Almuñécar is a municipality in the Spanish Autonomous Region of Andalusia on the Costa Tropical between Nerja and Motril. It has a subtropical climate. Almuñécar lies in the province of Granada, has around 27,700 citizens. Since 1975, the town has become one of the most important tourist towns in Granada province and on the Costa Tropical. Almuñécar is an important setting in Laurie Lee's account of the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in As I Walked Out One Midsummer Morning, referred to as "Castillo" to disguise people's identities. Almuñécar's coat of arms, which shows the turbaned heads of three Barbary pirates floating in the sea, was granted to the town by King Carlos I in 1526 for its having destroyed a Berber raiding force. Trinidad Herrera is the first woman to be elected mayor of Almuñecar. Although Juan Carlos Benavides' Covergencia Andaluza party won the most popular votes, he failed to form a coalition; the city council elected Herrera, local leader of the Partido Popular, on 11 June 2011.
Almuñécar began as a Phoenician colony named Sexi, today, some of its inhabitants still call themselves Sexitanos. Under the Moors, Almuñécar blossomed as the fishing town of Ḥiṣn-al-Munakkab. Although the Phoenician and Roman history of the district was known from Greek and Roman sources it was not until the 1950s that significant archaeological evidence was discovered; the Phoenicians first established a colony in Almuñécar in about 800 BC and this developed for six hundred years into an important port and town with the name of Ex or Sexi and with a large fish salting and curing industry, a major supplier of Greece and Rome. They supplied a prized fish paste called garum made from the intestines of small fishes by a process of fermentation. Archaeological evidence comes chiefly from Phoenician cemeteries, the earlier Laurita necropolis on the hillside at Cerro San Cristobal and the necropolis at Punte de Noy. An extensive collection of Phoenician grave goods and other artifacts is on display in the town museum located at the Castle of San Miguel and in the'Cueva de Siete Palacios'.
The Romans came to southern Spain at the time of the Second Punic War between Rome and Carthage in 218 BC as part of their campaign to subdue the Phoenician settlements along the coast. During 700 years of Roman colonial rule the town and its industry prospered, in 49 BC the municipality was given the title Firmium Julium Sexi in recognition of the town's loyalty to Rome. Major evidence of the fish salting and curing industry was uncovered during excavations in the 1970s and 1980s in the extensive Majuelo Botanical Gardens; these revealed the great extent of the rebuilding and modernising of the industry under Roman influence. A segment of the site has been conserved, giving some idea of the size of the industry; this industry required not only large quantities of fish and sea salt, produced in many places along the coast, but a constant supply of fresh running water. To meet this demand the Romans built in the 1st century AD four miles of water conduit in the valleys of the Rio Seco and the Rio Verde, including five significant aqueducts.
All, are still standing and four of them are still in use after 2,000 years – adapted by the Moors over the centuries to serve the needs of crop irrigation. The Roman water supply served the town and recent excavations in the town centre have uncovered the fifth aqueduct and the Roman baths; the Romans were the first to fortify the Castle of Saint Miguel, although frequent rebuilding has obliterated most of the extensive Roman fortifications. These included a bridge from the castle to the'Peñon del Santo' with a massive 100 foot high arch that survived until at least 1800. Just below the castle on the landward side is the'Cueva de Siete Palacios', which translates as'Cave of the Seven Palaces'. However, it is not a cave, rather it is the largest remnant of a Roman palace yet found in Almuñécar, having survived for hundreds of years as'social housing' until the'cave dwellers' were re-housed in the 1970s. Only did its true origins become apparent, it now houses the town museum. Other important Roman remains in the district include a Roman bridge at Cotobro and Roman tombs in several locations.
With the decline of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, Germanic peoples, including the Visigoths, crossed the Pyrenees mountain range into the Iberian peninsula. By 456 the Visigoths emerged as the dominant power, expanded their territory onto the southwestern Mediterranean coast. However, Hispania remained Romanized under their rule; the Visigoths adopted Roman culture and language, maintained many of the old Roman institutions, although much of the economic structure collapsed, at Almuñécar the fish curing industry declined rapidly. The Catholic bishops were the rivals of Visigothic power and culture until the end of the 6th and beginning of the 7th century—the period of transition from Arianism to Catholicism in the Visigothic kingdom; the first Muslim invasion of southern Spain came in 711 AD near Gibraltar. At Almuñécar, the town remembers 15 August 755 when Umayyad Abd ar-Rahman I of Damascus, the founder of the Emirate of Cordoba, arrived from North Africa to establish his Moorish kingdom.
