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The LaserWriter is a laser printer with built-in PostScript interpreter sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1985 to 1988. It was one of the first laser printers available to the mass market. In combination with WYSIWYG publishing software like PageMaker, that operated on top of the graphical user interface of Macintosh computers, the LaserWriter was a key component at the beginning of the desktop publishing revolution. Laser printing traces its history to efforts by Gary Starkweather at Xerox in 1969, which resulted in a commercial system called the Xerox 9700. IBM followed this with the IBM 3800 system in 1976. Both machines were room-filling devices handling the combined output of many users. During the mid-1970s, Canon started working on similar machines, partnered with Hewlett-Packard to produce 1980's HP 2680, which filled only part of a room. Other copier companies started development of similar systems. HP introduced their first desktop model with a Ricoh engine for $12,800 in 1983. Sales of the non-networked product were unsurprisingly poor.

In 1983 Canon introduced the LBP-CX, a desktop laser printer engine using a laser diode and featuring an output resolution of 300 dpi. In 1984, HP released the first commercially available system based on the HP LaserJet. Steve Jobs of Apple Computer had seen the LPB-CX while negotiating for supplies of 3.5" floppy disk drives for the upcoming Apple Macintosh computer. Meanwhile, John Warnock had left Xerox to found Adobe Systems in order to commercialize PostScript and AppleTalk in a laser printer they intended to market. Jobs was aware of Warnock's efforts, on his return to California he started working on convincing Warnock to allow Apple to license PostScript for a new printer that Apple would sell. Negotiations between Apple and Adobe over the use of Postscript began in 1983 and an agreement was reached in December 1983, one month before Macintosh was announced. Jobs arranged for Apple to buy $2.5 million in Adobe stock. At about the same time, Jonathan Seybold introduced Paul Brainerd to Apple, where he learned of Apple's laser printer efforts and saw the potential for a new program using the Mac's GUI to produce PostScript output for the new printer.

Arranging his own funding through a venture capital firm, Brainerd formed Aldus and began development of what would become PageMaker. The VC coined the term "desktop publishing" during this time; the LaserWriter was announced at Apple's annual shareholder meeting on January 23, 1985, the same day Aldus announced PageMaker. Shipments began in March 1985 at the retail price of US$6,995 more than the HP model. However, the LaserWriter featured AppleTalk support that allowed the printer to be shared among as many as sixteen Macs, meaning that its per-user price could fall to under $450, far less expensive than HP's less-advanced model; the combination of the LaserWriter, PostScript, PageMaker and the Mac's GUI and built-in AppleTalk networking would transform the landscape of computer desktop publishing. At the time, Apple planned to release a suite of AppleTalk products as part of the Macintosh Office, with the LaserWriter being only the first component. While competing printers and their associated control languages offered some of the capabilities of PostScript, they were limited in their ability to reproduce free-form layouts, use outline fonts, or offer the level of detail and control over the page layout.

HP's own LaserJet was driven by a simple page description language, known as Printer Command Language, or PCL. The version for the LaserJet, PCL4, was adapted from earlier inkjet printers with the addition of downloadable bitmapped fonts, it lacked the power and flexibility of PostScript until several upgrades provided some level of parity. It was some time before similar products became available on other platforms, by which time the Mac had ridden the desktop publishing market to success; the LaserWriter used the same Canon CX printing engine as the HP LaserJet, as a consequence early LaserWriters and LaserJets shared the same toner cartridges and paper trays. PostScript is a complete programming language that has to be run in a suitable interpreter and sent to a software rasterizer program, all inside the printer. To support this, the LaserWriter featured a Motorola 68000 CPU running at 12 MHz, 512 kB of workspace RAM, a 1 MB frame buffer. At introduction, the LaserWriter had the most processing power in Apple's product line—more than the 8 MHz Macintosh.

