A laptop called a notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor having a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the clamshell and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid. The clamshell is opened up to use the computer. Laptops are folded shut for transportation, thus are suitable for mobile use, its name comes from lap. Although there was a distinction between laptops and notebooks, as of 2014, there is no longer any difference. Today, laptops are used in a variety of settings, such as at work, in education, for playing games, Internet surfing, for personal multimedia, general home computer use. Laptops combine all the input/output components and capabilities of a desktop computer, including the display screen, small speakers, a keyboard, data storage device, optical disc drive, pointing devices, a processor, memory into a single unit. Most modern laptops feature integrated webcams and built-in microphones, while many have touchscreens.
Laptops can be powered either from an internal battery or by an external power supply from an AC adapter. Hardware specifications, such as the processor speed and memory capacity vary between different types, makes and price points. Design elements, form factor and construction can vary between models depending on intended use. Examples of specialized models of laptops include rugged notebooks for use in construction or military applications, as well as low production cost laptops such as those from the One Laptop per Child organization, which incorporate features like solar charging and semi-flexible components not found on most laptop computers. Portable computers, which developed into modern laptops, were considered to be a small niche market for specialized field applications, such as in the military, for accountants, or for traveling sales representatives; as the portable computers evolved into the modern laptop, they became used for a variety of purposes. The terms laptop and notebook are used interchangeably to describe a portable computer in English, although in some parts of the world one or the other may be preferred.
There is some question as to the original etymology and specificity of either term—the term laptop appears to have been coined in the early 1980s to describe a mobile computer which could be used on one's lap, to distinguish these devices from earlier, much heavier, portable computers. The term "notebook" appears to have gained currency somewhat as manufacturers started producing smaller portable devices, further reducing their weight and size and incorporating a display the size of A4 paper. Regardless of the etymology, by the late 1990s and towards the 2000s, the terms were interchangeable; as the personal computer became feasible in 1971, the idea of a portable personal computer soon followed. A "personal, portable information manipulator" was imagined by Alan Kay at Xerox PARC in 1968, described in his 1972 paper as the "Dynabook"; the IBM Special Computer APL Machine Portable was demonstrated in 1973. This prototype was based on the IBM PALM processor; the IBM 5100, the first commercially available portable computer, appeared in September 1975, was based on the SCAMP prototype.
As 8-bit CPU machines became accepted, the number of portables increased rapidly. The first "laptop-sized notebook computer" was the Epson HX-20, invented by Suwa Seikosha's Yukio Yokozawa in July 1980, introduced at the COMDEX computer show in Las Vegas by Japanese company Seiko Epson in 1981, released in July 1982, it had an LCD screen, a rechargeable battery, a calculator-size printer, in a 1.6 kg chassis, the size of an A4 notebook. It was described as a "laptop" and "notebook" computer in its patent; the portable micro computer Portal of the French company R2E Micral CCMC appeared in September 1980 at the Sicob show in Paris. It was a portable microcomputer designed and marketed by the studies and developments department of R2E Micral at the request of company CCMC specializing in payroll and accounting, it was based on an Intel 8085 processor, 8-bit, clocked at 2 MHz. It was equipped with a central 64 KB RAM, a keyboard with 58 alpha numeric keys and 11 numeric keys, a 32-character screen, a floppy disk: capacity = 140 00 characters, of a thermal printer: speed = 28 characters / second, an asynchronous channel, a synchronous channel, a 220 V power supply.
It weighed its dimensions were 45 x 45 x 15 cm. It provided total mobility, its operating system was the aptly named Prologue. The Osborne 1, released in 1981, was a luggable computer that used the Zilog Z80 and weighed 24.5 pounds. It had no battery, a 5 in cathode ray tube screen, dual 5.25 in single-density floppy drives. Both Tandy/RadioShack and Hewlett Packard produced portable computers of varying designs during this period; the first laptops using the flip form factor appeared in the early 1980s. The Dulmont Magnum was released in Australia in 1981–82, but was not marketed internationally until 1984–85; the US$8,150 GRiD Compass 1101, released in 1982, was used at NASA and by the military, among others. The Sharp PC-5000, Ampere and Gavilan SC released in 1983; the Gavilan SC was described as a "laptop" by its manufacturer, while the Ampere had a modern clamshell design. The Toshiba T1100 won acceptan
Suzana Ardeleanu is a Romanian fencer. She competed in the women's team foil events at the 1980 Summer Olympics. Ardeleanu learnt fencing at a local club under coach Alexandru Csipler, she transferred in 1964 along with Ecaterina Iencic and Ileana Gyulai to CSA Steaua București, which are related to the football team Steaua Bucharest, where she was trained by Andrei Vâlcea. Along with Olga Szabo, Maria Vicol, Ana Ene-Derșidan and Ileana Gyulai, she became team world champion at the 1969 World Fencing Championships in Havana, she retired as an athlete after the 1980 Summer Olympics and became a fencing coach in Satu Mare along with her husband, foil fencer Ștefan Ardeleanu
Michael Gilkes is a Caribbean critic, dramatist and university lecturer. He has been involved in theatre for more than 40 years, as a director and playwright, his involvement with theatre began in his native Guyana when he was about 12 years old, working in school theatre, he went on to become involved with the Theatre Guild of Guyana. Gilkes has taught at a number of universities in the Caribbean and the United Kingdom over the past 40 years, including the at the University of Kent at Canterbury, the University of Warwick, the University of Guyana, the University of the West Indies in Barbados and the Sir Arthur Lewis Community College in St. Lucia, he has been a Quillian Visiting Professor at Randolph-Macon Woman’s College. In Bermuda he has directed plays and taught a theatre workshop put on by the Department of Community & Cultural Affairs at the Berkeley Institute, his work includes Couvade: a dream-play of Guyana, Wilson Harris and the Caribbean Novel, The Literate Imagination and Twayne.
His play A Pleasant Career, about the life and fiction of Edgar Mittelholzer, won the Guyana Prize for Drama in 1992. Joanstown and other poems, a collection of poetry, won the Guyana Prize for Best Book of Poetry in 2002, he won the Guyana Prize for Drama again in 2006 for his play The Last of the Redmen. "Michael Gilkes discusses the role of the arts in personal and social development", Kaieteur News Online, 15 November 2009. "DRAMATIST MICHAEL GILKES Guyanese play REDMEN" on YouTube. "THE LAST OF THE REDMEN is a one-man tour-de-force theatre event about the plus and minus of the colonial experience in Guyana - the'middle man' experience of growing up in the 40s and 50s. Michael plays everybody." Kim Lucas, "Dr Michael Gilkes – self-professed Mudhead", Stabroek News, 1 February 2003