The Moors sustained the fishing industry. The castle remained the stronghold of the city and the seat of government and its walls were strengthened. Extensive dungeons were built for those out of favour with local
Ismail Ibn Sharif
Moulay Ismail ibn Sharif, born around 1645 in Sijilmassa and died on 22 March 1727 at Meknes, was the Sultan of Morocco from 1672–1727, as the second ruler of the Alaouite dynasty. He was the seventh son of Moulay Sharif and was governor of the Kingdom of Fez and the north of Morocco from 1667 until the death of his half-brother, Sultan Moulay Rashid in 1672, he was proclaimed sultan at Fez, but spent several years in conflict with his nephew Moulay Ahmed ben Mehrez, who claimed the throne, until the latter's death in 1687. Moulay Ismail's 55 year reign is the longest of any sultan of Morocco; the reign of Moulay Ismail marked a high watermark for Moroccan power. His military successes are explained by the creation of a strong army relying on the'Guichs' and on the Black Guard, black slaves who were devoted to him; as a result, the central power could be less reliant on tribes which rebelled. Moulay Ismail campaigned against the Ottomans in Algiers and their vassals and expelled the Europeans from the ports which they had occupied: Larache, Asilah and Tangiers.
He nearly took Ceuta. Ismail controlled a fleet of corsairs based at Salé-le-Vieux and Salé-le-Neuf, which supplied him with Christian slaves and weapons through their raids in the Mediterranean and all the way to the Black Sea, he established significant diplomatic relations with foreign powers the Kingdom of France, Great Britain, Spain. Compared to his contemporary, Louis XIV, due to his charisma and authority, Moulay Ismail was nicknamed the'bloody king' by the Europeans due to his cruelty and exaction of summary justice, he is known in his native country as the "Warrior King". He undertook the construction of a grand palace at Meknes, monumental gates, more than forty kilometres of walls and numerous mosques, he died following a sickness. After his death, his supporters became so powerful that they controlled the country and dethroning the sultans at will. Born in 1645 at Sijilmassa, Moulay Ismail ben Sharif was the son of Sharif ibn Ali, prince of Tafilalt and first sovereign of the Alaouite dynasty.
His mother was a black slave. He claimed descent from Hassan ad-Dakhil, a 21st generation descendant of Muhammad, from Az-Zakiya, a 17th generation descendant of Muhammad who had installed himself at Sijilmassa in 1266. After the death of the Saadi Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, Morocco entered a period of unrest, during which his sons fought with one another for the throne, while the country was parcelled up by the different military leaders and religious authorities. From the beginning of the reign of Zidan Abu Maali in 1613, the Saadi sultanate was weak; the Zaouia of Dila controlled central Morocco, the Zaouia of Illigh established its influence from Souss to the Draa River, the marabout Sidi al-Ayachi took possession of the northwestern plains, the Atlantic coast as far as Taza, the Republic of Salé became an independent state at the mouth of the Bou Regreg, the city of Tétouan became a city-state under the control of the Naqsis family. At Tafilalt, the Alouites were appointed by the local people in order to check the influence of the Zaouias of Illigh and Dila.
They were an independent emirate from 1631. Three rulers preceded Ismail ben Sharif: his father, Moulay Sharif his two half-brothers; as the first sovereign of the Alaouite dynasty from 1631, Moulay Sharif succeeded in keeping Tafilalt outside the authority of the Zaouia of Dila. He abdicated in 1636 and his eldest son, Moulay Muhammad ibn Sharif succeeded him. Under the latter's reign, the Alaouite realm expanded into the north of the country, to Tafna and the Draa river, his half-brother, Moulay Rashid rebelled against him and managed to kill him on 3 August 1664, in a battle on the plain of Angad. Moulay Ismail was rewarded by being appointed governor of Meknes. There, Ismail devoted himself to the region's agriculture and commerce, in order to increase his wealth, while Moulay Rashid reigned as Emir of Tafilalt and as Sultan of Morocco after his conquest of Fez on 27 May 1664. Rashid further entrusted Ismail with military control of the North of Morocco and made him feudatory caliph and vice-roy of Fez in 1667, while he fought in the south of Morocco.
