Trinidad Lake State Park
Trinidad Lake State Park is a state park 4 miles west of Trinidad, United States. The park protects a dammed reservoir. There are hiking trails, camping and boating opportunities; the park features historical attractions such as the coal mining ruins at Cokedale. An exposure of the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary is visible in the southern part of the park. A portion of the mountain route of the Santa Fe Trail runs through the park
Otero County, Colorado
Otero County is one of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,831; the county seat is La Junta. The county was named for Miguel Antonio Otero, one of the founders of the town of La Junta and a member of a prominent Hispanic family. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,270 square miles, of which 1,262 square miles is land and 7.7 square miles is water. Crowley County - north Kiowa County - northeast Bent County - east Las Animas County - south Pueblo County - west Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site Comanche National Grassland Santa Fe National Historic Trail American Discovery Trail Santa Fe Trail National Scenic Byway As of the census of 2000, there were 20,311 people, 7,920 households, 5,472 families residing in the county; the population density was 16 people per square mile. There were 8,813 housing units at an average density of 7 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 79.02% White, 0.76% Black or African American, 1.43% Native American, 0.70% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 15.06% from other races, 2.96% from two or more races.
37.62% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,920 households out of which 32.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.70% were married couples living together, 12.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.90% were non-families. 27.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.90% under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 24.40% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 16.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,738, the median income for a family was $35,906. Males had a median income of $26,996 versus $21,001 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,113.
About 14.20% of families and 18.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.90% of those under age 18 and 11.80% of those age 65 or over. Otero is a Republican county, although less so than the counties of the Colorado High Plains, it was last won for the Democratic Party by Bill Clinton in 1996. Before that, Otero tended to be a Republican-leaning county at the Presidential level, although it did vote for Wilson twice, FDR in 1932 and 1936, Truman in 1948 and Lyndon Johnson in 1964. La Junta Rocky Ford Cheraw Fowler Manzanola Swink La Junta Gardens North La Junta Index of Colorado-related articles G. W. Swink, pioneer county commissioner List of counties in Colorado National Register of Historic Places listings in Otero County, Colorado Outline of Colorado Otero County Homepage Otero County Government Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Las Animas, Colorado
Las Animas is the Statutory City, the county seat and the only incorporated municipality in Bent County, United States. The city population was 2,410 at the 2010 United States Census. Las Animas is located on the Arkansas River, just west of its confluence with the Purgatoire River, in southeast Colorado east of Pueblo, near the historic Bent's Fort. According to legend, the town and the Purgatoire River were named for a group of conquistadors part of Coronado's expedition, who died without the last rites sacrament of a priest. According to Catholic belief, their souls would go to Purgatory as a result; the original Spanish name for Las Animas was purported to be La Ciudad de Las Animas Perdidas en Purgatorio, "The city of lost souls in Purgatory." However, according to author Morris F. Taylor, this is not consistent with Spanish Catholic belief, but a French Catholic belief; the Spanish version, El Rio de las Animas Perdidas en Purgatorio, was considered an embellishment of the French version.
No 19th-century map shows any translation of it. Existing maps have different names for the river: Rio de Las Animas, Purgatory River, "Picatoire", a corruption of Purgatoire. French fur traders of the 19th century referred to the river as the Purgatoire. Another anglicization was Pick of Ware. Gantt's Picket Post known as Fort Gantt, was built near the present-day Las Animas in 1832, operating as a trading post until 1834; the second Fort Lyon military post was built in Las Animas in 1867. It operated until 1897. Water is a central issue in Las Animas. Like many cities in southeastern Colorado, Las Animas competes with wealthier cities on the Front Range for the water to sustain life and the local agricultural economy. Developers and municipalities have capitalized upon drought and low crop prices by buying water from desperate farmers; as this water is diverted upstream to serve the larger cities, Las Animas loses access to this important resource. Because of the poor quality of the city's water supply, a reverse-osmosis filtration plant was installed in the mid-1990s.
