The larynx called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck involved in breathing, producing sound and protecting the trachea against food aspiration. The larynx houses the vocal folds, manipulates pitch and volume, essential for phonation, it is situated just below where the tract of the pharynx splits into the esophagus. The word larynx comes from a similar Ancient Greek word; the triangle-shaped larynx consists of cartilages that are attached to one another and to surroundings structures by muscles or by fibrous and elastic tissue components. It is lined by a ciliated mucous membrane; the cavity of the larynx extends from its triangle-shaped inlet the epiglottis to the circular outlet at the lower border of the cricoid cartilage, where it is continuous with the lumen of the trachea. The mucous membrane lining the larynx forms two pairs of lateral folds that jut inward into its cavity; the upper folds are called the vestibular folds. They are sometimes called the false vocal folds for the rather obvious reason that they play no part in vocalization.

The lower pair serves as the vocal folds, which produce sounds needed for speech and other vocalizations. The vocal folds are sometimes called the true vocal folds or vocal cords; the slitlike space between the left and right vocal folds, called the rima glottidis, is the narrowest part of the larynx. The vocal folds and the space between them are together designated as the glottis. An endoscopic view of the vocal folds and related structures; the laryngeal cavity above the vestibular folds is called the vestibule. The middle portion of the cavity between the vestibular and vocal folds is the ventricle of the larynx, or laryngeal ventricle; the infraglottic cavity is the open space below the glottis. In adult humans, the larynx is found in the anterior neck at the level of the C3–C6 vertebrae, it connects the inferior part of the pharynx with the trachea. The laryngeal skeleton consists of six cartilages: three single and three paired; the hyoid bone is not part of the larynx. The larynx extends vertically from the tip of the epiglottis to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage.

Its interior can be divided in supraglottis and subglottis. There are six cartilages, three unpaired and three paired, that support the mammalian larynx and form its skeleton. Unpaired cartilages: Thyroid cartilage: This forms the Adam's apple, it is larger in males than in females. The thyrohyoid membrane is a ligament associated with the thyroid cartilage that connects the thyroid cartilage with the hyoid bone, it supports the front portion of the larynx. Cricoid cartilage: A ring of hyaline cartilage that forms the inferior wall of the larynx, it is attached to the top of the trachea. The median cricothyroid ligament connects the cricoid cartilage to the thyroid cartilage. Epiglottis: A large, spoon-shaped piece of elastic cartilage. During swallowing, the pharynx and larynx rise. Elevation of the pharynx widens it to receive drink. Paired cartilages: Arytenoid cartilages: Of the paired cartilages, the arytenoid cartilages are the most important because they influence the position and tension of the vocal folds.

These are triangular pieces of hyaline cartilage located at the posterosuperior border of the cricoid cartilage. Corniculate cartilages: Horn-shaped pieces of elastic cartilage located at the apex of each arytenoid cartilage. Cuneiform cartilages: Club-shaped pieces of elastic cartilage located anterior to the corniculate cartilages; the muscles of the larynx are divided into extrinsic muscles. The intrinsic muscles are divided into the phonatory muscles; the respiratory muscles serve breathing. The phonatory muscles serve the production of voice; the extrinsic, passing between the larynx and parts around. The main respiratory muscles are the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles; the phonatory muscles are divided into tensors. The intrinsic laryngeal muscles are responsible for controlling sound production. Cricothyroid muscle tense the vocal folds. Posterior cricoarytenoid muscles abduct and externally rotate the arytenoid cartilages, resulting in abducted vocal folds. Lateral cricoarytenoid muscles adduct and internally rotate the arytenoid cartilages, increase medial compression.

Transverse arytenoid muscle adduct the arytenoid cartilages, resulting in adducted vocal folds. Oblique arytenoid muscles narrow the laryngeal inlet by constricting the distance between the arytenoid cartilages. Thyroarytenoid musclessphincter of vestibule, narrowing the laryngeal inlet, shortening the vocal folds, lowering voice pitch; the internal thyroarytenoid is the portion of the thyroarytenoid. Notably the only muscle capable of separating the vocal cords for normal breathing is the posterior cricoarytenoid. If this muscle is incapacitated on both sides, the inability to pull the vocal folds apart will cause difficulty breathing. Bilateral injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve would cause this condition, it is worth noting that all muscles are innervated by the recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus except the cricothyroid muscle, innervated by the external laryngeal branch of the sup

