Randal L. Schwartz
Randal L. Schwartz known as merlyn, is an American author, system administrator and programming consultant, he is known for his expertise in the Perl programming language, his promotional role within the Perl community, as a co-host of FLOSS Weekly, for a controversial felony conviction resulting from State of Oregon vs. Randal Schwartz officially expunged. Schwartz is the co-author of several used books about Perl, a programming language, has written regular columns about Perl for several computer magazines, including UNIX Review, Web Techniques, the Perl Journal, he popularized the Just another Perl hacker signature programs. He is a founding board member of the Perl Mongers, the worldwide Perl grassroots advocacy organization, he was a member of the Squeak Oversight Board. He has owned and operated Stonehenge Consulting Services, Inc. since 1985. After joining as co-host of FLOSS Weekly, a free software/open source themed podcast in 2007, he assumed the role of host in 2010, he has done voice work for a science-fiction podcast.
Schwartz's name is associated with the Schwartzian transform, an algorithm to efficiently sort a list according to a computation, without repeating the computation many times for each element of the list. He coined the name spaceship operator for use in his teaching, because it reminded him of the spaceship in an HP BASIC Star Trek game. Schwartz is an influential member of the F/OSS community, has been named a "Perl Expert" and interviewed by numerous outlets – to discuss his views on Perl, Ruby and other topics – including Dr. Dobb's, Paul dot Com Security TV, The Command Line, PerlCast, FLOSS Weekly, ONLamp.com, InfoQ. Schwartz was a speaker at the 2011 OSCON conference and a keynote speaker at the 2010 Texas LinuxFest conference, his various books have been met with positive reviews. In July 1995, Schwartz was prosecuted in the case of State of Oregon vs. Randal Schwartz, which dealt with compromised computer security during his time as a system administrator for Intel. In the process of performing penetration testing, he cracked a number of passwords on Intel's systems.
Schwartz was convicted on three felony counts, with one reduced to a misdemeanor, but on February 1, 2007, his arrest and conviction records were sealed through an official expungement, he is no longer a felon. Programming Perl, ISBN 0-937175-64-1.
A programmer, coder, or software engineer is a person who creates computer software. The term computer programmer can refer to a specialist in one area of computers, or to a generalist who writes code for many kinds of software. One who practices, or professes, a formal approach to programming may be known as a programmer analyst. On the other hand, "code monkey" is a derogatory term for a programmer who writes code without any involvement in the design or specifications. A programmer's primary computer language is prefixed to these titles, those who work in a web environment prefix their titles with web. A range of occupations—including: software developer, web developer, mobile applications developer, embedded firmware developer, software engineer, computer scientist, game programmer, game developer, or software analyst—that involve programming require a range of other skills; the use of the term programmer for these positions is sometimes considered an insulting or derogatory simplification.
British countess and mathematician Ada Lovelace is considered the first computer programmer, as she was the first to publish an algorithm intended for implementation on Charles Babbage's analytical engine, in October 1842, intended for the calculation of Bernoulli numbers. Because Babbage's machine was never completed to a functioning standard in her time, she never saw this algorithm run; the first person to run a program on a functioning modern electronically based computer was computer scientist Konrad Zuse, in 1941. The ENIAC programming team, consisting of Kay McNulty, Betty Jennings, Betty Snyder, Marlyn Wescoff, Fran Bilas and Ruth Lichterman were the first working programmers. International Programmers' Day is celebrated annually on 7 January. In 2009, the government of Russia decreed a professional annual holiday known as Programmers' Day to be celebrated on 13 September, it had been an unofficial international holiday before that. The word "software" did not appear in print until the 1960s.
Before this time, computers were programmed either by customers, or the few commercial computer vendors of the time, such as UNIVAC and IBM. The first company founded to provide software products and services was Computer Usage Company in 1955; the software industry expanded in the early 1960s immediately after computers were first sold in mass-produced quantities. Universities and business customers created a demand for software. Many of these programs were written in-house by full-time staff programmers; some were distributed between users of a particular machine for no charge. Others were done on a commercial basis, other firms such as Computer Sciences Corporation started to grow; the computer/hardware makers started bundling operating systems, system software and programming environments with their machines. The industry expanded with the rise of the personal computer in the mid-1970s, which brought computing to the desktop of the office worker. In the following years, it created a growing market for games and utilities.
DOS, Microsoft's first operating system product, was the dominant operating system at the time. In the early years of the 21st century, another successful business model has arisen for hosted software, called software-as-a-service, or SaaS. From the point of view of producers of some proprietary software, SaaS reduces the concerns about unauthorized copying, since it can only be accessed through the Web, by definition, no client software is loaded onto the end user's PC. By 2014, the role of cloud developer had been defined. Computer programmers write, test and maintain the detailed instructions, called computer programs, that computers must follow to perform their functions. Programmers conceive and test logical structures for solving problems by computer. Many technical innovations in programming — advanced computing technologies and sophisticated new languages and programming tools — have redefined the role of a programmer and elevated much of the programming work done today. Job titles and descriptions may vary, depending on the organization.
