Marion Mitchell Morrison, known professionally as John Wayne and nicknamed'Duke', was an American actor and Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient. He was among the top box office draws for three decades. Wayne grew up in Southern California, he was president of Glendale High School class of 1925. He found work at local film studios when he lost his football scholarship to the University of Southern California as a result of a bodysurfing accident working for the Fox Film Corporation, he appeared in bit parts, but his first leading role came in Raoul Walsh's Western The Big Trail, an early widescreen film epic, a box-office failure. Only leading roles in numerous B movies followed during the 1930s, most of them Westerns. Wayne's career was rejuvenated, he starred in 142 motion pictures altogether, including the dozens with his name above the title produced before 1939. According to one biographer, "John Wayne personified for millions the nation's frontier heritage. Eighty-three of his movies were Westerns, in them he played cowboys and unconquerable loners extracted from the Republic's central creation myth."Wayne's other roles in Westerns include a cattleman driving his herd on the Chisholm Trail in Red River, a Civil War veteran whose niece is abducted by a tribe of Comanches in The Searchers, a troubled rancher competing with a lawyer for a woman's hand in marriage in The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, a cantankerous one-eyed marshal in True Grit.
He is remembered for his roles in The Quiet Man, Rio Bravo with Dean Martin, The Longest Day. In his final screen performance, he starred as an aging gunfighter battling cancer in The Shootist, he appeared with many important Hollywood stars of his era, made his last public appearance at the Academy Awards ceremony on April 9, 1979. Wayne was born Marion Robert Morrison on May 1907 at 224 South Second Street in Winterset, Iowa; the local paper, Winterset Madisonian, reported on page 4 of the edition of May 30, 1907 that Wayne weighed 13 lbs. at birth. His middle name was soon changed from Robert to Mitchell when his parents decided to name their next son Robert. Wayne's father, Clyde Leonard Morrison, was the son of American Civil War veteran Marion Mitchell Morrison. Wayne's mother, the former Mary "Molly" Alberta Brown, was from Nebraska. Wayne's ancestry included English and Irish, he was raised Presbyterian. Wayne's family moved to Palmdale, in 1916 to Glendale at 404 Isabel Street, where his father worked as a pharmacist.
He attended Glendale Union High School where he performed well in academics. Wayne was part of its debating team, he was the president of the Latin Society and contributed to the school's newspaper sports column. A local fireman at the station on his route to school in Glendale started calling him "Little Duke" because he never went anywhere without his huge Airedale Terrier, Duke, he preferred "Duke" to "Marion", the nickname stuck. Wayne attended Wilson Middle School in Glendale; as a teen, he worked in an ice cream shop for a man. He was active as a member of the Order of DeMolay, he played football for the 1924 league champion Glendale High School team. Wayne applied to the U. S. Naval was not accepted. Instead, he attended the University of Southern California, he was a member of the Trojan Knights and Sigma Chi fraternities. Wayne played on the USC football team under coach Howard Jones. A broken collarbone injury curtailed his athletic career, he lost his athletic scholarship, without funds, had to leave the university.
As a favor to USC football coach Howard Jones, who had given silent western film star Tom Mix tickets to USC games, director John Ford and Mix hired Wayne as a prop boy and extra. Wayne credited his walk and persona to his acquaintance with Wyatt Earp, good friends with Tom Mix. Wayne soon moved to bit parts, establishing a longtime friendship with the director who provided most of those roles, John Ford. Early in this period he had a minor, uncredited role as a guard in the 1926 film Bardelys the Magnificent. Wayne appeared with his USC teammates playing football in Brown of Harvard, The Dropkick, Salute and Columbia's Maker of Men. While working for Fox Film Corporation in bit roles, Wayne was given on-screen credit as "Duke Morrison" only once, in Words and Music. Director Raoul Walsh saw him moving studio furniture while working as a prop boy and cast him in his first starring role in The Big Trail. For his screen name, Walsh suggested "Anthony Wayne", after Revolutionary War general "Mad" Anthony Wayne.
