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Lascaux

Lascaux is the setting of a complex of caves near the village of Montignac, in the department of Dordogne in southwestern France. Over 600 parietal wall paintings cover the interior ceilings of the cave; the paintings represent large animals, typical local and contemporary fauna that correspond with the fossil record of the Upper Paleolithic time. The drawings are the combined effort of many generations, with continued debate, the age of the paintings is estimated at around 17,000 years. Lascaux was inducted into the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list in 1979, as an element of the Prehistoric Sites and Decorated Caves of the Vézère Valley. On 12 September 1940, the entrance to the Lascaux Cave was discovered by 18-year-old Marcel Ravidat when his dog, fell in a hole. Ravidat returned to the scene with three friends, Jacques Marsal, Georges Agnel, Simon Coencas, they entered the cave through a 15 metres deep shaft that they believed might be a legendary secret passage to the nearby Lascaux Manor.

The teenagers discovered. Galleries that suggest continuity, context or represent a cavern were given names; those include the Hall of the Bulls, the Passageway, the Shaft, the Nave, the Apse, the Chamber of Felines. They returned along with the Abbé Henri Breuil on 21 September 1940. Breuil was accompanied by Jean Bouyssonie and Dr Cheynier; the cave complex was opened to the public on 14 July 1948, initial archaeological investigations began a year focusing on the Shaft. By 1955, carbon dioxide, heat and other contaminants produced by 1,200 visitors per day had visibly damaged the paintings; as air condition deteriorated and lichen infested the walls. The cave was closed to the public in 1963, the paintings were restored to their original state, a monitoring system on a daily basis was introduced. Conservation problems in the original cave have made the creation of replicas more important. Lascaux II, an exact copy of the Great Hall of the Bulls and the Painted Gallery was displayed at the Grand Palais in Paris, before being displayed from 1983 in the cave's vicinity, a compromise and attempt to present an impression of the paintings' scale and composition for the public without harming the originals.

A full range of Lascaux's parietal art is presented a few kilometres from the site at the Centre of Prehistoric Art, Le Parc du Thot, where there are live animals representing ice-age fauna. The paintings for this site were duplicated with the same type of materials as iron oxide and ochre which were believed to be used 19 thousand years ago. Other facsimiles of Lascaux have been produced over the years. Lascaux III is a series of five exact reproductions of the cave art that, since 2012, have travelled around the world allowed knowledge of Lascaux to be shared far from the original. Lascaux IV is a new copy of all the painted areas of the cave that forms part of the International Centre for Parietal Art. Since December 2016 this larger and more accurate replica which integrates digital technology into the display is presented in a new museum built by Snøhetta inside the hill overlooking Montignac. In May 2018 Ochroconis lascauxensis, a species of fungus of the Ascomycota phylum, was described and named after the place of its first emergence and isolation, the Lascaux cave.

This followed on from the discovery of another related species Ochroconis anomala, first observed inside the cave in 2000. The following year black spots began to appear among the cave paintings. No official announcement on the effect and/or progress of attempted treatments has been made; as of 2008, the cave contained black mold. In January 2008, authorities closed the cave for three months to scientists and preservationists. A single individual was allowed to enter the cave for 20 minutes once a week to monitor climatic conditions. Now only a few scientific experts are allowed to work inside the cave and just for a few days a month but the efforts to remove the mold have taken a toll, leaving dark patches and damaging the pigments on the walls. In 2009 it was announced: Mold problem "stable". In 2011 the fungus seemed to be in retreat after the introduction of an additional stricter conservation program. Two research programs have been instigated at the CIAP concerning how to best treat the problem, the cave now possesses a powerful climatisation system designed to reduce the introduction of bacteria.

In its sedimentary composition, the Vézère drainage basin covers one fourth of the département of the Dordogne, the northernmost region of the Black Périgord. Before joining the Dordogne River near Limeuil, the Vézère flows in a south-westerly direction. At its centre point, the river's course is marked by a series of meanders flanked by high limestone cliffs that determine the landscape. Upstream from this steep-sloped relief, near Montignac and in the vicinity of Lascaux, the contours of the land soften considerably; the Lascaux valley is located some distance from the major concentrations of decorated caves and inhabited sites, most of which were discovered further downstream. In the environs of the village of Eyzies-de-Tayac Sireuil, there are no fewer than 37 decorated caves and shelters, as well as an ev

Scott Place Mounds

Scott Place Mounds is an archaeological site in Union Parish, Louisiana from the Late Coles Creek-Early Plaquemine period, dating to 1200 CE. The site is one of the few such sites in north-central Louisiana; the site a five-mound complex located near the confluence of Lake D'Arbonne. Mound A is the largest mound at 11 feet in height with a square base measuring 125 feet by 125 feet and its summit 70 feet by 45 feet. Mound B is the second largest at 6 feet in height and 65 feet in diameter and is located 270 feet to the northeast of Mound A; the three remaining mounds are 2 feet in height and range from 65 feet to 25 feet in diameter. All of the mounds were built in single stages. Charcoal samples taken from underneath Mound B have been dated to 1200 CE. Culture and chronological table for the Mississippi Valley Scott Place Mounds at waymarking.com

Amy (1981 film)

Amy is a 1981 American drama film directed by Vincent McEveety and starring Jenny Agutter. It was produced by Walt Disney Productions, distributed by Buena Vista Distribution, written by Noreen Stone. In 1913, Amy Medford leaves her possessive, wealthy husband to begin a new life teaching speech to deaf students in the Appalachian Mountains at a school for sight-and-hearing-impaired students. Though encountering resistance from those who question whether it’s possible to teach speech to children with hearing-impairments, Amy becomes close to the staff and children, building a new life for herself and gaining the personal strength she will need to stand up to the domineering husband, not content to let her live her own life. In 1982, Disney Educational Services excerpted a sequence from the film for educational use, entitled Amy-on-the-Lips. Disney released a DVD-on-Demand version of this film as part of their "Disney Generations Collection" line of DVDs on June 26, 2011. List of films featuring the deaf and hard of hearing Official website Amy DVD Amy on IMDb Amy at AllMovie