Programmers work in many settings, including corporate information technology departments, big software companies, small service firms and government entities of all sizes. Many professional programmers work for consulting companies at client sites as contractors. Licensing is not required to work as a programmer, although professional certifications are held by programmers. Programming is considered a profession. Programmers' work varies depending on the type of business for which they are writing programs. For example, the instructions involved in updating financial records are different from those required to duplicate conditions on an aircraft for pilots training in a flight simulator. Simple programs can be written in a few hours, more complex ones may require more than a year of work, while others are never considered'complete' but rather are continuously improved as long as they stay in use. In most cases, several programmers work together as a team under a senior programmer’s supervision.
Programmers write programs according to the specifications determined b
For the early-20th-century automotive engineer, see Jesse G. Vincent. Jesse Vincent is a computer programmer and entrepreneur, best known for his work with the Perl programming language, he created the ticket-tracking system Request Tracker and founded the company Best Practical Solutions. He created RT while working at Wesleyan University in 1994. Graduating from the university in 1998, Vincent founded Best Practical in 2001, he co-authored RT Essentials in 2005. He is the founder and former project lead of K-9 Mail Email app for Android. In 2012 he became interested in the ergonomics of keyboards, having designed and built himself several designs. In 2014 he co-founded Keyboardio. From 2005 to 2008 he served as the project manager for Perl 6, he was the keeper of the pumpkin for Perl versions 5.12 and 5.14. He changed the release cycle for Perl 5 from an irregular release done at the leisure of the project manager to a regular timeboxed release with development releases monthly and stable releases annually.
RT Essentials Personal Web site Interview about Perl 6 contributions to CPAN
FSF Free Software Awards
Free Software Foundation grants two annual awards. Since 1998, FSF has granted the award for Advancement of Free Software and since 2005 the Free Software Award for Projects of Social Benefit. In 1999 it was presented in the Jacob Javits Center in New York City; the 2000 Award Ceremony was held at the Museum of Jewish History in Paris. From 2001 to 2005, the award has been presented in Brussels at the Free and Open source Software Developers' European Meeting. Since 2006, the awards have been presented at the FSF's annual members meeting in Cambridge, Massachusetts; this is annually presented by the Free Software Foundation to a person whom it deems to have made a great contribution to the progress and development of free software, through activities that accord with the spirit of free software. Source: Award for the Advancement of Free Software 1998 Larry Wall for numerous contributions to Free Software, notably Perl; the other finalists were the Apache Project, Tim Berners-Lee, Jordan Hubbard, Ted Lemon, Eric S. Raymond, Henry Spencer.1999 Miguel de Icaza for his leadership and work on the GNOME Project.
The other finalists were Donald Knuth for TeX and METAFONT and John Gilmore for work done at Cygnus Solutions and his contributions to the Free Software Foundation.2000 Brian Paul for his work on the Mesa 3D Graphics Library. The other finalists were Donald Becker for his work on Linux drivers and Patrick Lenz for the open source site Freshmeat.2001 Guido van Rossum for Python. The other finalists were L. Peter Deutsch for GNU Ghostscript and Andrew Tridgell for Samba.2002 Lawrence Lessig for promoting understanding of the political dimension of free software, including the idea that "code is law". The other finalists were Bruno Haible for CLISP and Theo de Raadt for OpenBSD.2003 Alan Cox for his work advocating the importance of software freedom, his outspoken opposition to the USA's DMCA as well as other technology control measures, his development work on the Linux kernel. The other finalists were Theo de Raadt for OpenBSD and Werner Koch for GnuPG.2004 Theo de Raadt for his campaigning against binary blobs, the opening of drivers and firmware of wireless networking cards for the good of everyone.
The other finalists were Andrew Tridgell for Samba and Cesar Brod for advocacy in Brazil.2005 Andrew Tridgell for his work on Samba and his BitKeeper client which led to the withdrawal of gratis BitKeeper licenses, spurring the development of git, a free software distributed revision control system for the Linux kernel. The other finalists were Hartmut Pilch founder of the Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure for his combatting of the Software Patent Directive in Europe and Theodore Ts'o for his Linux kernel filesystem development.2006 Theodore Ts'o for his work on the Linux kernel and his roles as a project leader in the development of Kerberos and ONC RPC. The other finalists were Wietse Venema for his creation of the Postfix mailserver and his work on security tools, Yukihiro Matsumoto for his work in designing the Ruby programming language.2007 Harald Welte for his work on GPL enforcement and Openmoko2008 Wietse Venema For his "significant and wide-ranging technical contributions to network security, his creation of the Postfix email server."2009 John Gilmore For his "many contributions and long term commitment to the free software movement."2010 Rob Savoye For his work on Gnash Additionally, a special mention was made to honor the memory and contribution of Adrian Hands, who used a morse input device to code and submit a gnome patch, three days before he died from ALS.2011 Yukihiro Matsumoto the creator of Ruby, for his work on GNU, other free software for over 20 years.2012 Fernando Pérez for his work on IPython, his role in the scientific Python community.2013 Matthew Garrett for his work to support software freedom in relation to Secure Boot, UEFI, the Linux kernel2014 Sébastien Jodogne for his work on easing the exchange of medical images and developing Orthanc.2015 Werner Koch the founder and driving force behind GnuPG.
