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Larchmont, New York

Larchmont is a village located within the Town of Mamaroneck in Westchester County, New York 18 miles northeast of Midtown Manhattan. The population of the village was 5,864 at the 2010 census. In February 2019, Bloomberg ranked Larchmont as the 15th wealthiest place in the United States, the third wealthiest in New York. In July 2005, CNN/Money and Money magazine ranked Larchmont 11th on its list of the 100 Best Places to Live in the United States. Inhabited by the Siwanoy, Larchmont was explored by the Dutch in 1614. In 1661, John Richbell, a merchant from Hampshire, traded a minimal amount of goods and trinkets with the Siwanoy in exchange for land, today known as the Town of Mamaroneck; the purchase included three peninsulas of land that lay between the Mamaroneck River to the east, Pelham Manor to the west. The east neck is now known as Orienta; the third neck was sold and is now known as Davenport Neck in New Rochelle. The purchase was contested by Thomas Revell who, one month following Richbell's purchase, bought the land from the Siwanoy at a higher price.

Richbell petitioned Governor Stuyvesant, Director General of the Colonies of the New Netherland, Richbell was issued the land patent in 1662. In 1664 Great Britain took control of the colonies and Richbell received an English title for his lands in 1668 whereupon he began to encourage settlement. In 1675 Richbell leased his "Middle Neck" to his brother however when he died in 1684 none of his original property remained in his name. In 1700, Samuel Palmer, elected the Town's first supervisor in 1697, obtained the original leases on the "Middle Neck", in 1722 the Palmer family obtained full title to the land which included what is now the Incorporated Village of Larchmont. Larchmont's oldest and most historic home, the "Manor House" on Elm Avenue, was built in 1797 by Peter Jay Munro. Munro was the nephew of John Jay, the first Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, was adopted by Jay. At the beginning of the 19th Century, Munro was active in the abolitionist movement, helping to found the New York State Manumission Society, along with his uncle and Alexander Hamilton.

In 1795 Munro had purchased much of the land owned by Samuel Palmer and by 1828 he owned all of the "Middle Neck" south of the Post Road and much of the land north of the Post Road as well. Munro became a lawyer with Aaron Burr's law firm and built a home in Larchmont Manor known as the Manor House. Munro's house faced towards the Boston Post Road, which tended to generate a lot of dust in summer months. To combat this, his gardener imported a Scottish species of larch trees that were known to be fast growing; these were planted along the front of the property giving the village its name. When Munro died in 1833, his son Henry inherited the property which he subsequently lost and sold at auction in 1845 to Edward Knight Collins, owner of a steamship line. By the end of the Civil War in 1865, Collins had gone bankrupt and his estate was put up for auction and purchased by Thompson J. S. Flint. Flint divided the estate into building lots and called his development company the Larchmont Manor Company.

Flint converted the Munro Mansion into an inn for prospective buyers and reserved some waterfront land for use as a park for the future residents of the Manor. After 1872 the area became a popular summer resort for wealthy New Yorkers; the arrival of the New York & New Haven Railroad replaced the stagecoach and steamboat as the main mode of transportation to and from New York City, making it much easier to commute and thus, modernizing travel which helped develop much of Westchester from farmland into suburbs by the 1900s. Larchmont is a French name; the New York legislature created Mamaroneck as a town in 1788, which includes a part of the Village of Mamaroneck, The Village of Larchmont, the unincorporated area in the Town of Mamaroneck. This three part division occurred in the 1890s to meet the growing demand for municipal services which the town could not provide. At the time, a town was defined as only being able to provide basic government functions leaving residents of Larchmont in need of adequate water supply, sewage disposal, garbage collection, police and fire protection.