Rashid conquered the Zaouia of Dila in 1668 and took two years to overcome rebels at Marrakesh before he broke into the city in 1669. On 6 April 1670, Ismail celebrated his first marriage in the presence of his brother Rashid. On 25 July, he put to death sixty brigands from Oulad Djama, by crucifying them on the wall of the Borj el-Jadid in Fez. While Rashid continued his campaigns against the independent tribes of the High Atlas, he was killed on 9 April 1672 at Marrakesh, after falling off his horse. On 13 April, after he had learnt of Rashid's death, Moulay Ismail rushed to Fez, where he took possession of his brother's treasury and proclaimed himself Sultan of Morocco on 14 April 1672, at the age of twenty-six; this proclamation occurred around 2pm and a grand ceremony followed. The whole population of Fez, including the nobles and sharifs swore to be loyal to the new sovereign, as did the tribes and cities of the kingdom of Fez, who sent embassies and presents to him. Only Marrakesh and the region around it did not send an embassy.
Ismail fixed his capital on account of the water supply and climate of the town. After seizing power, Moulay Ismail faced several rebellions: most significant was the revolt of his nephew Moulay Ahmed ben Mehrez, son of Moulay Murad Mehrez the rebellions of his brothers, including Harran ibn Sharif, who assumed the title of King o
Mawlay Mohammed Al-Sheikh Al-Sharif Al-Hassani Al-Drawi Al-Tagmaderti known as Mohammed Al-Sheikh was the first sultan of the Saadi dynasty ruling over Morocco. "Al-Drawi at-Tagmadert" means: the man from the Draa river valley, from Tagmadert. He was successful in expelling the Portuguese from most of their bases in Morocco, he eliminated the Wattasids and resisted the Ottomans, thereby establishing a complete rule over Morocco. After the death of his father Abu Abdallah al-Qaim in 1517, Mohammed ash-Sheikh took command of the war of the Saadi against the Portuguese, they conquered Marrakesh in 1524. Ahmad al-Araj became Emir of Marrakesh, while still recognizing the Wattasid Sultan of Fez, while Mohammed ash-Sheikh remained as ruler of Taroudannt. In 1527, the Treaty of Tadla was passed between the Saadians and the Wattasids, following the Wattasid defeat in the battle of Wadi al-Abid. Both dynasties agreed to their dominion on respective territories, separated by Tadla. After 1536, the rise in power of Araj, the brothers came into conflict with each other.
Ahmad al-Araj had in effect allied himself with the Wattasids under regent Ali Abu Hassun. Mohammed ash-Sheikh could maintain his position in Southern Morocco and conquered Agadir in 1541 and other coastal towns, ousting the Portuguese. After the loss of Agadir, the Portuguese evacuated Azamor and Safi. Brother Ahmad al-Araj fled to Tafilalet. After reorganising his army after Ottoman example he succeeded in conquering Fez in 1549, causing the downfall of the Wattasids. In the conquest of Fez he again used European artillery, which he had used in the Fall of Agadir in 1541, he provided an army to his son, able to conquer Tlemcen in 1549, throw out the Zayyanid Sultan of Tlemcen. After the fall of Fez, Ksar-el-Kebir and Asila the Portuguese were ousted in 1550. Only Ceuta and Mazagan remained in Portuguese hands. With help of the Ottomans, the Wattasids under Ali Abu Hassun were able to conquer Fez once more in early 1554, but that conquest was short-lived, Mohammed ash-Sheik was able to vanquish the last Wattasids at the Battle of Tadla, recapture the city of Fez in September 1554.
