Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
Bass fishing is the activity of angling for the North American gamefish known colloquially as the black bass. There are numerous black bass species considered as gamefish in North America, including largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, spotted bass or Kentucky bass, Guadalupe bass. Black bass are members of the sunfish family. Modern bass fishing has evolved into a multibillion-dollar industry; the sport has changed drastically since its beginnings in the late 19th century. From humble beginnings, the black bass has become the most sought-after game fish in the United States; the sport has driven the development of all manner of fishing gear, including rods, lines, electronic depth and fish-finding instruments, drift boats, float tubes and boats specified for bass fishing. All black bass are fished recreationally. Depending upon species and various other factors such as water quality and availability of food, black bass may be found in lakes, ponds, streams, creeks roadside ditches. Largemouth are known for their greater overall size and resistance when hooked, favoring short, powerful runs and escape to cover such as submerged logs or weedbeds, while smallmouth bass tend to jump more and fight aggressively on the surface when hooked, in order to throw the hook.
The All-Tackle world record Largemouth was caught on June 2nd, 1932, on Montgomery Lake, GA by George Perry, weighing in at 22 lbs. 4 oz. George Perry’s record fish, which some consider the “Holy Grail” of all freshwater sport fishing records, was challenged by Japanese angler Manabu Kurita on July 22nd, 2009. Kurita’s catch was certified by the IGFA, weighing 22 lbs. 4 oz, the same weight as Perry’s legendary catch. Both Perry and Kurita share the All-Take world record. All black bass are scent as well as visual predators so care should be taken to ensure no foreign scents, like bug spray, or any outdoor chemicals, or any personal chemicals, like tobacco, contaminate one's hands when handling your line, rods, artificial baits, soft plastics. Bass are filleted when taken for the table. However, both avid and professional bass fisherman prefer to practice catch and release as a method of conservation. Bass fishing in the United States evolved on its own, was not influenced by angling developments in Europe or other parts of the world.
Indeed, modern British sea bass fishermen look to the United States freshwater bass techniques for inspiration for lure fishing and to the USA, Japan and China for tackle. During the early-to-mid-19th century, wealthy sport anglers in the United States confined themselves to trout and salmon fishing using fly rods. While smallmouth bass were sought by some fly fishermen, most bass fishing was done by sustenance anglers using poles and live bait; the working-class heritage of bass fishing influenced the sport and is manifested today in its terminology, hobbyist literature, media coverage. In the mid-19th century, the first artificial lure used for bass was developed in the form of an artificial fly. At first, these artificial fly patterns were derivations of existing trout and salmon flies; as time went on, new fly patterns were developed to fish for bass, as well as heavier spinner/fly lures that could be cast by the baitcasting and fixed-spool casting reels and rods available at the time. Floating wooden lures or poppers of lightweight cork or balsa were introduced around 1900, sometimes combined with hooks dressed with artificial fur or feathers.
Production of the plastic worm began in 1949, but it was not until the 1960s that its use became popular. The plastic worm revolutionized the sport of bass fishing. In the United States, the sport of bass fishing was advanced by the stocking of largemouth and smallmouth bass outside their native ranges in the latter portion of the 19th century; as the nation's railroad system expanded, large numbers of'tank' ponds were built by damming various small creeks that intersected the tracks in order to provide water for steam engines. Shippers found that black bass were a hardy species that could be transported in buckets or barrels via the railroad, sometimes using the spigot from the railroad water tank to aerate the fingerlings. Largemouth bass were stocked in tank ponds and warmer lakes, while smallmouth bass were distributed to lakes and rivers throughout the northern and western United States, as far west as California. Smallmouth were transplanted east of the Appalachians just before the Civil War, afterwards introduced into New England.
