Edmonton is the capital city of the Canadian province of Alberta. Edmonton is on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Metropolitan Region, surrounded by Alberta's central region; the city anchors the north end of what Statistics Canada defines as the "Calgary–Edmonton Corridor". The city had a population of 932,546 in 2016, making it Alberta's second-largest city and Canada's fifth-largest municipality. In 2016, Edmonton had a metropolitan population of 1,321,426, making it the sixth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Edmonton is North America's northernmost metropolitan area with a population over one million. A resident of Edmonton is known as an Edmontonian. Edmonton's historic growth has been facilitated through the absorption of five adjacent urban municipalities in addition to a series of annexations through 1982, the annexation of 8,260 ha of land from Leduc County and the city of Beaumont on January 1, 2019. Known as the "Gateway to the North", the city is a staging point for large-scale oil sands projects occurring in northern Alberta and large-scale diamond mining operations in the Northwest Territories.
Edmonton is a cultural and educational centre. It hosts a year-round slate of festivals, reflected in the nickname "Canada's Festival City", it is home to North America's largest mall, West Edmonton Mall, Fort Edmonton Park, Canada's largest living history museum. The earliest known inhabitants arrived in the area, now Edmonton around 3,000 BC and as early as 12,000 BC when an ice-free corridor opened as the last glacial period ended and timber and wildlife became available in the region. In 1754, Anthony Henday, an explorer for the Hudson's Bay Company, may have been the first European to enter the Edmonton area, his expeditions across the Canadian Prairies were to seek contact with the aboriginal population for establishing the fur trade, as the competition was fierce between the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company. By 1795, Fort Edmonton was established on the river's north bank as a major trading post for the Hudson's Bay Company; the new fort's name was suggested by John Peter Pruden after Edmonton, the hometown of both the HBC deputy governor Sir James Winter Lake, Pruden.
In 1876, Treaty 6, which includes what is now Edmonton, was signed between the Aboriginal peoples in Canada and Queen Victoria as Queen of Canada, as part of the Numbered Treaties of Canada. The agreement includes the Plains and Woods Cree and other band governments of First Nations at Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt, Battle River; the area covered by the treaty represents most of the central area of the current provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta. The coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway to southern Alberta in 1885 helped the Edmonton economy, the 1891 building of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway resulted in the emergence of a railway townsite on the river's south side, across from Edmonton; the arrival of the CPR and the C&E Railway helped bring settlers and entrepreneurs from eastern Canada, Europe, U. S. and other parts of the world. The Edmonton area's fertile soil and cheap land attracted settlers, further establishing Edmonton as a major regional commercial and agricultural centre; some people participating in the Klondike Gold Rush passed through South Edmonton/Strathcona in 1897.
Strathcona was North America's northernmost railway point, but travel to the Klondike was still difficult for the "Klondikers," and a majority of them took a steamship north to the Yukon from Vancouver, British Columbia. Incorporated as a town in 1892 with a population of 700 and as a city in 1904 with a population of 8,350, Edmonton became the capital of Alberta when the province was formed a year on September 1, 1905. In November 1905, the Canadian Northern Railway arrived in Edmonton. During the early 1900s, Edmonton's rapid growth led to speculation in real estate. In 1912, Edmonton amalgamated with the City of Strathcona, south of the North Saskatchewan River. Just before World War I, the boom ended, the city's population declined from more than 72,000 in 1914 to less than 54,000 only two years later. Many impoverished families moved to subsistence farms outside the city, while others fled to greener pastures in other provinces. Recruitment to the army during the war contributed to the drop in population.