In 1891 the residents of Larchmont Manor obtained a charter from the legislature in which they incorporated that section of Town into a village. In order to comply with a law requiring incorporated villages to have at least 300 inhabitants per square mile, the boundaries of the newly incorporated Larchmont village were expanded beyond the Manor's 288 acres to include land to its north and south of the railroad, east to Weaver Street. After the advent of the automobile, Larchmont transitioned from a resort community into one of the earliest suburbs in the United States, catering to wealthy individuals commuting to and from New York City for work on a daily basis. Many of the Victorian "cottages" and a grand hotels remain to this day, though these have been converted to other uses such as private residences; the Larchmont Yacht Club hosts an annual Race Week competition. It is adjacent to Manor Park, designed by Jeremiah Towle, an early summer resident of Larchmont Manor and an engineer; the Larchmont Shore Club hosts an annual Swim Across America challenge, across Long Island Sound.

Larchmont and neighboring Mamaroneck and New Rochelle are noted for their significant French American populace due to the French-American School of New York. Larchmont is located at 40°55′34″N 73°45′11″W

Kismayo University

Kismayo University is a private university located in Kismayo, Somalia's third largest city. The Kismayo University was founded to enhance the skills and the knowledge of the region's population; the economy is agriculture-based and the secondary backbone of the Kismayo economy depends on its fisheries. Skilled people fled the region as there has been civil war since 1991. Founders of the university and policymakers want to hold on to young people leaving the city to find higher education elsewhere; the founding of Kismayo University in September 2005, created 200 postsecondary spaces. The obvious result will be opportunity for university education for local high school graduates and adults who would like to continue their education in the region instead of going to Mogadishu, Hargeisa, or neighboring Kenya. Educators and parents in the city of Kismayo sought a way to prevent young people from joining clan militias and other warring factions in Somalia; the solution was to build a university for young people graduating from high schools in the region.

Kismayo University's long vision is twofold: to keep young people safe and educated and to create knowledgeable work force for the current industries such as telecommunications, Kismayo Port Authority and money transfer centers. Faculty of Education Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences Faculty of Nursing Faculty of Education Faculty of Sharia and law Kismayo University has enabled 59 students to finish their postsecondary education. In the graduating class of 2010, 27 students earned bachelor degrees while 32 students earned certificates. Kismayo University Kismayo University Class of 2010

Mentone, Indiana

Mentone is a town in Harrison and Franklin townships, Kosciusko County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. Mentone is the self-proclaimed "Egg Basket of the Midwest" because of prolific commercial egg production in the area, holds an Egg Festival annually in early June to celebrate its heritage. A large concrete egg stands near the town center and is considered locally to be the "Largest Egg in the World"; the Lawrence D. Bell Aircraft Museum, is located within the town limits; the population was 1,001 at the 2010 census. Mentone was platted in 1882, it was named after Menton, in France. The Mentone post office was established in 1882. Mentone is located at 41°10′23″N 86°2′21″W. According to the 2010 census, Mentone has a total area of 0.59 square miles, of which 0.58 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,001 people, 369 households, 267 families living in the town; the population density was 1,725.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 423 housing units at an average density of 729.3 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the town was 94.1% White, 0.3% African American, 0.8% Native American, 3.1% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.8% of the population. There were 369 households of which 38.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.1% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 27.6% were non-families. 22.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.13. The median age in the town was 31.2 years. 28.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 50.3 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 898 people, 335 households, 230 families living in the town; the population density was 1,424.6 people per square mile. There were 365 housing units at an average density of 579.0 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the town was 94.99% White, 0.11% African American, 0.22% Native American, 3.79% from other races, 0.89% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.90% of the population. There were 335 households out of which 38.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.8% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.3% were non-families. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.25. In the town, the population was spread out with 31.2% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 17.5% from 45 to 64, 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $38,750, the median income for a family was $42,222.