Largemouth bass populations boomed after the U. S. Department of Agriculture began to advise and assist farmers in constructing and stocking farm ponds with largemouth bass offering advice on managing various fish species. Soon, those who had stocked largemouth bass on their farm ponds began to pursue them on a burgeoning number of new reservoirs and impoundments built in the United States during the 1940s and 1950s; these impoundments coincided with a postwar fishing boom, additional funds from sales of fishing licenses for the first large-scale attempts at bass fisheries management. This was true in the southern United States, where the largemouth bass thrived in waters too warm or turbid for other types of gamefish. With increased industrialization and development, many of the nation's eastern trout rivers were dammed, polluted, or allowed to silt up, raising
The striped bass called Atlantic striped bass, linesider, rock or rockfish, is an anadromous Perciforme fish of the family Moronidae found along the Atlantic coast of North America. It has been introduced into inland recreational fisheries across the United States. Striped bass found in the Gulf of Mexico are a separate strain referred to as Gulf Coast striped bass; the striped bass is the state fish of Maryland, Rhode Island, South Carolina, the state saltwater fish of New York, New Jersey and New Hampshire. The history of the striped bass fishery in North America dates back to the Colonial period. Many written accounts by some of the first European settlers describe the immense abundance of striped bass, along with alewives and spawning up most rivers in the coastal Northeast; the striped bass is a typical member of the Moronidae family in shape, having a streamlined, silvery body marked with longitudinal dark stripes running from behind the gills to the base of the tail. Common mature size is 20 to 40 pounds.
The largest specimen recorded was 124 pounds, netted in 1896. Striped bass are believed to live for up to 30 years; the maximum weight can be north of eighty pounds. The average size in length is twenty to thirty five inches and five to just shy of twenty pounds. Striped bass are native to the Atlantic coastline of North America from the St. Lawrence River into the Gulf of Mexico to Louisiana, they are anadromous fish that migrate between salt water. Spawning takes place in fresh water. Striped bass have been introduced to the Pacific Coast of North America and into many of the large reservoir impoundments across the United States by state game and fish commissions for the purposes of recreational fishing and as a predator to control populations of gizzard shad; these include: Elephant Butte Lake in New Mexico. Striped bass have been introduced into waters in Ecuador, Latvia, Russia, South Africa, Turkey for sport fishing and aquaculture; the spawning success of striped bass has been studied in the San Francisco Bay-Delta water system, with a finding that high total dissolved solids reduce spawning.
At levels as low as 200 mg/l TDS, an observable diminution of spawning productivity occurs. They can be found in lakes, ponds and wetlands. Though the population of striped bass was growing and repopulating in the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s, a study executed by the Wildlife and Fisheries Program at West Virginia University found that the rapid growth of the striped bass population was exerting a tremendous pressure on its prey; this pressure on their food source was putting their own population at risk due to the population of prey not coming back to the same spawning areas. In the United States, the striped bass was designated as a protected game fish in 2007, executive agencies were directed to use existing legal authorities to prohibit the sale of striped bass caught in federal waters in the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. In Canada, the province of Quebec designated the striped bass population of the Saint Lawrence as extirpated in 1996. Analysis of available data implicated dredging in the disappearance.
In 2002, a reintroduction program was successful. Striped bass spawn in fresh water, although they have been adapted to freshwater habitat, they spend their adult lives in saltwater. Four important bodies of water with breeding stocks of striped bass are: Chesapeake Bay, Massachusetts Bay/Cape Cod, Hudson River, Delaware River. Many of the rivers and tributaries that emptied into the Atlantic, had at one time, bred stock of striped bass; this occurred until the 1860s. One of the largest breeding areas is the Chesapeake Bay, where populations from Chesapeake and Delaware bays have intermingled; the few successful spawning populations of freshwater striped bass include Lake Texoma, Lake Weiss, the Colorado River and its reservoirs downstream from and including Lake Powell, the Arkansas River, as well as Lake Marion that retained a landlocked breeding population when the dam was built. Stocking of striped bass was discontinued at Lake Mead in 1973 once natural reproduction was verified. Striped bass have been hybridized with white bass to produce hybrid striped bass known as wiper, whiterock bass, sunshine bass, palmetto bass, Cherokee bass.