Fox Studios chief Winfield Sheehan rejected it as sounding "too Italian". Walsh suggested "John Wayne". Sheehan agreed, the name was set. Wayne was not present for the discussion, his pay was raised to $105 a week. The Big Trail was to be the first big-budget outdoor spectacle of the sound era, made at a then-staggering cost of over $2 million, using hundreds of extras and wide vistas of the American southwest, still unpopulated at the time. To take advantage of the breathtaking scenery, it was filmed in two versions, a standard 35 mm version and another in the new 70 mm Grandeur film p
Lewis Frederick Ayres III was an American actor whose film and television career spanned 65 years. He is best known for starring as German soldier Paul Bäumer in the film All Quiet on the Western Front and for playing Dr. Kildare in nine movies, he was nominated for an Academy Award for his performance in Johnny Belinda. Ayres was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota to Irma Bevernick and Louis Ayres, who divorced when he was four. Louis, an amateur musician and court reporter, remarried soon afterwards; as a teen, he and his mother moved with his step-father, William Gilmore, half brother and sister to San Diego, California. Leaving high school before graduating, he started a small band, he returned months to pursue an acting career, but continued working full-time as a musician. He played banjo and guitar including the Henry Halstead Orchestra, he recorded. Ayres wrote, "I was a member of Henry Halstead's orchestra in 1927 at the Mission Beach Ballroom in San Diego, California for the summer. My instruments were long-neck banjo and guitar.
After a hiatus, I rejoined Mr. Halstead with a new group, including Phil Harris, on New Year's Eve the same year for the opening night of the Beverly Wilshire Hotel, a memorable occasion."He left a national tour to pursue a career as an actor full-time. Ayres was discovered at a night club by talent agent Ivan Kahn, he was cast to play opposite Greta Garbo in The Kiss, but it was his leading role in the original version of All Quiet on the Western Front that made him a star, secured him a contract with Universal—and made him a conscientious objector to World War II. He made a number of forgotten B movies for Universal, with the exception of Iron Man, with Jean Harlow, his most successful movies at this time were those he made on loan to other studios, including The Doorway to Hell with James Cagney in a supporting role, as Janet Gaynor's leading man in both State Fair and Servants' Entrance, which featured a combination of live action and Walt Disney animation in a musical dream sequence, both for Fox Films.
Ayres left Universal to sign with Fox Films. In 1934 he was listed as one of Fox's second tier stars, he moved to poverty row studio Republic Pictures to pursue a second career as a director, including the film Hearts in Bondage, starring James Dunn and Mae Clarke. He moved to Paramount Pictures before being signed to MGM in 1938. At this time, he was loaned from Paramount to play the role of Ned in Holiday; the role earned him considerable critical attention, including interest from MGM to put him under contract for the role of Dr. James Kildare in an upcoming film series. Ayres played the role in nine films from 1938 to 1942 while appearing in light comedies for MGM, including Spring Madness and Rich Man, Poor Girl, The Ice Follies of 1939, Fingers at the Window, his final film as Dr. Kildare, Born to Be Bad, was re-edited after he was drafted and declared himself a conscientious objector in March 1942; this stance destroyed Ayres' reputation until it was revealed that he had served honorably as a non-combatant medic from 1942 to 1946.
He returned to acting in the films The Dark Mirror with Olivia de Havilland and The Unfaithful with Ann Sheridan. For his role in Johnny Belinda he received an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor, while co-star Jane Wyman won Best Actress. Ayres moved to television, appearing in several anthology series in guest roles. In the summer of 1958, he hosted eleven original episodes of a CBS Western anthology television series called Frontier Justice, a production of Dick Powell's Four Star Television, he was offered the part of Dr. Kildare in an NBC series but his prescient request that the show have no cigarette advertising led to the offer being withdrawn, the part going, in 1961, to Richard Chamberlain, he appeared as the Vice-President in Advise & Consent, in The Carpetbaggers, but he was by primarily a television actor, with only occasional film work. For a guest role in Kung Fu he was nominated for an Emmy, his documentary film Altars of the World, based on a series of documentaries he made titled Altars of the East, brought his Eastern philosophical beliefs to the screen and earned him critical acclaim and a Golden Globe Award for best documentary in 1977.