Males had a median income of $27,250 versus $22,917 for females. The per capita income for the town was $15,372. About 5.7% of families and 6.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.2% of those under age 18 and 1.8% of those age 65 or over. The town has the Bell Memorial Public Library. Lawrence D. Bell, the founder of Bell Aircraft, was born in Mentone. Lawrence D. Bell Aircraft Museum, which showcases personal and historical items related to his life and the history of aviation. Bell Memorial Public Library

Dunbar Armored robbery

The Dunbar Armored robbery is the largest cash robbery to have occurred in the United States. In 1997 five men robbed the Dunbar Armored facility in California of US$18.9 million. The robbery was masterminded by Allen Pace. While on the job, Pace had time to photograph and examine the company's Los Angeles armored car depot, he recruited five of his childhood friends, on the night of Friday, September 12, 1997, Pace used his keys to gain admittance to the facility. Pace had determined how they could be avoided. Once inside, they waited within the staff cafeteria, ambushing the guards one by one as they took their lunch breaks at 12:30 A. M. Pace knew that on Friday nights, the vault was left open, due to the large quantities of money being moved. Rushing the vault guards, the robbers managed to subdue them. In half an hour, the robbers had loaded millions of dollars into a waiting U-Haul. Pace knew which bags contained the highest denominations and non-sequential bills, he knew where the recording devices for the security cameras were located and took them.

The police realized it was an inside job and examined Pace, but could find nothing. The gang worked hard to conceal their new wealth, laundering it through property deals and phony businesses. One of the gang members, Eugene Lamar Hill, erred when he gave a real estate broker friend a stack of cash bound together with the original currency straps. Arrested, Hill soon named his co-conspirators. Allen Pace was arrested and sentenced to 24 years in prison on April 23, remains incarcerated at a Federal Correctional Institution in Safford. Less than half of the money was recovered, with some US$13.9 million still unaccounted for. List of large value US robberies

Tendaguripterus

Tendaguripterus was a genus of dsungaripteroid pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian-age Upper Jurassic Middle Saurian Beds of Tendaguru, Mtwara Region, Tanzania. During the German paleontological expeditions to German East Africa between 1909 and 1913, some pterosaur fossil material was collected, recognised as such by Hans Reck in 1931. In 1999 David Unwin and Wolf-Dieter Heinrich named a new genus for it; the type species is Tendaguripterus recki. The genus name is derived from Tendaguru and a Latinised Greek pteron, "wing"; the specific name honours Reck. The genus is based on holotype MB. R.1290, a partial mandible with teeth. The top of the back of the symphysis is concave; the teeth in the posterior section of the jaw fragment point backwards. They are the longest; the teeth are set far apart in alveoli with a thickened ridge. Overall, this would have been a small pterosaur; this specimen is the first report of pterosaur cranial material from Tendaguru. First described as a member of the Germanodactylidae, it was regarded as a more general dsungaripteroid, meaning it may have fed on crabs and other shellfish.

This was motivated by the somewhat raised margins of the tooth sockets. In 2007 Alexander Kellner stated that the resemblance to either Germanodactylus or Dsungaripterus was superficial and that it was not certain it was a member of the Pterodactyloidea instead of a more basal pterosaur, he accordingly referred it to a newly named but undefined clade, the Tendaguripteridae, of which it is the only member. List of pterosaur genera Timeline of pterosaur research Tendaguripterus in The Pterosauria

Snowclone

A snowclone is a cliché and phrasal template that can be used and recognized in multiple variants. The term was coined as a neologism in 2004, derived from journalistic clichés that referred to the number of Eskimo words for snow; the linguistic phenomenon of "a multi-use, customizable recognizable, time-worn, quoted or misquoted phrase or sentence that can be used in an open array of different variants" was described by linguist Geoffrey K. Pullum in 2003. Pullum described snowclones as "some-assembly-required adaptable cliché frames for lazy journalists". In an October 2003 post on Language Log, a collaborative blog by several linguistics professors, Pullum solicited ideas for what the then-unnamed phenomenon should be called. In response to the request, the word "snowclone" was coined by economics professor Glen Whitman on January 15, 2004, Pullum endorsed it as a term of art the next day; the term was derived by Whitman from journalistic clichés referring to the number of Eskimo words for snow and incorporates a pun on the snow cone.