These hybrids have been stocked in many freshwater areas across the US. Striped bass are of significant value for sport fishing, have been introduced to many waterways outside their natural range. A variety of angling methods are used, including trolling and surf casting with topwater lures a good pick for surf casting, as well as bait casting with live and dead bait. Striped bass will take a number of live and fresh baits, includ
Shiner is a common name used in North America for any of several kinds of small silvery fish, in particular a number of cyprinids, but e.g. the shiner perch. Cyprinid shiners are: Eastern shiners, genus Notropis Finescale shiners, genus Lythrurus Flagfin shiners, genus Pteronotropis Golden shiner, Notemigonus crysoleucas Highscale shiners, genus Luxilus Redside shiners, genus Richardsonius Satinfin shiners, genus Cyprinella Chub Dace Minnow Roach
The rainbow trout is a trout and species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. The steelhead is an anadromous form of the coastal rainbow trout or Columbia River redband trout that returns to fresh water to spawn after living two to three years in the ocean. Freshwater forms that have been introduced into the Great Lakes and migrate into tributaries to spawn are called steelhead. Adult freshwater stream rainbow trout average between 1 and 5 lb, while lake-dwelling and anadromous forms may reach 20 lb. Coloration varies based on subspecies and habitat. Adult fish are distinguished by a broad reddish stripe along the lateral line, from gills to the tail, most vivid in breeding males. Wild-caught and hatchery-reared forms of this species have been transplanted and introduced for food or sport in at least 45 countries and every continent except Antarctica. Introductions to locations outside their native range in the United States, Southern Europe, New Zealand and South America have damaged native fish species.
Introduced populations may affect native species by preying on them, out-competing them, transmitting contagious diseases, or hybridizing with related species and subspecies, thus reducing genetic purity. The rainbow trout is included in the list of the top 100 globally invasive species. Nonetheless, other introductions into waters devoid of any fish species or with depleted stocks of native fish have created sport fisheries such as the Great Lakes and Wyoming's Firehole River; some local populations of specific subspecies, or in the case of steelhead, distinct population segments, are listed as either threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. The steelhead is the official state fish of Washington; the scientific name of the rainbow trout is Oncorhynchus mykiss. The species was named by German naturalist and taxonomist Johann Julius Walbaum in 1792 based on type specimens from the Kamchatka Peninsula in Siberia. Walbaum's original species name, was derived from the local Kamchatkan name used for the fish, mykizha.
The name of the genus is from the Greek onkos and rynchos, in reference to the hooked jaws of males in the mating season. Sir John Richardson, a Scottish naturalist, named a specimen of this species Salmo gairdneri in 1836 to honor Meredith Gairdner, a Hudson's Bay Company surgeon at Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River who provided Richardson with specimens. In 1855, William P. Gibbons, the curator of Geology and Mineralogy at the California Academy of Sciences, found a population and named it Salmo iridia corrected to Salmo irideus; these names faded once it was determined that Walbaum's description of type specimens was conspecific and therefore had precedence. In 1989, morphological and genetic studies indicated that trout of the Pacific basin were genetically closer to Pacific salmon than to the Salmos – brown trout or Atlantic salmon of the Atlantic basin. Thus, in 1989, taxonomic authorities moved the rainbow and other Pacific basin trout into the genus Oncorhynchus. Walbaum's name had precedence, so the species name Oncorhynchus mykiss became the scientific name of the rainbow trout.
The previous species names irideus and gairdneri were adopted as subspecies names for the coastal rainbow and Columbia River redband trout, respectively. Anadromous forms of the coastal rainbow trout or redband trout are known as steelhead. Subspecies of Oncorhynchus mykiss are listed below as described by fisheries biologist Robert J. Behnke. Resident freshwater rainbow trout adults average between 1 and 5 lb in riverine environments, while lake-dwelling and anadromous forms may reach 20 lb. Coloration varies between regions and subspecies. Adult freshwater forms are blue-green or olive green with heavy black spotting over the length of the body. Adult fish have a broad reddish stripe along the lateral line, from gills to the tail, most pronounced in breeding males; the caudal fin is only mildly forked. Lake-dwelling and anadromous forms are more silvery in color with the reddish stripe completely gone. Juvenile rainbow trout display parr marks typical of most salmonid juveniles. In some redband and golden trout forms parr marks are retained into adulthood.