Afterwards, the city recovered in population and economy during the 1920s and 1930s and took off again during and after World War II. The Edmonton City Centre Airport opened in 1929. Named Blatchford Field in honour of former mayor Kenny Blatchford, pioneering aviators such as Wilfrid R. "Wop" May and Max Ward used Blatchford Field as a major base for distributing mail and medicine to Northern Canada. World War II saw Edmonton become a major base for the construction of the Alaska Highway and the Northwest Staging Route; the airport was closed in November 2013. In 1892 Edmonton was incorporated as a town; the first mayor was Matthew McCauley, who established the first school board in Edmonton and Board of Trade and a municipal police service. Due to mayor McCauley's good relationship with the federal Liberals this helped Edmonton to maintain political prominence over Strathcona, a rival settlement on the south bank of the North Saskatche
Gillingham Football Club is a professional association football club based in the town of Gillingham, England. The only Kent-based club in the Football League, the "Gills" play their home matches at the Priestfield Stadium; the team competes in the third tier of the English football league system. The club was founded in 1893 and joined the Football League in 1920, they were voted out of the league in favour of Ipswich Town at the end of the 1937–38 season, but returned to it 12 years after it was expanded from 88 to 92 clubs. Twice in the late 1980s they came close to winning promotion to the second tier of English football, but a decline set in and in 1993 they narrowly avoided relegation to the Football Conference. Between 2000 and 2005, Gillingham were in the second tier of the English football league system for the only time in their history, achieving a club record highest league finish of eleventh place in 2002–03; the local success of a junior football side, Chatham Excelsior F. C. encouraged a group of businessmen to meet with a view to creating a football club which could compete in larger competitions.
New Brompton F. C. was formed at the meeting, held on 18 May 1893. The founders purchased the plot of land which became Priestfield Stadium; the new club played its first match on 2 September 1893, losing 1–5 to Woolwich Arsenal's reserve side in front of a crowd of 2,000. New Brompton were among the founder members of the Southern League upon its creation in 1894, were placed in Division Two, they were named Champions in the first season going on to defeat Swindon Town in a test match to win promotion. In the seasons that followed, the club struggled in Division One, finishing bottom in the 1907–08 season, avoiding relegation only due to expansion of the league. Whilst the club's league performance was disappointing, the side did manage a famous cup victory over Football League First Division Sunderland and held Manchester City to a draw before losing in the replay. In 1912 the directors passed a resolution to change the club's name to Gillingham F. C. and the team played under this name throughout the 1912–13 season, although the change was not ratified by the shareholders until the following year.
The team finished bottom of Division One in the 1919–20 season but for a third time avoided relegation, due to the subsequent elevation of all Southern League Division One clubs to form the new Football League Division Three. In the first season of the newly created Football League Division Three, the 1920–21 season, Gillingham again finished bottom, in the years to follow there was little improvement on this, the club continually finishing in the lower reaches of the bottom division. In 1938 the team finished bottom of the Third Division and were required to apply for re-election for the fifth time since joining the league; this bid for re-election failed, with Gillingham returning to the Southern League and Ipswich Town being promoted in their place. Gillingham established themselves as one of the stronger sides in the league, winning a local double of the Kent League and Kent Senior Cup in the 1945–46 season. In the 1946–47 season the team won both the Southern League Cup and the Southern League championship, during which they recorded a club record 12–1 victory over Gloucester City.
The Gills won the league title in 1948–49. In 1950, plans were announced to expand the Football League Division Three from 22 to 24 teams and, taking into account their local success in the interim, Gillingham were re-elected to the Football League with a landslide vote; the team spent eight seasons in Division Three before the restructuring of the league system for the 1958–59 season saw them placed in the newly created Fourth Division. They remained in this division until 1964, when manager Freddie Cox led them to promotion, winning the first championship in the club's history; the team finished the season level on 60 points with Carlisle United, but with a fractionally better goal average, the tightest league title finish in Football League history. After relegation back to the Fourth Division in 1970–71, the Gills were soon promoted back to the Third Division in the 1973–74 season. After this the club seemed to find its level in Division Three mounting a challenge for promotion which fell short each time, never more so than in 1986–87 when they reached the play-offs only to lose in the final to Swindon Town.
During this period the club produced future stars Steve Bruce and Tony Cascarino, famously bought from non-league Crockenhill in exchange for a set of tracksuits. In 1987, the Gills hit the headlines when, on consecutive Saturdays, they beat Southend United 8–1 and Chesterfield 10–0, the latter a club record for a Football League match. Just a few months however, manager Keith Peacock was controversially sacked, within 18 months the club had fallen into Division Four; the ensuing spell in the lower division brought little success, in the 1992–93 Division Three campaign the Gills narrowly avoided relegation to the Football Conference. Beset with financial problems, the club went into administration in January 1995, by the end of the 1994–95 season faced the threat of being expelled from the Football League and closed down. In June 1995, however, a London-based businessman, Paul Scally, bought the club, he brought in new manager Tony Pulis, who led Gillingham to promotion in his first season, finishing second in the old Division Three.