The term "snowclone" has since been adopted by other linguists and authors. Snowclones are related to both memes and clichés, according to the Los Angeles Times's David Sarno: "Snowclones are memechés, if you will: meme-ified clichés with the operative words removed, leaving spaces for you or the masses to Mad Lib their own versions." Pullum, in his first discussion of what would be called a snowclone, offered the following example of a template describing multiple variations of a journalistic cliché he had encountered: "If Eskimos have N words for snow, X have M words for Y." Pullum cited this as a popular rhetorical trope used by journalists to imply that cultural group X has reason to spend a great deal of time thinking about the specific idea Y, although the basic premise is disputed by those who study Eskimo languages. In 2003, an article in The Economist stated, "If Eskimos have dozens of words for snow, Germans have as many for bureaucracy." A similar construction in the Edmonton Sun in 2007 claimed that "auto manufacturers have 100 words for beige".

The original request from Geoffrey Pullum, in addition to citing the Eskimos-and-snow namesake of the term snowclone, mentioned a poster slogan for the 1979 film Alien, "In space, no one can hear you scream", cloned into numerous variations, such as "In space, no one can see your breasts". Seen snowclones include phrases in the form of the template "X is the new Y"; the original form is the template "X is the new black" based on a misquotation of Diana Vreeland's 1962 statement that pink is "the navy blue of India". According to language columnist Nathan Bierma, this snowclone provides "a tidy and catchy way of conveying an increase, or change in nature, or change in function – or all three – of X". Examples include a 2001 album titled Quiet Is the New Loud, a 2008 newspaper headline that stated "Comedy is the new rock'n' roll", the title of the 2010 book and 2013 Netflix original series Orange Is the New Black. "The mother of all X", a hyperbole, used to refer to something as "great" or "the greatest of its kind", became a popular snowclone template in the 1990s.

The phrase entered American popular culture in September 1990 at the outset of the Gulf War, when Saddam Hussein's Revolutionary Command Council warned the U. S.-led Coalition against military action in Kuwait with the statement "Let everyone understand that this battle is going to become the mother of all battles." The phrase was repeated in a January 1991 speech by Saddam Hussein. A calque from Arabic, the snowclone gained popularity in the media and was adapted for phrases such as "the mother of all bombs" and New Zealand's "Mother of all Budgets"; the American Dialect Society declared "the mother of all" the 1991 Word of the Year. The term "Father of All Bombs" was created by an analogy; the Arabic phrase originated from an Arab victory over the Sassanian Persians in 636 AD, described with the earliest known use of the phrase "mother of all battles". Although popularly used to mean "greatest" or "ultimate", the Arabic umm al- prefix creates a figurative phrase in which "mother" suggests that the referent will give rise to many more of its kind.

The phrase was used in the naming of a mosque in Baghdad, the Umm al-Ma'arik Mosque. The template "X-ing while black", its original popular construction "driving while black", are sardonic plays on "driving while intoxicated", refer to black people being pulled over by police because of racial profiling. A prominent variant, "voting while black", surfaced during the U. S. presidential elections of 2000 and 2004, in reference to attempts to suppress black votes. Snowclones of this form, highlighting unequal treatment of black people, have included "walking while black" for pedestrian offenses, "learning while black" for students in schools, "drawing while black" for artists, "shopping while black" or "eating while black" for customers in stores and restaurants. A 2017 legal case prompted the variant "talking while black"; this has now been extended to other groups as "X-ing while Y", as in "flying while Muslim". "To X or not to X" is a template based on the line "To be, or not to be", spoken by the titular character in William Shakespeare's play Hamlet.

This template appears to have existed prior to Hamlet and had been used in a religious context to discuss "actions that are at once contradictory and indifferent—actions that, because they are neither commanded nor prohibited by Scripture, good nor evil in themselves, Christians are free to perform or omit". In general usage, "to X or not to X"