glenbrook at the end of 1891 where he was studying and painting the landscape, he had become interested in the construction of the railway tunnel and the engineering feat, the Zig Zag Railway. The tunnel was depicted in several other works, both informal and informal. Among these were Cutting the Lapstone Tunnel and Sketch - Blue Mountains; the new tunnel opened to traffic on 18 December 1892, but it was never a success, because of the steep incline and the suffocating atmosphere in the west-bound trains.
Traffic flow and water dripping from the roof caused engines to slip badly on the reverse curve. The problem was addressed after the Lithgow Zig Zag deviation was completed in 1910 and the railway gangs were moved to Glenbrook. Bypassing Glenbrook Tunnel involved some major works, including a new viaduct over Knapsack Gully to the east and the new line ran through virgin country south of the old alignment as far as the present Lapstone station and turned west through a short tunnel under The Bluff and north to the present Glenbrook station, it was planned to continue using the 1892 Glenbrook Tunnel for up trains. When the new deviation opened on 11 May 1913 the tunnel was still used for east-bound trains. However, the deviation was duplicated and a new "up line was activated in September. Glenbrook Tunnel was last used for trains on 25 September 1913 and old Glenbrook station was closed; the lines in the tunnel were raised and the tunnel left to decay. In 1913 the Glenbrook tunnel was leased from NSW Railways by Herbert Edward Rowe, an out of work master builder.
A Stan Breakspear had fenced off an area close to the tunnel where he kept a bull. The Rowes had the idea of growing mushrooms in the tunnel, they created living quarters from a small cave and a culvert under the highway. Herbert Rowe built his own mushroom growing beds which were three metres wide with a narrow path down the left side for access and working space. About three quarters of the length of the tunnel was taken up by the beds; when the Rowes renewed their lease in 1936 the Commissioner of Railways warned them that in the event of war, they would be given three months notice to vacate the site. The Rowes are believed to have been given only one weeks notice to vacate the site when war broke out in September 1939. In 1930 Australia ratified the 1925 Geneva Protocol which banned the use of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases in times of war for offensive purposes, following the experiences of chemical warfare during World War I. Although tear gas was used as early as 1914, it was not until 1915 that poisonous gases were introduced into the battles of World War One.
The first was Chlorine gas, introduced by the Germans at the Second battle of Ypres in April 1915. This was followed by the use of Ph
Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk on trails, in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter urban walks. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, the word "walking" is acceptable to describe all forms of walking, whether it is a walk in the park or backpacking in the Alps; the word hiking is often used in the UK, along with rambling and fell walking. The term bushwalking is endemic to Australia, having been adopted by the Sydney Bush Walkers club in 1927. In New Zealand a long, vigorous walk or hike is called tramping, it is a popular activity with numerous hiking organizations worldwide, studies suggest that all forms of walking have health benefits. In the United States, the Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom, hiking means walking outdoors on a trail, or off trail, for recreational purposes. A day hike refers to a hike. However, in the United Kingdom, the word walking is used, as well as rambling, while walking in mountainous areas is called hillwalking.
In Northern England, Including the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales, fellwalking describes hill or mountain walks, as fell is the common word for both features there. Hiking is sometimes referred to as such; this refers to difficult walking through dense forest, undergrowth, or bushes, where forward progress requires pushing vegetation aside. In extreme cases of bushwhacking, where the vegetation is so dense that human passage is impeded, a machete is used to clear a pathway; the Australian term bushwalking refers to both on and off-trail hiking. Common terms for hiking used by New Zealanders are walking or bushwalking. Trekking is the preferred word used to describe multi-day hiking in the mountainous regions of India, Nepal, North America, South America and the highlands of East Africa. Hiking a long-distance trail from end-to-end is referred to as trekking and as thru-hiking in some places. In North America, multi-day hikes with camping, are referred to as backpacking; the idea of taking a walk in the countryside for pleasure developed in the 18th century, arose because of changing attitudes to the landscape and nature associated with the Romantic movement.
In earlier times walking indicated poverty and was associated with vagrancy. Thomas West, an English priest, popularized the idea of walking for pleasure in his guide to the Lake District of 1778. In the introduction he wrote that he aimed to encourage the taste of visiting the lakes by furnishing the traveller with a Guide. To this end he included various'stations' or viewpoints around the lakes, from which tourists would be encouraged to enjoy the views in terms of their aesthetic qualities. Published in 1778 the book was a major success. Another famous early exponent of walking for pleasure, was the English poet William Wordsworth. In 1790 he embarked on an extended tour of France and Germany, a journey subsequently recorded in his long autobiographical poem The Prelude, his famous poem Tintern Abbey was inspired by a visit to the Wye Valley made during a walking tour of Wales in 1798 with his sister Dorothy Wordsworth. Wordsworth's friend Coleridge was another keen walker and in the autumn of 1799, he and Wordsworth undertook a three weeks tour of the Lake District.
John Keats, who belonged to the next generation of Romantic poets began, in June 1818, a walking tour of Scotland and the Lake District with his friend Charles Armitage Brown. More and more people undertook walking tours through the 19th century, of which the most famous is Robert Louis Stevenson's journey through the Cévennes in France with a donkey, recorded in his Travels with a Donkey. Stevenson published in 1876 his famous essay "Walking Tours"; the subgenre of travel writing produced many classics in the subsequent 20th century. An early American example of a book that describes an extended walking tour is naturalist John Muir's A Thousand Mile Walk to the Gulf, a posthumous published account of a long botanizing walk, undertaken in 1867. Due to industrialisation in England, people began to migrate to the cities where living standards were cramped and unsanitary, they would escape the confines of the city by rambling about in the countryside. However, the land in England around the urban areas of Manchester and Sheffield, was owned and trespass was illegal.
Rambling clubs soon sprang up in the north and began politically campaigning for the legal'right to roam'. One of the first such clubs, was'Sunday Tramps' founded by Leslie White in 1879; the first national grouping, the Federation of Rambling Clubs, was formed in London in 1905 and was patronized by the peerage. Access to Mountains bills, that would have legislated the public's'right to roam' across some private land, were periodically presented to Parliament from 1884 to 1932 without success. In 1932, the Rambler’s Right Movement organized a mass trespass on Kinder Scout in Derbyshire. Despite attempts on the part of the police to prevent the trespass from going ahead it was achieved due to massive publicity; however the Mountain Access Bill, passed in 1939 was opposed by many walkers' organizations, including The Ramblers, who felt that it did not