In 1999 the Gills lost in the Division Two play-off final to Manchester City. The Gills were 2–0 up with less than two minutes left only to see City score twice, the equaliser in injury time, go on to w
The Premier League is the top level of the English football league system. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the English Football League; the Premier League is a corporation. Seasons run from August to May with each team playing 38 matches. Most games are played on Sunday afternoons; the Premier League has featured 47 English and two Welsh clubs since its inception, making it a cross-border league. The competition was formed as the FA Premier League on 20 February 1992 following the decision of clubs in the Football League First Division to break away from the Football League, founded in 1888, take advantage of a lucrative television rights deal; the deal was worth £1 billion a year domestically as of 2013–14, with BSkyB and BT Group securing the domestic rights to broadcast 116 and 38 games respectively. The league generates € 2.2 billion per year in international television rights. Clubs were apportioned revenues of £2.4 billion in 2016–17. The Premier League is the most-watched sports league in the world, broadcast in 212 territories to 643 million homes and a potential TV audience of 4.7 billion people.
In the 2014–15 season, the average Premier League match attendance exceeded 36,000, second highest of any professional football league behind the Bundesliga's 43,500. Most stadium occupancies are near capacity; the Premier League ranks second in the UEFA coefficients of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons, as of 2018. Forty-nine clubs have competed since the inception of the Premier League in 1992. Six of them have won the title since then: Manchester United, Arsenal, Manchester City, Blackburn Rovers, Leicester City; the record of most points in a Premier League season is 100, set by Manchester City in 2017–18. Despite significant European success in the 1970s and early 1980s, the late 1980s marked a low point for English football. Stadiums were crumbling, supporters endured poor facilities, hooliganism was rife, English clubs were banned from European competition for five years following the Heysel Stadium disaster in 1985; the Football League First Division, the top level of English football since 1888, was behind leagues such as Italy's Serie A and Spain's La Liga in attendances and revenues, several top English players had moved abroad.
By the turn of the 1990s the downward trend was starting to reverse: at the 1990 FIFA World Cup, England reached the semi-finals. In the 1980s, major English clubs had begun to transform into business ventures, applying commercial principles to club administration to maximise revenue. Martin Edwards of Manchester United, Irving Scholar of Tottenham Hotspur, David Dein of Arsenal were among the leaders in this transformation, it gave the top clubs more power. By threatening to break away, clubs in Division One managed to increase their voting power, they took a 50% share of all television and sponsorship income in 1986. Revenue from television became more important: the Football League received £6.3 million for a two-year agreement in 1986, but by 1988, in a deal agreed with ITV, the price rose to £44 million over four years with the leading clubs taking 75% of the cash. According to Scholar, involved in the negotiations of television deals, each of the First Division clubs received only around £25,000 per year from television rights before 1986, this increased to around £50,000 in the 1986 negotiation to £600,000 in 1988.
The 1988 negotiations were conducted under the threat of ten clubs leaving to form a "super league", but they were persuaded to stay with the top clubs taking the lion share of the deal. As stadiums improved and match attendance and revenues rose, the country's top teams again considered leaving the Football League in order to capitalise on the influx of money into the sport. In 1990, the managing director of London Weekend Television, Greg Dyke, met with the representatives of the "big five" football clubs in England over a dinner; the meeting was to pave the way for a break away from The Football League. Dyke believed that it would be more lucrative for LWT if only the larger clubs in the country were featured on national television and wanted to establish whether the clubs would be interested in a larger share of television rights money; the five clubs decided to press ahead with it. The FA did not enjoy an amicable relationship with the Football League at the time and considered it as a way to weaken the Football League's position.
At the close of the 1991 season, a proposal was tabled for the establishment of a new league that would bring more money into the game overall. The Founder Members Agreement, signed on 17 July 1991 by the game's top-flight clubs, established the basic principles for setting up the FA Premier League; the newly formed top division would have commercial independence from The Football Association and the Football League, giving the FA Premier League licence to negotiate
José Mário dos Santos Mourinho Félix, GOIH, is a Portuguese professional football coach and former player who most served as manager of English club Manchester United. As a manager, Mourinho has won 25 major honours, making him one of the most successful managers of all time, he was named Portuguese Coach of the Century by the Portuguese Football Federation in 2015, holds the distinction of being the first coach to have spent more than £1 billion on transfers. Due to his tactical knowledge and controversial personality, what his opponents regard as an emphasis on getting results over playing beautiful football, he has drawn comparisons, by both admirers and critics, with Argentine manager Helenio Herrera, he is regarded as one of the greatest managers of all time. Following an uneventful career as a player across Portugal's football pyramid, he worked as an interpreter for Sir Bobby Robson at Sporting CP and Porto, before gaining success as an assistant at Barcelona under both Robson and his successor, Louis van Gaal.