Some coastal rainbow trout and Columbia River redband trout populations and cutbow hybrids may display reddish or pink throat markings similar to cutthroat trout. In many regions, hatchery-bred trout can be distinguished from native trout via fin clips. Fin clipping the adipose fin is a management tool used to identify hatchery-reared fish. Rainbow trout, including steelhead forms spawn in early to late spring when water temperatures reach at least 42 to 44 °F; the maximum recorded lifespan for a rainbow trout is 11 years. Freshwater resident rainbow trout inhabit and spawn in small to moderately large, well oxygenated, shallow rivers with gravel bottoms, they are native to the alluvial or freestone streams that are typical tributaries of the Pacific basin, but introduced rainbow trout have established wild, self-sustaining populations in other river types such as bedrock and spring creeks. Lake resident rainbow trout are found in moderately deep, cool lakes with
Crayfish known as crawfish, crawlfish, freshwater lobsters, mountain lobsters, mudbugs, or yabbies are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters. Taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Parastacoidea, they breathe through feather-like gills. Some species are found in brooks and streams where there is running fresh water, while others thrive in swamps and paddy fields. Most crayfish cannot tolerate polluted water, although some species such as Procambarus clarkii are hardier. Crayfish feed on animals and plants, either living or decomposing, detritus; the name "crayfish" comes from the Old French word escrevisse. The word has been modified to "crayfish" by association with "fish"; the American variant "crawfish" is derived. Some kinds of crayfish are known locally as lobsters, crawdads and yabbies. In the Eastern United States, "crayfish" is more common in the north, while "crawdad" is heard more in central and southwestern regions, "crawfish" further south, although there are considerable overlaps.
The study of crayfish is called astacology. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the term crayfish or cray refers to a saltwater spiny lobster, of the genus Jasus, indigenous to much of southern Oceania, while the freshwater species are called yabby or kōura, from the indigenous Australian and Māori names for the animal or by other names specific to each species. Exceptions include western rock lobster found on the west coast of Australia. In Singapore, the term crayfish refers to Thenus orientalis, a seawater crustacean from the slipper lobster family. True crayfish are not native to Singapore, but are found as pets, or as an invasive species in the many water catchment areas, are alternatively known as freshwater lobsters; the body of a decapod crustacean, such as a crab, lobster, or prawn, is made up of twenty body segments grouped into two main body parts, the cephalothorax and the abdomen. Each segment may possess one pair of appendages, although in various groups these may be reduced or missing.
On average, crayfish grow to 17.5 centimetres in length. Walking legs have a small claw at the end. There are three families of crayfish, two in the Northern Hemisphere and one in the Southern Hemisphere; the Southern Hemisphere family Parastacidae, with 14 extant genera and two extinct genera, live in South America and Australasia. They are distinguished by the absence of the first pair of pleopods. Of the other two families, the three genera of the Astacidae live in western Eurasia and western North America, while the 15 genera of the family Cambaridae live in eastern Asia and eastern North America; the greatest diversity of crayfish species is found in southeastern North America, with over 330 species in nine genera, all in the family Cambaridae. A further genus of astacid crayfish is found in the Pacific Northwest and the headwaters of some rivers east of the Continental Divide. Many crayfish are found in lowland areas where the water is abundant in calcium, oxygen rises from underground springs.
In 1983, Louisiana designated the crayfish, or crawfish as they are referred, as their official state crustacean. Louisiana produces 100 million pounds of crawfish per year with the red swamp and white river crawfish being the main species harvested. Crawfish are a part of Cajun culture dating back hundreds of years. A variety of cottage industries have developed as a result of commercialized crawfish iconology, their products include crawfish attached to wooden plaques, T-shirts with crawfish logos, crawfish pendants and necklaces made of gold or silver. Australia has over 100 species in a dozen genera. Australia is home to the world's three largest freshwater crayfish – the Tasmanian giant freshwater crayfish Astacopsis gouldi, which can achieve a mass of over 5 kilograms and is found in rivers of northern Tasmania, the Murray crayfish Euastacus armatus, which can reach 2.5 kilograms, although there have been reports of animals up to 3 kilograms and is found in much of the southern Murray-Darling basin. and marron from Western Australia which may reach a weight of 2.2 kilograms.
Many of the better-known Australian crayfish are of the genus Cherax, include the, common yabby, western yabby and red-claw crayfish. The marron species C. tenuimanus is critically endangered, while other large Australasian crayfish are threatened or endangered. In New Zealand, two species of Paranephrops are endemic, are known by the Māori name kōura. Fossil records of crayfish older than 30 million years are rare, but fossilised burrows have been found from strata as old as the late Palaeozoic or early Mesozoic; the oldest records of the Parastacidae are in Australia, are 115 million years old. Some crayfish suffer from a disease called crayfish plague, caused by the North American water mould Aphanomyces astaci, transmitted to Europe when North American species of crayfish were introduced there. Species of the genus Astacus are susceptible to infection, allowing the plague-coevolved signal crayfish to invade parts of Europe. Crayfish are eaten worldwide. Like other edible crustaceans, only a small portion of the body of a crayfish is eaten.