Ayres guest-starred in an episode of The Bionic Woman as Dr. Elijah Cooper, an elderly nuclear scientist who attempts to blackmail the world into peace. In 1985, he was cast in his first series as a regular cast member, as the father of Robert Wagner in the short-lived series Lime Street, his last role was in the made-for-TV film Hart to Hart: Crimes of the Heart starring Wagner. In March 1942, Ayres was sent to a CO camp; as expected, the announcement that a Hollywood actor objected to the war was a major source of public outcry and debate. Within a month it was determined that he had requested to be A-O-1, so that he could serve as a non-combat medic. However, the military's policy that servicemen cannot request, or be guaranteed, where they will serve, forced him to request a 4E status; the U. S. military confirmed that they would place him as a medic and in April 1942, his status was changed. He enlisted in the United States Army on May 18, 1942, he served as a First Aid instructor in the United States Army before requesting a drop in rank in order to serve as a medic and chaplain's assi
Leo Ernest Durocher, nicknamed Leo the Lip and Lippy, was an American professional baseball player and coach. He played in Major League Baseball as an infielder. Upon his retirement, he ranked fifth all-time among managers with 2,009 career victories, second only to John McGraw in National League history. Durocher still ranks tenth in career wins by a manager. A controversial and outspoken character, Durocher had a stormy career dogged by clashes with authority, the baseball commissioner and the press. Durocher was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1994. Leo Durocher was born in West Springfield, Massachusetts, on July 27, 1905, the youngest of four sons born to French Canadian parents, he was educated locally and became a prominent semi-professional athlete, with several employers competing to have him play on their company teams. After being scouted by the New York Yankees, Durocher broke into professional baseball with the Hartford Senators of the Eastern League in 1925, he was played in two games.
Durocher spent two more seasons in the minors, playing for the Atlanta Crackers of the Southern Association in 1926 and St. Paul Saints of the American Association in 1927. Durocher rejoined the Yankees in 1928. A regular player, he was nicknamed "The All-American Out" by Babe Ruth. Durocher was a favorite of Yankee manager Miller Huggins, who saw in him the seeds of a great manager — the competitiveness, the passion, the ego, the facility for remembering situations. Durocher's outspokenness did not endear him to Yankee ownership and his habit of passing bad checks to finance his expensive tastes in clothes and nightlife annoyed Yankee general manager Ed Barrow. Durocher helped the team win their second consecutive World Series title in 1928 demanded a raise and was sold to the Cincinnati Reds on February 5, 1930. Durocher spent the remainder of his professional career in the National League. After playing three seasons with the Reds, Durocher was traded to the St. Louis Cardinals in mid-1933.
Upon joining the Cardinals he was assigned uniform number 2, which he wore for the rest of his career, as player and manager. That team, whose famous nickname "Gashouse Gang" was inspired by Durocher, were a far more appropriate match for him. Durocher remained with the Cardinals through the 1937 season, captaining the team and winning the 1934 World Series before being traded to the Brooklyn Dodgers. A shortstop, Durocher played through 1945, though his last year as a regular was 1939, he was known as a solid fielder but a poor hitter. In 5,350 career at bats, he hit 24 home runs and had 567 runs batted in. Durocher was named to the NL's All-Star team three times, once with St. Louis and twice with the Dodgers. In the 1938 game in Cincinnati, Durocher hit the only Little League Home Run in All-Star Game history. In 1938, Durocher made history of a sort by making the final out in Johnny Vander Meer's second consecutive no-hitter. After the 1938 season — Durocher's first year as Brooklyn's starting shortstop — he was appointed player-manager by the Dodgers' new president and general manager, Larry MacPhail.