During the Ottoman Siege of Oran, Mohammed ash-Sheikh, allied with the Spanish, managed to capture Tlemcen from the Ottomans. With the final victory of the Saadi and the death of Ali Abu Hassun in 1554, the war was decided. Mohammed ash-Sheikh was assassinated by the Ottomans in 1557 by order of Hasan Pasha, son of Barbarossa, as he was preparing for an alliance with Spain against the Ottomans; some Ottoman soldiers had falsely entered into his service, claiming to be deserters, assassinated him. He was buried in the Saadian Tombs of Marrakech, he was succeeded by his son Abdallah al-Ghalib
Regions of Morocco
Regions are the highest administrative divisions in Morocco. Since 2015, Morocco administers 12 regions, including one that lies within the disputed territory of Western Sahara and two that lie within it; the regions are subdivided into a total of 75 second-order administrative divisions, which are prefectures and provinces. A region is governed by a directly elected regional council; the president of the council is responsible for carrying out the council's decisions. Prior to the 2011 constitutional reforms, this was the responsibility of the Wali, the representative of the central government appointed by the King, who now plays a supporting role in the administration of the region. On 3 January 2010, the Moroccan government established the Consultative Commission for the Regionalization, which aimed to decentralize power to the regions, confer a greater autonomy to the regions coinciding with the Western Sahara; the commission published provisional names and numbers for the new regions, their names were fixed in the Bulletin Officiel dated 5 March 2015.
The new regional councils elected their presidents on 14 September 2015 and regional governors were appointed on 13 October 2015. A.^ Lies or within the disputed territory of Western Sahara. Between 1997 and 2010, Morocco had 16 regions; the entirety of Oued Ed-Dahab-Lagouira, the vast majority of Laâyoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra, part of Guelmim-Es Semara were situated within the disputed territory of Western Sahara. The sovereignty of Western Sahara is disputed between Morocco and the Polisario Front which claims the territory as the independent Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Most of the region is administered by Morocco as its Southern Provinces; the Polisario Front, based in headquarters at Tindouf in south western Algeria, controls only those areas east of the Moroccan Wall. Before 1997, Morocco was divided into 7 regions: Central, North-Central, South-Central, Tansift. Administrative divisions of Morocco Administrative divisions of Morocco ISO 3166-2:MA ISO 3166-2:EH
Mauretania is the Latin name for an area in the ancient Maghreb. It stretched from central present-day Algeria westwards to the Atlantic, covering northern Morocco, southward to the Atlas Mountains, its native inhabitants, seminomadic pastoralists of Berber ancestral stock, were known to the Romans as the Mauri and the Masaesyli. Beginning in 27 BC, the kings of Mauretania became Roman vassals until about 44 AD when the area was annexed to Rome and divided into two provinces: Mauretania Tingitana and Mauretania Caesariensis. In the late 3rd century, another province, Mauretania Sitifensis, was formed out of the eastern part of Caesariensis; when the Vandals arrived in Africa in 429, much of Mauretania became independent. Christianity had spread there in the 4th and 5th centuries but was extinguished when the Arabs conquered the region in the 7th century. Mauretania existed as a tribal kingdom of the Berber Mauri people. Yevgenii Pospelov records a Phoenician naming of the area which became known as Mauretania: the Phoenicians called the country at the extreme western edge of their known world Mauharim, meaning "Western land".
In the early 1st century Strabo recorded Mauri as the native name. This appellation was adopted into Latin; the Mauri would bequeath their name to the Moors on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, from at least the 3rd century BC. The Mediterranean coast of Mauretania had commercial harbours for trade with Carthage from before the 4th century BC, but the interior was controlled by Berber tribes, who had established themselves in the region by the beginning of the Iron Age. King Atlas was a legendary king of Mauretania credited with the invention of the celestial globe; the first known historical king of the Mauri, ruled during the Second Punic War of 218-201 BC. The Mauri were in close contact with Numidia. Bocchus I was father-in-law to the redoubted Numidian king Jugurtha. Mauretania became a client kingdom of the Roman Empire in 33 BC; the Romans installed Juba II of Numidia as their client-king. When Juba died in AD 23, his Roman-educated son Ptolemy of Mauretania succeeded him; the Emperor Caligula had Ptolemy executed in 40.