GnuPG is the de facto tool for encrypted communication. Society needs more than to advance free encryption technology.2016 Alexandre Oliva for his work in promoting Free Software and the involvement in projects like the maintenance of linux-libre and the reverse engineer of the proprietary software used by Brazilian citizens to submit their taxes to the government.2017 Karen Sandler for her dedication to Free Software as the former Executive Director of GNOME Foundation, current Executive Director of Software Freedom Conservancy, co-organizer of Outreachy, through years of pro bono legal advice.2018 Deborah Nicholson Deborah is the director of community operations at the Software Freedom Conservancy, Stallman praised her body of work and her unremitting and widespread contributions to the free software community. "Deborah continuously reaches out to, engages, new audiences with her message on the need for free software in any version of the future." Source: The Award for Projects of Social Benefit The Free Software Award for Projects of Social Benefit is an annual award granted by the Free Software Foundation.
In announcing the award, the FSF explained that: This award is presented to the project or team responsible for applying free software, or the ideas of the free software movement, in a project that intentionally and benefits society in other aspects of life. According to Richard Stallman, President of FSF, the award was inspired by the Sahana project, developed, was used, for organising the transfer of aid to tsunami victims in Sri Lanka after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake; the developers indicated. This is the second
Audrey Tang is a Taiwanese free software programmer, described as one of the "ten greats of Taiwanese computing personalities." In August 2016, she was invited to join the Taiwan Executive Yuan as a minister without portfolio, making her the first transgender official in the top executive cabinet. Tang's parents are Lee Ya-ching. Tang showed an early interest in computers, beginning to learn Perl programming at age 12. Two years she dropped out of high school, unable to adapt to student life. By the year 2000, at the age of 19, Tang had held positions in software companies, worked in California's Silicon Valley as an entrepreneur. In late 2005, Tang began transitioning to female, including changing her English and Chinese names, citing a need to reconcile her outward appearance with her self-image; when her gender transition is brought up, Tang has said, ″I've been shutting reality off and lived exclusively on the net for many years, because my brain knows for sure that I am a woman, but the social expectations demand otherwise″The Television news channel of Republic of China, ETToday, reports that she has an IQ of 180.
She is a vocal proponent for individualist anarchism. Tang is better known for initiating and leading the Pugs project, a joint effort from the Haskell and Perl communities to implement the Perl 6 language. On CPAN, Tang initiated over 100 Perl projects between June 2001 and July 2006, including the popular Perl Archive Toolkit, a cross-platform packaging and deployment tool for Perl 5, she is responsible for setting up smoke test and digital signature systems for CPAN. In October 2005, she was a speaker at O'Reilly Media's European Open Source Convention in Amsterdam. Tang was named a minister without portfolio in the Lin Chuan cabinet in August 2016, she took office as the "Digital Minister" on October 1, was placed in charge of helping government agencies communicate policy goals and managing information published by the government, both via digital means. Tang was quoted saying, "My existence is not to become a minister for a certain group, nor to broadcast government propaganda. Instead, it is to become a "channel" to allow greater combinations of intelligence and strength to come together."
Tang was given this role in the Taiwanese cabinet, as a minister without portfolio, to bridge the gap between the older and younger generations. Tang is working on the development of free software, for the public to access, show that the new Taiwanese sharing economy, is in fact a working system. At age 35, Tang became the youngest minister without portfolio in Taiwanese history. Aker, Brian. 架設 Slash 社群網站. Taipei, Taiwan: O'Reilly Media. ISBN 978-986-7794-22-2. Huang, Echo. "Taiwan's new digital minister is a transgender software programmer who wants to make governement more open". Quartz. Audrey's Personal Blog. An interview with Autrijus by Debby Podcast interview with Audrey on Perlcast Perl Archive Toolkit Audrey's contributions on CPAN "SocialCalc" Can Taiwan Build An'Asian Silicon Valley'? "Asian Silicon Valley" in Taoyuan misses key points'Asian Silicon Valley' project will change Taiwan's future: premier Asian Silicon Valley = Taiwan’s DPP Collision with Student Movement
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA was established in 1958; the new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles; the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world's first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts; the US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership, urged immediate and swift action. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology", headed by Guyford Stever. On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published "A National Research Program for Space Technology" stating: It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space... It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency...
NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology. While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application. On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA; when it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard's earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPA's early space programs were transferred to NASA.
In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology. The agency's leader, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States subject to approval of the US Senate, reports to him or her and serves as senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee is associated with the President's political party, a new administrator is chosen when the Presidency changes parties; the only exceptions to this have been: Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970. Republican James C. Fletcher, appointed by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter. Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama, was kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump until Trump's own choice Jim Bridenstine, was confirmed in April 2018. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President; the first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan appointed by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research; the second administrator, James E. Webb, appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy's Moon la