The two were a combustible combination. MacPhail spared no expense in purchasing and trading for useful players, such as Dolph Camilli, Billy Herman and Kirby Higbe, he purchased shortstop Pee Wee Reese from the Boston Red Sox. By the end of the 1941 season, Reese impressed Durocher enough that he gave up his spot as the regular shortstop so Reese could get a chance to play, though Durocher would make "cameo" appearances in the lineup in 1943 and 1945. Other major purchases by MacPhail included another young star, Pete Reiser, when he was ruled a free agent from the Cardinals' farm system. In his first season as player-manager, Durocher came into his own; the most enduring image of Durocher is of him standing toe-to-toe with an umpire, vehemently arguing his case until his inevitable ejection from the game. Durocher's fiery temper and willingness to scrap came to epitomize the position for which he was to become most famous; as manager he valued these same traits in his players. His philosophy was best expressed in the phrase for which he is best, albeit inaccurately, remembered: "Nice guys finish last".
Durocher once said, "Look at Mel Ott over there. He's a nice guy, he finishes second. Now look at the Brat, he can't run, can't field. He's no nice guy, but all the little son-of-a-bitch can do is win." Durocher was notorious for ordering his pitchers to hit batters. Whenever he wanted a batter hit, he would yell, "Stick it in his ear!" In 1939 the Dodgers were coming off six straight losing seasons, but Durocher led a quick turnaround. In 1941, his third season as manager, he led the Dodgers to a 100–54 record and the National League pennant, their first in 21 years. In the 1941 World Series the Dodgers lost to the Yankees in five games, they bettered their record in 1942, winning 104 games but just missing out on winning a second consecutive pennant. Despite all the success of his first three years and MacPhail had a tempestuous relationship. MacPhail was a notorious drinker, he was as hot-tempered as his manager. He
Nancy Davis Reagan was an American film actress and the wife of Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of the United States. She was the First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989, she was born in New York City. After her parents separated, she lived in Maryland with an uncle for several years; when her mother remarried in 1929, she moved to Chicago and took the name Davis from her stepfather. As Nancy Davis, she was a Hollywood actress in the 1940s and 1950s, starring in films such as The Next Voice You Hear... Night into Morning, Donovan's Brain. In 1952, she married Ronald Reagan, president of the Screen Actors Guild, they had two children together. Reagan was the First Lady of California when her husband was Governor from 1967 to 1975, she began to work with the Foster Grandparents Program. Reagan became First Lady of the United States in January 1981, following her husband's victory in the 1980 presidential election. Early in his first term, she was criticized due to her decision to replace the White House china, paid for by private donations.
Following years of lax formality, she decided to restore a Kennedyesque glamour to the White House, her interest in high-end fashion garnered much attention as well as criticism. She championed recreational drug prevention causes when she founded the "Just Say No" drug awareness campaign, considered her major initiative as First Lady. More discussion of her role ensued following a 1988 revelation that she had consulted an astrologer to assist in planning the president's schedule after the attempted assassination of her husband in 1981, she had a strong influence on her husband and played a role in a few of his personnel and diplomatic decisions. After Ronald Reagan's term as president ended, the couple returned to their home in Bel Air, Los Angeles, California. Nancy devoted most of her time to caring for her husband, diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease in 1994, until his death at the age of 93 on June 5, 2004. Reagan remained active within the Reagan Library and in politics in support of embryonic stem cell research, until her death from congestive heart failure at age 94 on March 6, 2016.