The loss of minerals in the water resulted in the collapse of many water mains, supported by mineral deposits that formed on the insides of the pipes. Las Animas is located in northwest Bent County at 38°4′1″N 103°13′33″W, along the Arkansas River. U. S. Highway 50 is the main highway through the city, leading west 82 miles to Pueblo and east 36 miles to Lamar. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.7 square miles, of which 1.6 square miles is land and 0.039 square miles, or 2.75%, is water. Las Animas is one of the warmest cities in Colorado, however winters can still be quite cold; the record low temperature in Las Animas of −32 °F occurred most on January 28, 1948. The record high temperature for Las Animas is 114 °F and occurred most on June 24, 2012; each year there are 74 afternoons that hit 90 °F or hotter, with sixteen reaching at least 100 °F or 37.8 °C. The record for lowest maximum temperature was on December 20, 1924, when the high was −8 °F. On the other end of the spectrum, Las Animas’ hottest minimum temperature occurred August 2, 1935, with a low of 89 °F.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,758 people, 1,091 households, 716 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,134.2 people per square mile. There were 1,264 housing units at an average density of 978.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 74.87% White, 0.91% African American, 2.86% Native American, 0.58% Asian, 15.34% from other races, 5.44% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 42.60% of the population. There were 1,091 households out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.0% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.3% were non-families. 30.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.04. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.3% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 117.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,157, the median income for a family was $29,815. Males had a median income of $26,168 versus $23,250 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,893. About 19.7% of families and 25.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.3% of those under age 18 and 14.4% of those age 65 or over. Las Animas sits along the Mountain Branch of the Santa Fe Trail and served as the major city in southeast Colorado until the Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad established operations in La Junta, 20 miles to the west of Las Animas. Las Animas celebrates an annual Santa Fe Trail Day, a celebration of the pioneers and traders who used this trail; this local holiday is the oldest student council-sponsored event in the US. The Las Animas High School Student Council organizes the day, with assistance from the Bent County Chamber of Commerce.
Festivities have included a parade, a costume contest, square dancing, a demolition derby, a traditional "Ranchburger" lunch, as well as many other activities. In past years, students have spread out events over a two-day period, sometimes making this a weekend event. Th
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Baca County, Colorado
Baca County is the southeasternmost of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,788; the county seat is Springfield. Baca County was created by the Colorado legislature on April 16, 1889, out of eastern portions of Las Animas County. Baca County was named in honor of Colorado territorial legislator Felipe Baca. Prior to the 1880s there was little activity in the county, other than along the Cutoff Branch of the Santa Fe Trail that crosses its extreme southeastern corner; the 1910s saw wet years and expansion due to the increase in acreage. World War I brought increased demand for agricultural products; the arrival of the Santa Fe Railroad in 1926 created a population increase. The Dust Bowl arrived with Baca County being one of the hardest hit areas; this prompted soil conservation efforts by the federal government. Part of this effort was the purchase of cultivated land by the government in order to return it to grassland. Today the U. S. Forest Service supervises 220,000 acres of Comanche National Grassland, purchased in the 1930s.
These areas include Picture Canyon. The Colorado Division of Wildlife maintains the recreational areas at Two Buttes Lake and Turk's Pond. On May 18, 1977, an F4 tornado struck the southeastern portion of Baca County, causing an estimated 2.5 million dollars in damage. It tracked from Keyes, where damage was estimated between 25,000 dollars, it was the first F4 tornado in Colorado since at least 1950. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,557 square miles, of which 2,555 square miles is land and 2.4 square miles is water. Prowers County, Colorado Stanton County, Kansas Morton County, Kansas Cimarron County, Oklahoma Union County, New Mexico Las Animas County, Colorado Bent County, Colorado Santa Fe National Historic Trail As of the census of 2000, there were 4,517 people, 1,905 households, 1,268 families residing in the county; the population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 2,364 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.73% White, 0.04% Black or African American, 1.20% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 2.99% from other races, 1.79% from two or more races.