Mariam Bukamal

Mariam Bukamal is a Bahraini sports commentator, anchor and radio personality. Bukamal joined the Information Affairs Authority while she was in fourth grade to host Rokn Al Atphal, a radio program, her television career started. She was an English teacher, before she joined the News Center as a sports anchor, in 2011 became chief editor of the sport bulletin news, she started presenting variety shows through the Weekend program. She presented the Ramadan competitions show Albarastii, which gained success due in part to the spontaneous of the show and the use of Bahraini slang instead classical Arabic, she became known as one of the best announcers, distinguished by her spontaneous performance style, she joined Al-Kass Sports Channel in March 2013 until November 2016 when she returned to Bahrain TV as Head of Sport Department in News Directorate and in 2018 Appointed as Head of Bahrain Sports channel. Bachelor of Arts in English Literature and translation from the University of Bahrain, 2007 Higher Diploma in Education with honors from Teachers College, 2009Masters in the media and public relations from Alahlya University, 2012 Ramadan 2017 Presented Ramadan competitions show "Al Bank" Nov 2016 - May 2017 Supervising & presenting of "Almalaab" Sport Magazine Program For Bahrain TV 2014 - 2016 Co-presenting Sport Dot Net for Alkass ChannelMay 2013 Co-presenting alkass wa alnas Show for Alkass ChannelJanuary 2013 Co-presenting Aldaha Show for Alkass ChannelJune 2011 – February 2013 Presenting the weekly show, Weekend, on Bahrain T.

V. Ramadan 2012 Presented Ramadan competitions show AlbarastiiOctober 2011 Covered the ladies windsurfing competition in Oman for Bahrain T. V. September 2011 Presented a four-day show for Eid Alfetr on Bahrain T. V. Ramadan 2011 Acted a daily animated comedy show Bujlea. November 2009 and 2010 Presented all-day coverage of the annual fishing competition. May 2009 Presented a summer program for the Royal Police Academy of the Ministry of Interior. April 2009 Presented a program in English about Sebastien Buemi of the Toro Rosso team, Formula One driver, three-day live coverage of the Bahrain Grand Prix. January 2006 – July 2006 Presented a live and weekly program Youth Time. January 2011 Presented a dedicated show on Sameani eghneya. January 2011 March 2011: Acted a daily comedy show on Bahrain Fm 93.3. April 2010 Acting in the daily show on Bahrain Fm 93.3, Sheraa Alhawa. January 2010 – January 2011 Announced political news on Bahrain Fm 93.3.2009 Acted in a 30-episode series during the holy month of Ramadan, Hekayat Zaman.2007 Acted in a 30-episode series during Ramadan, Wa Yoghani Alhamam.2006 & 2007 Presented a three-day radio program in Eid Al-Adha Eid Dardeshat Eid.2006 & 2007 presented a three-day radio program in Eid Al-Fitr Lealat Eid.2001 – 2008 presenting a program An Hour with Youth.2000 – 2001 Presented a live weekly children's radio show, Atphal Alyoum Shabab Alghad.2000 – 2005 Presented a live daily children's radio show for the month of Ramadan.1996 – 1999 Presented a live and weekly children's radio show, Rokn Al Atphal.

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Dare to be Different (organisation)

Dare to be Different is a nonprofit organisation founded by former racing driver Susie Wolff and the CEO of the Motor Sports Association Rob Jones in 2016. The organisation aims to increase the participation of women in all forms of motor racing and change the views of women in perceived male-dominated industries. Dare to be Different holds events throughout the United Kingdom and invites local school girls between the ages of eight to fourteen to partake in motor racing related activities. Dare to be Different was founded by former racing driver Susie Wolff and the CEO of the Motor Sports Association Rob Jones after Wolff called Jones and the latter became enthusiastic over the project; the initiative was launched at the Autosport International show held at the National Exhibition Centre in Birmingham on 14 January 2016. At the time women made up 5% of racing drivers in the United Kingdom. Upon its launch, Wolff stressed to the press that the organisation was something, to be expanded in the long term rather than being disbanded after a short period of time.

In 2016, Dare to be Different held five events throughout the United Kingdom to promote their cause. Dare to be Different is a nonprofit organisation whose primary objective is aimed at increasing the participation of women in all forms of motor racing regardless of age and background, it desires to change the views of women in perceived male-dominated industries. The organisation achieved this objective by establishing an online community through social media and its official website. Dare to be Different invites local school girls between the ages of eight to fourteen to its events and are educated by women involved in motor racing. Activities that attendees are allowed to partake include kart racing, the importance of fitness and diet, media etiquette and a tyre switch pit stop challenge; the Science, Technology and Mathematics Network Ambassadors charity assisted in helping Dare to be Different members in constructing a hovercraft in the organisation's first year. Ambassadors of Dare to be Different include Alice Powell, the first woman driver to score a point in the GP3 Series, the deputy team principal of Williams Grand Prix Engineering Claire Williams, Sky Sports News HQ reporter Rachel Brooks, strategy engineer Ruth Buscombe.

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