Anne Frances Robbins was born on July 1921, at Sloane Hospital for Women in Midtown Manhattan. She was the only child of Kenneth Seymour Robbins, a farmer turned car salesman, born into a once-prosperous family, his actress wife, Edith Prescott Luckett, her godmother was silent-film-star Alla Nazimova. From birth, she was called Nancy, she lived her first two years in Flushing, Queens, a borough of New York City, in a two-story house on Roosevelt Avenue between 149th and 150th Streets. Her parents separated soon after her birth and were divorced in 1928. After their separation, her mother traveled the country to pursue acting jobs and Robbins was raised in Bethesda, for six years by her aunt, Virginia Luckett, uncle, Audley Gailbraith, where she attended The Sidwell Friends School,K-2 grades. Nancy described longing for her mother during those years: "My favorite times were when Mother had a job in New York, Aunt Virgie would take me by train to stay with her."In 1929, her mother married Loyal Edward Davis, a prominent conservative neurosurgeon who moved the family to Chicago.
Nancy and her stepfather got along well. He formally adopted her in 1938, she would always refer to him as her father. At the time of the adoption, her name was changed to Nancy Davis, she attended the Girls' Latin School of Chicago, she graduated in 1939, attended Smith College in Massachusetts, where she majored in English and drama, graduated in 1943. In 1940, a young Davis had appeared as a National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis volunteer in a memorable short subject film shown in movie theaters to raise donations for the crusade against polio; the Crippler featured a sinister figure spreading over playgrounds and farms, laughing over its victims, until dispelled by the volunteer. It was effective in raising contributions. Following her graduation from college, Davis held jobs in Chicago as a sales clerk in Marshall Field's department store and as a nurse's aide. With the help of her mother's colleagues in theatre, including ZaSu Pitts, Walter Huston, Spencer Tracy, she pursued a professional career as an actress.
She first gained a part in Pitts' 1945 road tour of Ramshackle Inn. She landed the role of Si-Tchun, a lady-in-waiting, in the 1946 Broadway musical about the Orient, Lute Song, starring Mary Martin and a pre-fame Yul Brynner; the show's producer told her, "You look like you could be Chinese."After passing a screen test, she moved to California and signed a seven-year contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. in 1949. Her combination of attractive appearance—centered on her large eyes—and somewhat distant and understated manner made her hard at first for MGM to cast and publicize. Davis appeared in eleven feature films typecast as a "loyal housewife", "responsible young mother", or "the steady woman". Jane Powell, Debbie Reynolds, Leslie Caron, Janet Leigh were among the actresses with whom she competed for roles at MGM. Davis' film career began with small supporting roles in two films that were released in 1949, The Doctor and the Girl with Glenn Ford and East Side, West Side starring Barbara Stanwyck.
She played a child psychiatrist in the film noir Shadow on the Wall with Ann Sothern and Zachary Scott.
Santa Monica, California
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, United States. Situated on Santa Monica Bay, it is bordered on three sides by the city of Los Angeles – Pacific Palisades to the north, Brentwood on the northeast, West Los Angeles on the east, Mar Vista on the southeast, Venice on the south; the Census Bureau population for Santa Monica in 2010 was 89,736. Due in part to an agreeable climate, Santa Monica became a famed resort town by the early 20th century; the city has experienced a boom since the late 1980s through the revitalization of its downtown core, significant job growth and increased tourism. The Santa Monica Pier and Pacific Park remain popular destinations. Santa Monica was long inhabited by the Tongva people. Santa Monica was called Kecheek in the Tongva language; the first non-indigenous group to set foot in the area was the party of explorer Gaspar de Portolà, who camped near the present-day intersection of Barrington and Ohio Avenues on August 3, 1769. Named after the Christian saint Monica, there are two different accounts of how the city's name came to be.