The Roman Emperor Claudius annexed Mauretania directly as a Roman province in 44, placing it under an imperial governor. The known kings of Mauretania are: In the 1st century AD, Emperor Claudius divided the Roman province of Mauretania into Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana along the line of the Mulucha River, about 60 km west of modern Oran: Mauretania Tingitana was named after its capital Tingis. Mauretania Caesariensis was named after its capital Caesarea and comprised western and central Algeria. Mauretania gave the empire the equestrian Macrinus, he seized power after the assassination of Caracalla in 217 but was himself defeated and executed by Elagabalus the next year. Emperor Diocletian's Tetrarchy reform further divided the area into three provinces, as the small, easternmost region of Sitifensis was split off from Mauretania Caesariensis; the Notitia Dignitatum mentions themas still existing, two being under the authority of the Vicarius of the diocese of Africa: A Dux et praeses provinciae Mauritaniae et Caesariensis, i.e. a Roman governor of the rank of Vir spectabilis, who held the high military command of dux, as the superior of eight border garrison commanders, each styled Praepositus limitis... followed by Columnatensis, inferioris, Muticitani, Audiensis and Augustensis.
A Praeses in the province of Mauretania Sitifensis. And, under the authority of the Vicarius of the diocese of Hispaniae: A Comes rei militaris of Mauretania Tingitana ranking as vir spectabilis, in charge of the following border garrison commanders: Praefectus alae Herculeae at Tamuco Tribunus cohortis secundae Hispanorum at Duga Tribunus cohortis primae Herculeae at Aulucos Tribunus cohortis primae Ityraeorum at Castrabarensis Another Tribunus cohortis at Sala Tribunus cohortis Pacatianensis at Pacatiana Tribunus cohortis tertiae Asturum at Tabernas Tribunus cohortis Friglensis at the Fortress of Friglas or Frigias, near Lixusand to whom three extraordinary cavalry units were assigned: Equites scutarii seniores Equites sagittarii seniores Equites Cordueni A Praeses of the same province of Tingitana During the crisis of the 3rd century, parts of Mauretania were reconquered by Berber tribes. Direct Roman rule became confined to a few coastal cities by the late 3rd century. Historical sources about inland areas are sparse, but these were controlled by local Berber rulers who, maintained a degree of Roman culture, including the local cities, nominally acknowledged the suzerainty of the Roman Emperors.
The Western kingdom more distant from the Vandal kingdom was the one of Altava, a city located at the borders of Mauretania Tingitana and Caesariensis.... It is clear that the Mauro-Roman kingdom of Altava was inside the Western Latin world, not only because of location but because it adopted the military-religious-sociocultural-administrative organization of the Roman Empire... In an inscription from Altava in western Algeria, one of these rulers, described himself as rex gentium Maurorum et Romanorum. Altava was the capital of another ruler, Garmul or
Asilah is a fortified town on the northwest tip of the Atlantic coast of Morocco, about 31 km south of Tangier. Its ramparts and gateworks remain intact; the town's history dates back to 1500 B. C. when Phoenicians occupied a site called Silis, Zilis, or Zilil, being excavated at Dchar Jdid, some 12 km NE of present Asilah. The town of Asilah itself was constructed by the Idrisid dynasty, Cordoban caliph Al-Hakam II rebuilt the town in 966; the Portuguese conquered the city in 1471 and built its fortifications, but it was abandoned it because of an economic debt crisis in 1549. In 1578, Sebastian of Portugal used Asilah as a base for his troops during a planned crusade that resulted in Sebastian's death, which in turn caused the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580. In 1589 the Moroccans regained control of Asilah, but lost it to the Spanish. In 1692, the town was again taken by the Moroccans under the leadership of Moulay Ismail. Asilah served as a base for pirates in the 19th and 20th centuries, in 1829, the Austrians punitively bombarded the city due to Moroccan piracy.
From 1912 to 1956, it was part of Spanish Morocco. A major plan to restore the town was undertaken in 1978 by Mohamed Benaissa. Benaissa and painter Mohamed Melehi were instrumental in organizing an art festival, the International Cultural Moussem of Asilah, that starting in 1978 began generating tourism income, it is credited with having promoted urban renewal in Asilah, is one of the most important art festivals in the country. It played a role in raising the average monthly income from $50 in 1978 to $140 in 2014; the festival continues to attract large numbers of tourists. Asilah is now a popular seaside resort, with modern holiday apartment complexes on the coast road leading to the town from Tangier; the old neighborhoods are restored and painted white, the wealthy from Casablanca have their weekend getaways here. While tourism dominates, Asilah is said to offer a good introduction to Morocco, it hosts annual music and arts festivals, including a mural-painting festival. Thursday is market day.