Mourinho impressed with brief managerial periods at Benfica and União de Leiria, taking the latter to their highest league finish. He returned to Porto as head coach in 2002, winning the Primeira Liga, Taça de Portugal and UEFA Cup in his first season, followed by the UEFA Champions League the season after, the club's first European Cup title since 1987, as well as retaining the Primeira Liga title; that success earned him a move to England with Chelsea, where he won the Premier League title in each of his first two seasons, as well as the FA Cup once and the League Cup twice, before departing amid reports of a rift with club owner Roman Abramovich. In 2008, Mourinho joined Italian club Inter Milan, where he won the Serie A title in his first season, before leading the club to become the first Italian side to win the Treble in 2010, the latter making him one of five coaches to have won the European Cup with two different teams, he was the recipient of the first FIFA World Coach of the Year award in 2010.
He signed with Real Madrid, where he won the Copa del Rey in his first season and La Liga with a record points total in his second, making him the fifth coach to have won league titles in four different countries. He left Madrid in 2013, after winning only the Supercopa de España in his final season there, he returned to Chelsea, where he won another league title and League Cup, but was dismissed in 2015 after a poor run of results. He was appointed at Manchester United in 2016, where he won the UEFA Europa League and EFL Cup in his first season. Although he led the club to second place in the Premier League the following year, the club's highest league finish since 2013, he did not win any trophies, was dismissed in December 2018, midway through his third season at the club. Mourinho was born in 1963 to a large middle-class family in Setúbal, the son of José Manuel Mourinho Félix, known by the name Félix Mourinho, wife Maria Júlia Carrajola dos Santos, his father played football professionally for Os Belenenses and Vitória de Setúbal, earning one cap for Portugal in the course of his career.
His mother was a primary school teacher from an affluent background. The fall of António de Oliveira Salazar's Estado Novo regime in April 1974, led to the family losing all but a single property in nearby Palmela. Mourinho joined the Belenenses youth team. Graduating to the senior level, he played at Rio Ave and Sesimbra, he lacked the requisite pace and power to become a professional and chose to focus on becoming a football coach instead. His mother enrolled him in a business school, but Mourinho dropped out on his first day, deciding he would rather focus on sport, chose to attend the Instituto Superior de Educação Física, Technical University of Lisbon, to study sports science. After attending coaching courses held by the English and Scottish Football Associations, former Scotland manager Andy Roxburgh took note of the young Portuguese's drive and attention to detail. Mourinho sought to redefine the role of coach in football by mixing coaching theory with motivational and psychological techniques.
After leaving his job as a school coach, Mourinho looked for a path into professional management in his hometown and became youth team coach at Vitória de Setúbal in the early 1990s. He accepted the position of assistant manager at Estrela da Amadora was a scout at Ovarense. In 1992, an opportunity arose to work as a translator for a top foreign coach: Bobby Robson had been appointed as the new manager of Lisbon club Sporting CP and needed an English-speaking local coach to work as his interpreter, his presentation was on 7 July, alongside president Sousa Cintra, manager Robson and Manuel Fernandes. Mourinho began discussing tactics and coaching with Robson in his interpreting role. Robson was sacked by the club in December 1993; when Porto appointed him as their head coach, Mourinho moved with him, continuing to coach and interpret for players at the new club. The Porto team, consisting of players like Ljubinko Drulović, Rui Barros, Jorge Costa and Vítor Baía, went on to dominate Portuguese football the following years.
With Robson as head coach and Mourinho as his assistant, Porto reached the 1993–94 UEFA Champions League semi-finals, won the 1993–94 Taça de Portugal, the 1994–95 and 1995–96 Portuguese championship, the 1994, 1995 and 1996 Portuguese Super Cup, the latter with a 5–0 victory over arch-rivals
Tromsø Idrettslag is a Norwegian professional football club founded in 1920, based in the city of Tromsø. They play their home games at Alfheim Stadion. Tromsø play in the Eliteserien and holds the position as the northernmost top-level football club in the world; the club was first promoted to the Norwegian Premier League in 1985, where they have played since with the exception of the 2001 and 2014 seasons which were spent in the 1. Divisjon. Tromsø have won the Norwegian Cup twice, in 1986 and 1996, have competed in several UEFA competitions; the Norwegian Cup trophies make Tromsø the northernmost club in the world to have won a nationwide title. The club was founded on 15 September 1920, given the name Tromsø Turnforenings Fotballag, or Turn for short; the first match after the formal foundation was against cross-town rivals a 0 -- 0 draw. However, it would not take long before success came to Turn, in 1927, the club won its first district championship. In 1930, the club changed its name to Tromsø Idrettslag because the Norwegian Sports Association thought the club's name was too close to the name of Tromsø Gymnastics Association.
However, this was only temporary, the club changed its name to Tor in 1931. 1931 would be the year the club won its first Northern Norwegian Cup, the highest possible achievement for a Northern Norwegian club at the time. The club beat Mo IL 3–1 in the final; the year after, the Norwegian Sports Association ruled the club could not be named Tor, so Tromsø Idrettslag was again chosen, this time permanently. Tromsø won its second district championship in 1932, but was eliminated in the semi-finals of the Northern Norwegian Cup; the 1930s proved to be a good decade for Tromsø, as the club won district championships in 1933, 1936 and 1937. However, sports activities came to an end in 1940 because of World War II, the club did not play again before 1945. Tromsø started the post-war years in a good fashion, winning the club's sixth district championship in 1946. In 1949, Tromsø won its second Northern Norwegian cup; this time, the final match was played at Harstad Stadium, Tromsø were to play FK Bodø/Glimt.
Tromsø won 3–1, just like in 1931. Tromsø won five consecutive district championships between 1950–1954, before the club was introduced into the Norwegian league system; the club's third and last Northern Norwegian cup came in 1956. Tromsø met Harstad IL – the champions of the previous three years – in Harstad, making Harstad the favourites. However, Tromsø won the match 2–0. Clubs from Northern Norway were allowed into the Norwegian cup in 1963, Tromsø participated for the first time in 1964, advancing to the second round after beating FK Mjølner; the club was eliminated in the second round by Nidelv IL. The 1960s were a period of stadium expansions for the club, with both Valhall Stadium and Alfheim Stadium getting grass fields; because of the inclusion of Northern Norwegian clubs in the Norwegian Cup, the Northern Norwegian Cup was dropped. Tromsø played its last Northern Norwegian Cup match in 1969. With Northern Norwegian clubs accepted in the cup, the only thing left to be included in was the top division.
This occurred in 1972, when FK Mjølner moved to the 1. Divisjon. However, at the time, Tromsø was fighting in the bottom of the Northern Norwegian 2nd division, was relegated. In 1975, Tromsø would be back in the 2. Divisjon after winning promotion the year before. However, the club was once more relegated, this time after only one season in the second highest level of the league system. Tromsø was back in the 2. Divisjon in 1978, won it this time. However, the qualification matches against the two southern teams Hamarkameratene and Fredrikstad FK were lost 3–0 and 1–0 respectively; the next year, 1979, marked the first year with an all-Norwegian 2. Divisjon, giving equal chances for all teams, regardless of geographical position. Tromsø was again relegated. Tromsø was promoted back to the 2. Divisjon after not losing a single match in the 3. Divisjon in 1980. Followed relegation in 1981 and promotion in 1982, before the club managed to establish itself in the 2nd division. Two decent seasons in 1983 and 1984 were followed by a second-place finish in 1985, which meant the club would again play qualification matches for the top division.
First, Sogndal were beaten 1–0. Tromsø won the decisive match against Moss FK 1–0, after a legendary penalty kick save by goalkeeper Bjarte Flem. Tromsø became the third and, for the time being, latest Northern Norwegian club to qualify for the top division, the other two being FK Mjølner and FK Bodø/Glimt; the first season in the top division would be hard for Tromsø, the club had to play qualification to survive. The club was successful in the cup the same year, beating top division champions Lillestrøm SK 4–1 in the final match, a match, thought to be a walk in the park for Lillestrøm before it was played. An experiment in the 1987 season proved valuable to Tromsø: tied matches would be decided on penalty shootouts, awarding three points for a win, two for a shootout win, one for a shootout loss and zero for a loss. Thanks to Bjarte Flem's exceptional penalty saves, Tromsø won seven out of nine shootouts this year; the experiment was dropped after the seaso
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of