One says it was named in honor of the feast day of Saint Monica, but her feast day is May 4. Another version says it was named by Juan Crespí on account of a pair of springs, the Kuruvungna Springs, that were reminiscent of the tears Saint Monica shed over her son's early impiety. In Los Angeles, several battles were fought by the Californios. Following the Mexican–American War, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which gave Mexicans and Californios living in state certain unalienable rights. US government sovereignty in California began on February 2, 1848. In the 1870s the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad, connected Santa Monica with Los Angeles, a wharf out into the bay; the first town hall was a modest 1873 brick building a beer hall, now part of the Santa Monica Hostel. It is Santa Monica's oldest extant structure. By 1885, the town's first hotel was the Santa Monica Hotel. Amusement piers became enormously popular in the first decades of the 20th century and the extensive Pacific Electric Railroad brought people to the city's beaches from across the Greater Los Angeles Area.
Around the start of the 20th century, a growing population of Asian Americans lived in and around Santa Monica and Venice. A Japanese fishing village was near the Long Wharf while small numbers of Chinese lived or worked in Santa Monica and Venice; the two ethnic minorities were viewed differently by White Americans who were well-disposed towards the Japanese but condescending towards the Chinese. The Japanese village fishermen were an integral economic part of the Santa Monica Bay community. Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. built a plant in 1922 at Clover Field for the Douglas Aircraft Company. In 1924, four Douglas-built planes took off from Clover Field to attempt the first aerial circumnavigation of the world. Two planes returned after covering 27,553 miles in 175 days, were greeted on their return September 23, 1924, by a crowd of 200,000; the Douglas Company kept facilities in the city until the 1960s. The Great Depression hit Santa Monica deeply. One report gives citywide employment in 1933 of just 1,000.
Hotels and office building owners went bankrupt. In the 1930s, corruption infected Santa Monica; the federal Works Project Administration helped build several buildings, most notably City Hall. The main Post Office and Barnum Hall were among other WPA projects. Douglas's business grew astronomically with the onset of World War II, employing as many as 44,000 people in 1943. To defend against air attack, set designers from the Warner Brothers Studios prepared elaborate camouflage that disguised the factory and airfield; the RAND Corporation began as a project of the Douglas Company in 1945, spun off into an independent think tank on May 14, 1948. RAND acquired a 15-acre campus between the Civic Center and the pier entrance; the completion of the Santa Monica Freeway in 1966 brought the promise of new prosperity, though at the cost of decimating the Pico neighborhood, a leading African American enclave on the Westside. Beach volleyball is believed to have been developed by Duke Kahanamoku in Santa Monica during the 1920s.
The Santa Monica Looff Hippodrome is a National Historic Landmark. It sits on the Santa Monica Pier, built in 1909; the La Monica Ballroom on the pier was once the largest ballroom in the US and the source for many New Year's Eve national network broadcasts. The Santa Monica Civic Auditorium was an important music venue for several decades and hosted the Academy Awards in the 1960s. McCabe's Guitar Shop is a leading acoustic performance space as well as retail outlet. Bergamot Station is a city-owned art gallery compound; the city is home to the California Heritage Museum and the Angels Attic dollhouse and toy museum. The New West Symphony is the resident orchestra of Barnum Hall, they are resident orchestra of the Oxnard Performing Arts Center and the Thousand Oaks Civic Arts Plaza. Santa Monica has three main shopping districts: Montana Avenue on the north side, the Downtown District in the city's core, Main Street on the south end; each has personality. Montana Avenue is a stretch of luxury boutique stores and small offices that features more upscale shopping.
The Main Street district offers an eclectic mix of clothing and other specialty retail. The Downtown District is the home of the Third Street Promenade, a major outdoor pedestrian-on
Ute people are Native Americans of the Ute tribe and culture and are among the Great Basin classification of Indigenous People. They have lived in the regions of present-day Utah and Colorado for centuries, hunting and gathering food. In addition to their home regions within Colorado and Utah, their hunting grounds extended into Wyoming and New Mexico, they had sacred grounds outside of their home domain that were visited seasonally. Spiritual and ceremonial practices were observed by the Utes. There were twelve historic bands of Utes whose culture was influenced by neighboring Native Americans. Although they operated in family groups for hunting and gathering, they came together for ceremonies and trading; the Utes traded with other Native American tribes and Puebloans. When they made contact with early Euro-Americans, such as the Spanish, they traded with them. After they acquired horses from the Spanish, their lifestyle changed affecting their mobility, hunting practices, tribal organization.