The International Festival, held in August, features jazz and Moroccan music as well as art exhibitions. Many of the houses of Asilah feature mashrabiya; the main cultural center is the Centre Hassan II des Rencontres Internationales, which hosts festivals in the summer. Head, Barclay. "Mauretania", Historia Numorum, Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 887–890. Maldonado López, Las Ciudades Fenicio Púnicas en el Norte de África
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers, with less than 40 mm of precipitation for at least three summer months. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, these are located on the western coasts of continents, between 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator between oceanic climates towards the poles, semi-arid and arid climates towards the equator. In essence, due to the seasonal shift of the subtropical high-pressure belts with the apparent movement of the Sun, a Mediterranean climate is an intermediate type between these other climates, with winters warmer and drier than oceanic climates and summers imitating sunny weather in semi-arid and arid climates; the resulting vegetation of Mediterranean climates are the garrigue or maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, the chaparral in California, the fynbos in South Africa, the mallee in Australia, the matorral in Chile. Areas with this climate are where the so-called "Mediterranean trinity" of agricultural products have traditionally developed: wheat and olive.
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, including Algiers, Beirut, İzmir, Marseille, Rome and Valencia. Examples of major cities with Mediterranean climates that lie outside of the historic Mediterranean basin include major examples as Adelaide, Cape Town, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Perth, San Francisco and Victoria. Under the Köppen climate classification, "hot dry-summer" climates and "cool dry-summer" climates are referred to as "Mediterranean". Under the Köppen climate system, the first letter indicates the climate group. Temperate climates or "C" zones have an average temperature above 0 °C, but below 18 °C, in their coolest months; the second letter indicates the precipitation pattern. Köppen has defined a dry summer month as a month with less than 30 mm of precipitation and with less than one-third that of the wettest winter month. Some, use a 40 mm level; the third letter indicates the degree of summer heat: "a" represents an average temperature in the warmest month above 22 °C, while "b" indicates the average temperature in the warmest month below 22 °C.
Under the Köppen classification, dry-summer climates occur on the western sides of continents. Csb zones in the Köppen system include areas not associated with Mediterranean climates but with Oceanic climates, such as much of the Pacific Northwest, much of southern Chile, parts of west-central Argentina, parts of New Zealand. Additional highland areas in the subtropics meet Cs requirements, though they, are not associated with Mediterranean climates, as do a number of oceanic islands such as Madeira, the Juan Fernández Islands, the western part of the Canary Islands, the eastern part of the Azores. Under Trewartha's modified Köppen climate classification, the two major requirements for a Cs climate are revised. Under Trewartha's system, at least eight months must have average temperatures of 10 °C or higher, the average annual precipitation must not exceed 900 mm. Thus, under this system, many Csb zones in the Köppen system become Do, the rare Csc zones become Eo, with only the classic dry-summer to warm winter, low annual rainfall locations included in the Mediterranean type climate.
During summer, regions of Mediterranean climate are influenced by cold ocean currents which keep the weather in the region dry and pleasant. Similar to desert climates, in many Mediterranean climates there is a strong diurnal character to daily temperatures in the warm summer months due to strong heating during the day from sunlight and rapid cooling at night. In winter, Mediterranean climate zones are no longer influenced by the cold ocean currents and therefore warmer water settles near land and causes clouds to form and rainfall becomes much more likely; as a result, areas with this climate receive all of their precipitation during their winter and spring seasons, may go anywhere from 3 to 6 months during the summer without having any significant precipitation. In the lower latitudes, precipitation decreases in both the winter and summer because they are closer to the Horse latitudes, thus bringing smaller amounts of rain. Toward the polar latitudes, total moisture increases; the rainfall tends to be more evenly distributed throughout the year in Southern Europe, while in the Eastern Mediterranean and in Southern California the summer is nearly or dry.
In places where evapotranspiration is higher, steppe climates tend to prevail, but still follow the weather pattern of the Mediterranean climate. The majority of the regions with Mediterranean climates have mild winters and warm summers; however winter and summer temperatures can vary between different regions with a Mediterranean climate. For instance, in the case of winters and Los Angeles experience mild temperatures in the winter, with frost and snowfall unknown, whereas Tashkent has colder winters with annual frosts and snowfall. Or to consider summer, Athens experiences rather high temperatures in that season. In contrast, San Francisco has cool summers with daily highs around 21 °C due to