Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope, Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof, when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, measurement, practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry, rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclids Elements. Galileo Galilei said, The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and it is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word.
Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth, carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Sciences. Benjamin Peirce called mathematics the science that draws necessary conclusions, David Hilbert said of mathematics, We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules, rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. Albert Einstein stated that as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, medicine and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics, Mathematicians engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions.
The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement and weaving patterns, in Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have many and diverse. Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. Mathematics has since been extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today, the overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs. The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω, while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω, in Greece, the word for mathematics came to have the narrower and more technical meaning mathematical study even in Classical times
Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. A peninsula with the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west, the country has borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north. Estonia is south of the country across the Gulf of Finland, Finland is a Nordic country situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia, which includes Scandinavia. Finlands population is 5.5 million, and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region,88. 7% of the population is Finnish people who speak Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages, the second major group are the Finland-Swedes. In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe, Finland is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, and an autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, from the late 12th century, Finland was an integral part of Sweden, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status.
In the spirit of the notion of Adolf Ivar Arwidsson, we are not Swedes, we do not want to become Russians, let us therefore be Finns, nevertheless, in 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland became the nation in the world to give the right to vote to all adult citizens. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent, in 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Reds supported by the equally new Soviet Russia, fighting the Whites, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought repeatedly to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia and Kuusamo, Petsamo and some islands, Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era, Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s.
It rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive Nordic-style welfare state, resulting in widespread prosperity, Finnish GDP growth has been negative in 2012–2014, with a preceding nadir of −8% in 2009. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, a large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, though freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution. The first known appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three rune-stones. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti, the third was found in Gotland, in the Baltic Sea. It has the inscription finlandi and dates from the 13th century, the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, which is mentioned first known time AD98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, in addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian
Helsinki is the capital and largest city of Finland. It is in the region of Uusimaa, in southern Finland, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland. Helsinki has a population of 629,512, a population of 1,231,595. Helsinki is located some 80 kilometres north of Tallinn, Estonia,400 km east of Stockholm, Helsinki has close historical connections with these three cities. The Helsinki metropolitan area includes the core of Helsinki, Vantaa, Kauniainen. It is the worlds northernmost metro area of one million people. The Helsinki metropolitan area is the fourth largest metropolitan area in the Nordic countries, Helsinki is Finlands major political, financial and research center as well as one of northern Europes major cities. Approximately 75% of foreign companies operating in Finland have settled in the Helsinki region, the nearby municipality of Vantaa is the location of Helsinki Airport, with frequent service to various destinations in Europe and Asia. In 2009, Helsinki was chosen to be the World Design Capital for 2012 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design, the city was the venue for the 1952 Summer Olympics and the 52nd Eurovision Song Contest 2007.
In 2011, the Monocle magazine ranked Helsinki the most liveable city in the world in its Liveable Cities Index 2011, in the Economist Intelligence Units August 2015 Liveability survey, assessing the best and worst cities to live in globally, Helsinki placed among the worlds top ten cities. Helsinki is used to refer to the city in most languages, the Swedish name Helsingfors is the original official name of the city. The Finnish name probably comes from Helsinga and similar names used for the river that is known as the Vantaa River. Helsingfors comes from the name of the parish and the rapids, which flowed through the original village. As part of the Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire, one suggestion for the origin of the name Helsinge is that it originated with medieval Swedish settlers who came from Hälsingland in Sweden. Others have proposed that the name derives from the Swedish word helsing, other Scandinavian cities located at similar geographic locations were given similar names at the time, for example Helsingør and Helsingborg.
The name Helsinki has been used in Finnish official documents and in Finnish language newspapers since 1819, the decrees issued in Helsinki were dated with Helsinki as the place of issue. This is how the form Helsinki came to be used in written Finnish, in Helsinki slang the city is called Stadi. Hesa, is not used by natives to the city, helsset is the Northern Sami name of Helsinki
Complex analysis, traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable, is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers. As a differentiable function of a variable is equal to the sum of its Taylor series. Complex analysis is one of the branches in mathematics, with roots in the 19th century. Important mathematicians associated with complex analysis include Euler, Riemann, Weierstrass, Complex analysis, in particular the theory of conformal mappings, has many physical applications and is used throughout analytic number theory. In modern times, it has very popular through a new boost from complex dynamics. Another important application of analysis is in string theory which studies conformal invariants in quantum field theory. A complex function is one in which the independent variable and the dependent variable are complex numbers. More precisely, a function is a function whose domain. In other words, the components of the f, u = u and v = v can be interpreted as real-valued functions of the two real variables, x and y.
The basic concepts of complex analysis are often introduced by extending the elementary real functions into the complex domain, holomorphic functions are complex functions, defined on an open subset of the complex plane, that are differentiable. In the context of analysis, the derivative of f at z 0 is defined to be f ′ = lim z → z 0 f − f z − z 0, z ∈ C. Although superficially similar in form to the derivative of a real function, in particular, for this limit to exist, the value of the difference quotient must approach the same complex number, regardless of the manner in which we approach z 0 in the complex plane. Consequently, complex differentiability has much stronger consequences than usual differentiability, for instance, holomorphic functions are infinitely differentiable, whereas most real differentiable functions are not. For this reason, holomorphic functions are referred to as analytic functions. Such functions that are holomorphic everywhere except a set of isolated points are known as meromorphic functions.
On the other hand, the functions z ↦ ℜ, z ↦ | z |, an important property that characterizes holomorphic functions is the relationship between the partial derivatives of their real and imaginary components, known as the Cauchy-Riemann conditions. If f, C → C, defined by f = f = u + i v, the differential operator ∂ / ∂ z ¯ is defined as. In terms of the real and imaginary parts of the function, u and v, this is equivalent to the pair of equations u x = v y and u y = − v x, where the subscripts indicate partial differentiation
In mathematics, particularly in complex analysis, a Riemann surface, first studied by and named after Bernhard Riemann, is a one-dimensional complex manifold. Riemann surfaces can be thought of as deformed versions of the plane, locally near every point they look like patches of the complex plane. For example, they can look like a sphere or a torus or several sheets glued together, the main point of Riemann surfaces is that holomorphic functions may be defined between them. Every Riemann surface is a real analytic manifold, but it contains more structure which is needed for the unambiguous definition of holomorphic functions. A two-dimensional real manifold can be turned into a Riemann surface if, so the sphere and torus admit complex structures, but the Möbius strip, Klein bottle and projective plane do not. Geometrical facts about Riemann surfaces are as nice as possible, and they provide the intuition and motivation for generalizations to other curves. The Riemann–Roch theorem is an example of this influence.
There are several equivalent definitions of a Riemann surface, a Riemann surface X is a complex manifold of complex dimension one. This means that X is a Hausdorff topological space endowed with an atlas, the map carrying the structure of the complex plane to the Riemann surface is called a chart. Additionally, the maps between two overlapping charts are required to be holomorphic. A Riemann surface is a manifold of dimension two – a two-sided surface – together with a conformal structure. Again, manifold means that locally at any point x of X, the supplement Riemann signifies that X is endowed with an additional structure which allows angle measurement on the manifold, namely an equivalence class of so-called Riemannian metrics. Two such metrics are considered equivalent if the angles they measure are the same, choosing an equivalence class of metrics on X is the additional datum of the conformal structure. A complex structure gives rise to a structure by choosing the standard Euclidean metric given on the complex plane.
Showing that a structure determines a complex structure is more difficult. The complex plane C is the most basic Riemann surface, the map f = z defines a chart for C, and is an atlas for C. The map g = z* defines a chart on C and is an atlas for C, the charts f and g are not compatible, so this endows C with two distinct Riemann surface structures. In fact, given a Riemann surface X and its atlas A, the conjugate atlas B = is never compatible with A, in an analogous fashion, every non-empty open subset of the complex plane can be viewed as a Riemann surface in a natural way
Pittsfield is the largest city and the county seat of Berkshire County, United States. It is the city of the Pittsfield, Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Berkshire County. The population was 44,737 at the 2010 census, although the population has declined in recent decades, Pittsfield remains the third largest municipality in western Massachusetts, behind only Springfield and Chicopee. In 2005, Farmers Insurance ranked Pittsfield 20th in the United States as Most Secure Place To Live among small towns with fewer than 150,000 residents, in 2006, Forbes ranked Pittsfield as number 61 in its list of Best Small Places for Business. In 2008, Country Home magazine ranked Pittsfield as #24 in a listing of cities east of the Mississippi. In 2009, the City of Pittsfield was chosen to receive a 2009 Commonwealth Award, Massachusetts highest award in the arts, humanities, in 2010, the Financial Times proclaimed Pittsfield the Brooklyn of the Berkshires, in an article covering its recent renaissance.
In 1738, a wealthy Bostonian named Col. Jacob Wendell bought 24,000 acres of lands known originally as Pontoosuck and he planned to subdivide and resell to others who would settle there. He formed a partnership with Philip Livingston, a kinsman from Albany, New York, and Col. John Stoddard of Northampton. Mrs. Deming was the first and the last of the original settlers, solomon Deming died in 1815 at the age of 96. Royal Governor Sir Francis Bernard named Pittsfield after British nobleman and politician William Pitt, by 1761 there were 200 residents, and the plantation became the Township of Pittsfield. Brown wrote in his winter 1776-77 handbill, Money is this mans God, Pittsfield was primarily an agricultural area, because of the many brooks that flowed into the Housatonic River, the landscape was dotted with mills that produced lumber, grist and textiles. The town was a metropolis by the late 19th century. Stanleys enterprise was the forerunner of the internationally known corporate giant, thanks to the success of GE, Pittsfields population in 1930 had grown to more than 50,000.