Once defensive warriors, they became adept horsemen and warriors, raiding other Native Americans and Puebloans. Their prestige was based upon the number of horses they owned and their horsemanship, tested during horse races. Once the American West began to be inhabited by gold prospectors and settlers in the mid-1800s, the Utes were pressured off their ancestral lands, they entered into treaties to hold on to some of their land and were relocated to reservations. A few of the key conflicts during this period include the Walker War, Black Hawk War, the Meeker Massacre, they are now living in Utah and Colorado, within three Ute tribal reservations: Uintah-Ouray in northeastern Utah. The majority of Ute are believed to live on one of these reservations. Utah is named after these people; the origin of the word Ute is unknown. The Utes self-designation is based upon nuuchi-u. Ute people are from the Southern subdivision of the Numic-speaking branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, which are found entirely in the Western United States and Mexico.
The name of the language family was created to show that it includes both the Colorado River Numic language dialect chain that stretches from southeastern California, along the Colorado River to Colorado and the Nahuan languages of Mexico. It is believed that this Numic group originated near the border of Nevada and California spread North and East. By about 1000, there were hunters and gatherers in the Great Basin of Uto-Aztecan ethnicity that are believed to have been the ancestors of the Indigenous tribes of the Great Basin, including the Ute, Shoshone, Hopi and Chemehuevi peoples; some ethnologists postulate that the Southern Numic speakers, the Ute and Southern Paiute, left the Numic homeland first, based on language changes, that the Central and the Western subgroups spread out toward the east and north, sometime later. Shoshone and Comanche are Central Numic, Northern Paiute and Bannock are Western Numic; the Southern Numic-speaking tribes—the Utes, Southern Paiute, Chemehuevi— share many cultural and linguistic characteristics.
There were ancestral Utes in southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah by 1300, living a hunter-gather lifestyle. The Ute occupied much of the present state of Colorado by the 1600s, they were followed by the Comanches from the south in the 1700s, the Arapaho and Cheyenne from the plains who dominated the plains of Colorado. The Utes came to inhabit a large area including most of Utah and central Colorado, south into the San Juan River watershed of New Mexico; some Ute bands stayed near their home domains. Hunting grounds extended further into Utah and Colorado, as well as into Wyoming, Oklahoma and New Mexico. Winter camps were established along rivers near the present-day cities of Provo and Fort Duchesne in Utah and Pueblo, Fort Collins, Colorado Springs of Colorado. Aside from their home domain, there were sacred places in present-day Colorado; the Tabeguache Ute's name for Pikes Peak is Tavakiev. Living a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle, summers were spent in the Pikes Peak area mountains, considered by other tribes to be the domain of the Utes.
Pikes Peak was a sacred ceremonial area for the band. The mineral springs at Manitou Springs were sacred and Ute and other tribes came to the area, spent winters there, "share in the gifts of the waters without worry of conflict." Artifacts found from the nearby Garden of the Gods, such as grinding stones, "suggest the groups would gather together after their hunt to complete the tanning of hides and processing of meat."The old Ute Pass Trail went eastward from Monument Creek to Garden of the Gods and Manitou Springs to the Rocky Mountains. From Ute Pass, Utes journeyed eastward to hunt buffalo, they spent winters in mountain valleys. The North and Middle Parks of present-day Colorado were among favored hunting grounds, due to the abundance of game. Cañon Pintado, or painted canyon, is a prehistoric site with rock art from Fremont Utes; the Fremont art reflect an interest in agriculture, including corn stalks and use of light at different times of the year to show a planting calendar. There are images of figures holding shields, what appear to be battle victims, spears.
These were seen by the Domin
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa