A larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians have a larval phase of their life cycle; the larva's appearance is very different from the adult form including different unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may be different. Larvae are adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs. By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form. In some species like barnacles, adults are immobile but their larvae are mobile, use their mobile larval form to distribute themselves; some larvae are dependent on adults to feed them. In many eusocial Hymenoptera species, the larvae are fed by female workers.

In Ropalidia marginata the males are capable of feeding larvae but they are much less efficient, spending more time and getting less food to the larvae. The larvae of some species do not develop further into the adult form; this is a type of neoteny. It is a misunderstanding; this could be the case, but the larval stage has evolved secondarily, as in insects. In these cases the larval form may differ more than the adult form from the group's common origin. Within Insects, only Endopterygotes show different types of larvae. Several classifications have been suggested by many entomologists, following classification is based on Antonio Berlese classification in 1913. There are four main types of endopterygote larvae types: Apodous larvae – no legs at all and are poorly sclerotized. Based on sclerotization, three apodous forms are recognized. Eucephalous – with well sclerotized head capsule. Found in Nematocera and Cerambycidae families. Hemicephalus – with a reduced head capsule, retractable in to the thorax.

Found in Tipulidae and Brachycera families. Acephalus – without head capsule. Found in Cyclorrhapha Protopod larvae – larva have many different forms and unlike a normal insect form, they hatch from eggs which contains little yolk. Ex. first instar larvae of parasitic hymenoptera. Polypod larvae – known as eruciform larvae, these larva have abdominal prolegs, in addition to usual thoracic legs, they poorly sclerotized and inactive. They live in close contact with the food. Best example is caterpillars of lepidopterans. Oligopod larvae – have well developed head capsule and mouthparts are similar to the adult, but without compound eyes, they have six legs. No abdominal prolegs. Two types can be seen: Campodeiform – well sclerotized, dorso-ventrally flattened body. Long legged predators with prognathous mouthparts.. Scarabeiform – poorly sclerotized, flat thorax and abdomen. Short legged and inactive burrowing forms.. Crustacean larvae Ichthyoplankton Spawn Non-larval animal juvenile stages and other life cycle stages: In Porifera: olynthus, gemmule In Cnidaria: ephyra, strobila, hydranth, medusa In Mollusca: paralarva, young cephalopods In Platyhelminthes: hydatid cyst In Bryozoa: avicularium In Acanthocephala: cystacanth In Insecta: Nymphs and naiads, immature forms in hemimetabolous insects Subimago, a juvenile that resembles the adult in Ephemeroptera Instar, intermediate between each ecdysis Pupa and chrysalis, intermediate stages between larva and imago Protozoan life cycle stages Apicomplexan life cycle Algal life cycle stages: Codiolum-phase Conchocelis-phase Marine larval ecology Media related to Larvae at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of larva at Wiktionary Arenas-Mena, C.

Indirect development, transdifferentiation and the macroregulatory evolution of metazoans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Feb 27, 2010 Vol.365 no.1540 653-669 Brusca, R. C. & Brusca, G. J.. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates. Hall, B. K. & Wake, M. H. eds.. The Origin and Evolution of Larval Forms. San Diego: Academic Press. Leis, J. M. & Carson-Ewart, B. M. eds.. The Larvae of Indo-Pacific Coastal Fishes. An Identification Guide to Marine Fish Larvae. Fauna Malesiana handbooks, vol. 2. Brill, Leiden. Minelli, A.. The larva. In: Perspectives in Animal Phylogeny and Evolution. Oxford University Press. P. 160-170. Link. Shanks, A. L.. An Identification Guide to the Larval Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis. 256 pp. Smith, D. & Johnson, K. B.. A Guide to Marine Coastal Plankton and Marine Invertebrate Larvae. Kendall/Hunt Plublishing Company. Stanwell-Smith, D. Hood, A. & Peck, L. S.. A field guide to the pelagic invertebrates larvae of the maritime Antarctic.

British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge. Thyssen, P. J.. Keys for Identification of Immature Insects. In: Amendt, J. et al.. Current Concepts in Forensic Entomology, chapter 2, pp. 25–42. Springer: Dordrecht

TSV Altenholz

TSV Altenholz is a German football club from the city of Altenholz, Schleswig-Holstein. The club was established as the gymnastics club Turn- und Sportverein Altenholz on 1 May 1948 and did not form a football department until nearly two decades on 29 June 1966; the footballers went their own way as Verein für Leibesübungen Altenholz in late 1966 but were reunited with their parent club that same year. In 1997 the football side advanced to the Oberliga Hamburg/Schleswig-Holstein and in anticipation of joining professional upper-tier play again became independent of the parent club as TSV Altenholz Fußball GmBH & Co. KG in order to protect it from any future financial risk, they played four seasons under this status at the Oberliga level with their best result coming as a third-place finish in 2000. The legal separation between the two entities was undone in 2001; the club voluntarily withdrew to the Bezirksoberliga at the conclusion of their 2002–03 campaign despite finishing outside of the relegation zone in 12th place.

TSV advanced to play in the Verbandsliga and qualified in 2008 for the Schleswig-Holstein-Liga following the reorganization of Germany's league structure and the introduction of the new 3. Liga becoming an inaugural member of the new Landesliga Schleswig in 2017; the club's honours: Verbandsliga Schleswig-Holstein Champions: 1997 Verbandsliga Schleswig-Holstein-Nord-Ost Champions: 2012 Bezirksoberliga Kiel Champions: 2006 Bezirksliga Kiel Champions: 1992 Kreis Altenholz Champions: 1991 Official team site Das deutsche Fußball-Archiv historical German domestic league tables

Kanu (footballer, born 1984)

António Eduardo Pereira dos Santos known as Kanu, is a Brazilian footballer who plays as a central defender for Juazeirense. Kanu joined Beira-Mar in the summer of 2008 from Águia Negra, his time with Auri-negros saw him feature in a side which in the 2009–10 season claimed the Segunda Liga, thus gaining promotion to the Portuguese top flight. Kanu scored the goal. In January 2011, Kanu would leave Beira-Mar for Belgian side Standard Liège on an undisclosed fee. In the summer of 2013, he attracted interest from Anderlecht and Sporting CP, but decided to stay with Standard Liège. After his release from Liège in the summer of 2014, Kanu signed for Primeira Liga side Vitória de Guimarães. On 29 December 2015, Belgian Pro League team Oud-Heverlee Leuven announced the signing of Kanu for two and a half years as he was brought in to help the team avoid relegation, however only three months as the team had suffered relegation his contract was deemed to be too much of a burden for the second division and he was subsequently released.

In his short period back in Belgium, Kanu appeared scoring one goal against Lokeren. Beira-MarSegunda Liga: 2009–10VitóriaCampeonato Baiano: 2017 Beira-Mar Player of the Year: 2010 Kanu at ForaDeJogo