7.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,905 households out of which 28.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.80% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.40% were non-families. 30.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.90. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.50% under the age of 18, 5.90% from 18 to 24, 22.70% from 25 to 44, 24.50% from 45 to 64, 22.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 99.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,099, the median income for a family was $34,018. Males had a median income of $23,169 versus $18,292 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,068.
About 12.90% of families and 16.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.60% of those under age 18 and 13.30% of those age 65 or over. The town is served by the Southeast Colorado Hospital. Springfield Municipal Airport is located a few miles north of Springfield. Like all of the High Plains, Baca County has long been overwhelmingly Republican; the last Democrat to carry the county was Lyndon Johnson in his 1964 landslide – when he carried all bar three Colorado counties – and since the "Reagan Revolution" only Michael Dukakis had exceeded thirty percent of the county's vote for the Democratic Party, whilst in 2016 Hillary Clinton received a mere thirteen percent. Campo Deora Lycan Pritchett Springfield Two Buttes Utleyville Vilas Walsh Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles Colorado census statistical areas National Register of Historic Places listings in Baca County, Colorado Official Baca County website Baca County History Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society Town of Campo official website Town of Springfield official website Town of Walsh official website
Colorado is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U. S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census. The state was named for the Colorado River, which early Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains; the Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, on August 1, 1876, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state one century after the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, touches Arizona to the southwest at the Four Corners.
Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, high plains, canyons, plateaus and desert lands. Colorado is part of the western and southwestern United States, is one of the Mountain States. Denver is most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is used. Colorado is notable for its diverse geography, which includes alpine mountains, high plains, deserts with huge sand dunes, deep canyons. In 1861, the United States Congress defined the boundaries of the new Territory of Colorado by lines of latitude and longitude, stretching from 37°N to 41°N latitude, from 102°02'48"W to 109°02'48"W longitude. After 158 years of government surveys, the borders of Colorado are now defined by 697 boundary markers and 697 straight boundary lines. Colorado and Utah are the only states that have their borders defined by straight boundary lines with no natural features; the southwest corner of Colorado is the Four Corners Monument at 36°59'56"N, 109°2'43"W.
This is the only place in the United States where four states meet: Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet elevation in Lake County is the highest point in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains of North America. Colorado is the only U. S. state that lies above 1,000 meters elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado at 3,317 feet elevation; this point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia. A little less than half of Colorado is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from 3,350 to 7,500 feet; the Colorado plains are prairies but include deciduous forests and canyons. Precipitation averages 15 to 25 inches annually. Eastern Colorado is presently farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages and towns.
Corn, hay and oats are all typical crops. Most villages and towns in this region boast both a grain elevator. Irrigation water is available from subterranean sources. Surface water sources include the South Platte, the Arkansas River, a few other streams. Subterranean water is accessed through artesian wells. Heavy use of wells for irrigation caused underground water reserves to decline. Eastern Colorado hosts considerable livestock, such as hog farms. 70% of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor between Cheyenne and Pueblo, Colorado. This region is protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado; the "Front Range" includes Denver, Fort Collins, Castle Rock, Colorado Springs, Pueblo and other townships and municipalities in between. On the other side of the Rockies, the significant population centers in Western Colorado are the cities of Grand Junction and Montrose.
The Continental Divide of the Americas extends along the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The area of Colorado to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado. West of the Continental Divide, water flows to the southwest via the Colorado River and the Green River into the Gulf of California. Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks which are high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado; the North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Nebraska. Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, drained by the Colorado River; the South Park of Colorado is the region of the headwaters of the South Platte River. In southmost Colorado is the large San Luis Valley, where the headwaters of the Rio Grande are located; the valley sits between the Sangre De Cristo Mountains and San Juan Mountains, consists of large desert lands that run into the mountains.
The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico and Texas. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the S