Amphipoda is an order of malacostracan crustaceans with no carapace and with laterally compressed bodies. Amphipods range in size from 1 to 340 millimetres and are detritivores or scavengers. There are more than 9,900 amphipod species so far described, they are marine animals, but are found in all aquatic environments. Some 1,900 species live in fresh water, the order includes terrestrial animals and sandhoppers such as Talitrus saltator; the name Amphipoda comes, via the New Latin amphipoda, from the Greek roots ἀμφί and πούς, in reference to two kinds of legs that amphipods possess. This contrasts with the related Isopoda. Among anglers, amphipods are known as freshwater shrimp, scuds or sideswimmers; the body of an amphipod is divided into 13 segments, which can be grouped into a head, a thorax and an abdomen. The head is fused to the thorax, bears two pairs of antennae and one pair of sessile compound eyes, it carries the mouthparts, but these are concealed. The thorax and abdomen are quite distinct and bear different kinds of legs.
The thorax bears eight pairs of uniramous appendages, the first of which are used as accessory mouthparts. Gills are present on the thoracic segments, there is an open circulatory system with a heart, using haemocyanin to carry oxygen in the haemolymph to the tissues; the uptake and excretion of salts is controlled by special glands on the antennae. The abdomen is divided into two parts: the pleosome. Amphipods are less than 10 millimetres long, but the largest recorded living amphipods were 28 centimetres long, were photographed at a depth of 5,300 metres in the Pacific Ocean. Samples from the Atlantic Ocean with a reconstructed length of 34 centimetres have been assigned to the same species, Alicella gigantea; the smallest known amphipods are less than 1 millimetre long. The size of amphipods is limited by the availability of dissolved oxygen, such that the amphipods in Lake Titicaca at an altitude of 3,800 metres can only grow up to 22 millimetres, compared to lengths of 90 millimetres in Lake Baikal at 455 metres.
Mature females bear a marsupium, or brood pouch, which holds her eggs while they are fertilised, until the young are ready to hatch. As a female ages, she produces more eggs in each brood. Mortality is around 25–50% for the eggs. There are no larval stages; some species have been known to eat their own exuviae after moulting Over 9,950 species of amphipods are recognised. Traditionally they were placed in the four suborders Gammaridea, Caprellidea and Ingolfiellidea; the classification of the Amphipoda is however being rearranged to better reflect their phylogeny, the relationships within the suborder Gammaridea having suffered from the most confusion. A new classification has been developed in the works of Lowry & Myers, where a new large suborder Senticaudata was split off from the Gammaridea in 2013; that taxon, which encompasses the previous Caprellidea, now comprises over half of the known amphipod species. The classification given below, from the rank of suborder down to superfamily, however still represents the traditional division as given in Martin & Davis, except that superfamilies are recognised here within the Gammaridea.
Amphipods are thought to have originated in the Lower Carboniferous. Despite the group's age, the fossil record of the order Amphipoda is meagre, comprising specimens of 12 species dating back only as far as the Upper Eocene, where they have been found in Baltic amber. Amphipods are found in all aquatic environments, from fresh water to water with twice the salinity of sea water, they are always an important component of aquatic ecosystems acting as mesograzers. Most species in the suborder Gammaridea are epibenthic, although they are collected in plankton samples. Members of the Hyperiidea are all marine. Many are symbionts of gelatinous animals, including salps, siphonophores, colonial radiolarians and ctenophores, most hyperiids are associated with gelatinous animals during some part of their life cycle; some 1,900 species, or 20% of the total amphipod diversity, live in fresh water or other non-marine waters. Notably rich endemic amphipod faunas are found in the ancient Lake Baikal and waters of the Caspian Sea basin.
The landhoppers of the family Talitridae are terrestrial, living in damp environments such as leaf litter. Landhoppers have a wide distribution in areas that were part of Gondwanaland, but have colonised parts of Europe and North America in recent times. Around 750 species in 160 genera and 30 families are troglobitic, are found in all suitable habitats, but with their centres of diversity in the Mediterranean Basin, southeastern North America and the Caribbean. In populations found in Benthic ecosystems, amphipods play an essential role in controlling brown algae growth; the mesograzer behaviour of amphipods contributes to the suppression of brown algal dominance in the absence of amphipod predators. Amphi