On October 8,2015, SABIC announced it would relocate its headquarters from Pittsfield to Houston, General Dynamics occupies many of the old GE buildings, and its workforce is expanding. Much of General Dynamics local success is based on the awarding of government contracts related to its information systems. Roosevelt, Massachusetts Governor Winthrop Murray Crane, secretary to the president George Bruce Cortelyou, Craig was killed, he was the first Secret Service agent killed while on a presidential protection detail. Roosevelt, whose face and left shin were badly bruised, nearly came to blows with the trolley motorman, Madden was charged with manslaughter, to which he pleaded guilty. He was sentenced to six months in jail and a heavy fine, in 2004, historian John Thorn discovered a reference to a 1791 by-law prohibiting anyone from playing baseball within 80 yards of the new meeting house in Pittsfield
University of Helsinki
The University of Helsinki is a university located in Helsinki, Finland since 1829, but was founded in the city of Turku in 1640 as the Royal Academy of Åbo, at that time part of the Swedish Empire. It is the oldest and largest university in Finland with the widest range of disciplines available, around 36,500 students are currently enrolled in the degree programs of the university spread across 11 faculties and 11 research institutes. As of August 1,2005, the University complies with the structure of the Europe-wide Bologna Process and offers Bachelor, Licenciate. Admission to degree programmes is determined by entrance examinations, in the case of bachelors degrees. It has been ranked a top 100 university in the according to the 2016 ARWU, QS. The university is bilingual, with teaching officially provided both in Finnish and Swedish, generally speaking, the university is monolingual Finnish, as courses taught in Swedish are very few and far apart. Teaching in English is extensive throughout the university at Master, remaining true to its traditionally strong Humboldtian ethos, the University of Helsinki places heavy emphasis on high-quality teaching and research of a top international standard.
It is a member of various prominent international university networks, such as Europaeum, UNICA, the Utrecht Network, the first predecessor of the university, The Cathedral School of Åbo, was presumably founded in 1276 for education of boys to become servants of the Church. It was the university founded in the Swedish Empire, following Uppsala University. The second period of the Universitys history covers the period when Finland was a Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire, as Finland became part of the Russian Empire in 1809, Emperor Alexander I expanded the University and allocated substantial funds to it. In the capital the primary task of the University was to educate the Grand Duchy’s civil servants, the University became a community subscribing to the new Humboldtian ideals of science and culture, studying humanity and its living environment by means of scientific methods. The Alexander University was a centre of life that promoted the birth of an independent Finnish State. The great men of 19th century Finland, Johan Vilhelm Snellman, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Elias Lönnrot, in the 19th century university research changed from being collection-centred to being experimental and analytical.
The more scientific approach of the university led to specialisation and created new disciplines, as the scientific disciplines developed, Finland received ever more scholarly knowledge and highly educated people, some of whom entered rapidly evolving industry or the government. The third period of the universitys history began with the creation of the independent Republic of Finland in 1917, once Finland gained her independence in 1917 the University was given a crucial role in building the nation state and, after World War II, the welfare state. Members of the community promoted the international relations of the new state. Furthermore, they were involved in national politics and the struggle for equality. In the 20th century, scholarly research at the University of Helsinki reached the level of the European elite in many disciplines. I, virtanen and the Nobel Prize in Medicine shared by Professor Ragnar Granit
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
The Fields Medal is sometimes viewed as the highest honor a mathematician can receive. The Fields Medal and the Abel Prize have often described as the mathematicians Nobel Prize. The Fields Medal differs from the Abel in view of the age restriction mentioned above, the prize comes with a monetary award, which since 2006 has been C$15,000. The colloquial name is in honour of Canadian mathematician John Charles Fields, Fields was instrumental in establishing the award, designing the medal itself, and funding the monetary component. The medal was first awarded in 1936 to Finnish mathematician Lars Ahlfors and American mathematician Jesse Douglas and its purpose is to give recognition and support to younger mathematical researchers who have made major contributions. The Fields Medal is often described as the Nobel Prize of Mathematics, however, in contrast to the Nobel Prize, the Fields Medal is awarded only every four years. The Fields Medal has an age limit, a recipient must be under age 40 on 1 January of the year in which the medal is awarded and this is similar to restrictions applicable to the Clark Medal in economics.
The monetary award is lower than the 8,000,000 Swedish kronor given with each Nobel prize as of 2014. Other major awards in mathematics, such as the Abel Prize, in 1954, Jean-Pierre Serre became the youngest winner of the Fields Medal, at 27. In 1966, Alexander Grothendieck boycotted the ICM, held in Moscow, léon Motchane and director of the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques attended and accepted Grothendiecks Fields Medal on his behalf. In 1970, Sergei Novikov, because of restrictions placed on him by the Soviet government, was unable to travel to the congress in Nice to receive his medal. In 1978, Grigory Margulis, because of restrictions placed on him by the Soviet government, was unable to travel to the congress in Helsinki to receive his medal. In 1982, the congress was due to be held in Warsaw but had to be rescheduled to the next year, the awards were announced at the ninth General Assembly of the IMU earlier in the year and awarded at the 1983 Warsaw congress. In 1990, Edward Witten became the first physicist to win this award, in 1998, at the ICM, Andrew Wiles was presented by the chair of the Fields Medal Committee, Yuri I.
Manin, with the first-ever IMU silver plaque in recognition of his proof of Fermats Last Theorem, don Zagier referred to the plaque as a quantized Fields Medal. Accounts of this award frequently make reference that at the time of the award Wiles was over the age limit for the Fields medal. Although Wiles was slightly over the age limit in 1994, he was thought to be a favorite to win the medal, however, in 2006, Grigori Perelman, who proved the Poincaré conjecture, refused his Fields Medal and did not attend the congress. In 2014, Maryam Mirzakhani became the first woman as well as the first Iranian, Artur Avila the first South American and this is a list of the universities that have graduated Fields medalists
Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregationalist and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, james Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College, Harvards $34.5 billion financial endowment is the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large, highly residential research university, the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the Universitys large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. Harvards alumni include eight U. S. presidents, several heads of state,62 living billionaires,359 Rhodes Scholars. To date, some 130 Nobel laureates,18 Fields Medalists, Harvard was formed in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
In 1638, it obtained British North Americas first known printing press, in 1639 it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard an alumnus of the University of Cambridge who had left the school £779 and his scholars library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650 and it offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational. The leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701, in 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not a clergyman, which marked a turning of the college toward intellectual independence from Puritanism. When the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year later, in 1804, in 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College.
Agassizs approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans participation in the Divine Nature, agassizs perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the divine plan in all phenomena. When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on an archetype for his evidence. Charles W. Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. While Eliot was the most crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education, during the 20th century, Harvards international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the universitys scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new schools were begun and the undergraduate College expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.
In the early 20th century, the student body was predominately old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, by the 1970s it was much more diversified
Helsinki University of Technology
The Helsinki University of Technology was a technical university in Finland. It was located in Otaniemi, Espoo in the area of Greater Helsinki. The university was founded in 1849 by Grand Duke Nicholas I and it moved from Helsinki to Otaniemi campus area in 1966. It was merged into Aalto University in 2010 and briefly had the name Aalto University School of Science, much of the universitys Otaniemi campus was designed by Alvar Aalto. As the proportion of matriculation diploma holders in the student intake gradually increased, in 1908, TKK was given university status along with its present name, thus becoming the second university to be founded in Finland. In 1955, building of the new campus started with the housing village. In 1966, TKK moved from Helsinki to the new campus in Otaniemi, in 2010, TKK was merged with Helsinki School of Economics and University of Art and Design Helsinki into Aalto University. All engineering programmes offered by TKK led to the degree of diplomi-insinööri, the only exceptions to this were the architecture programmes that lead to the masters degrees of architecture and landscape architecture.
From 2005, according to the Bologna process, all students complete an intermediate degree before the DI or architects degree. This degree is considered a degree and enables enrollment in foreign universities where a bachelors degree is required. TKK did not offer programs terminating in a degree, a student might only be accepted to study for the Masters level degree. TKK required a degree from foreign students studying in English. Apart from numerous programs in Finnish language, various international Masters programs were offered exclusively for studies in English, the university was organized in four faculties, each consisting of departments and separate laboratories, and separate units not operating under any faculty. More recently, the university has invested in the research of nanotechnology, operating the largest cleanroom facility in Northern Europe. TKK was located in Otaniemi, several high-tech companies, the Finnish forest industrys joint experimental laboratory KCL, and business incubators Innopoli and Technopolis are situated there.
It is adjacent to Keilaniemi, with Life Science Center. The area is connected by a 15-minute bus ride to the center of Helsinki, TKK was known for its active student community and technology students are highly noticeable, as they wear a distinctive hat and often brightly colored overalls to many of their public events. The community has organised important charity events, TKK students are famous for, and Finlands leading practitioners of, student pranks, similar in principle to MIT hacks