As a result, the LaserWriter was one of Apple's most expensive offerings. For implementation purposes, the LaserWriter employed a small number of medium-scale-integration Monolithic Memories PALs, no custom LSI, whereas the LaserJet employed a large number small-scale-integration Texas Instruments 74-Series gates, one custom LSI; the LaserWriter was, thereby, in the same form factor, able to provide much greater function, indeed, much greater performance, all within the same LBP-CX form factor, although the external packaging was, for marketing purposes, somewhat different. Since the cost of a LaserWriter was several times that of a dot-matrix impact printer, some means to share the printer with several Macs was desired. LANs were complex and expensive, so Apple developed its own networking scheme, LocalTalk. Based on the AppleTalk protocol stack, LocalTalk connected the LaserWriter to the Mac over an RS-422 serial port. At 230.4 kbit/s LocalTalk was slower than the Centronics PC parallel interface, but allowed several computers to share a single LaserWriter.

PostScript enabled the LaserWriter to print complex pages containing high-resolution bitmap graphics, outline fonts, vector illustrations. The LaserWriter could print more complex la

2018–19 Bradley Braves men's basketball team

The 2018–19 Bradley Braves men's basketball team represented Bradley University during the 2018–19 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. The Braves, led by fourth-year head coach Brian Wardle, played their home games at Carver Arena in Peoria, Illinois as members of the Missouri Valley Conference, they finished the season 9 -- 9 in MVC play to finish in a three-way tie for fifth place. As the No. 5 seed in the MVC Tournament, they defeated Missouri State and Northern Iowa to win the tournament championship. As a result, they received the conference's automatic bid to the NCAA Tournament as the No. 15 seed in the East region. There they lost to No. 2-seeded Michigan State in the First Round. The Braves finished the 2017–18 season 20–13, 9–9 in MVC play to finish in fifth place, they defeated Drake in the first round of the MVC Tournament before losing to Loyola–Chicago in the semifinals. Source

Palms (band)

Palms is an American post-metal supergroup that formed in 2011. The group features Deftones' vocalist Chino Moreno and three members of the post-metal band Isis: bassist Jeff Caxide, drummer Aaron Harris and guitarist Bryant Clifford Meyer. After the demise of Isis in 2010, Caxide and Meyer decided they wanted to continue making music together. Moreno, a longtime Isis fan, joined saying, "I've always dug the moods these dudes convey with their sound. I am excited to combine my sense of creativity with theirs, to have fun doing so". Palms proved to be an outlet for Caxide and Meyer to expand their sound beyond what Isis was. Caxide said, "I think. That's not what this is, because that's not exciting"; the former Isis members intentionally strayed away from the compositional methods of their former band. Caxide said, "When we were writing these songs, I was coming up with ideas that I would never have presented to Isis. I don't want to call this'pop music,' but it's more in that vein than anything I've done".

The group's self-titled debut album, expected to be released in 2012, was released on June 25, 2013 by Ipecac Recordings—a label, co-founded by Mike Patton and released many of Isis' albums. Harris mixed the album. Harris recorded his drum tracks at Joe Barresi's House of Compression studio, Moreno recorded his vocals at Harris' home studio. In July 2013, Palms performed four shows in California in support of their debut album. Palms released a music video for "Future Warrior" in September 2013, directed by Jon Mancinetti. On May 27, 2014, a remix of Antarctic Handshake by iconAclass/deadverse was released by Ipecac Recordings. On June 27, the band announced a 2014 fall tour of the Southwest. Jeff Caxide – bass, guitar Aaron Harris – drums Bryant Clifford Meyer – guitars, keyboards Chino Moreno – vocals, guitar Chuck Doom – keyboards, bass Palms "Future Warrior" "Mission Sunset" Official website Palms June 2013 Invisible Oranges Interview

Prostitution in New Zealand

Prostitution in New Zealand, brothel-keeping, living off the proceeds of someone else's prostitution, street solicitation are legal in New Zealand and have been since the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 came into effect. Coercion of sex workers is illegal; the 2003 decriminalisation of brothels, escort agencies and soliciting, the substitution of a minimal regulatory model, created worldwide interest. Until 2003, indoor prostitution in New Zealand was governed by the Massage Parlours Act 1978, which allowed brothels to operate in the guise of massage parlours. However, the act defined massage parlours as public places, so laws against soliciting in a public place applied to workers in parlours, they were sometimes raided by police posing as clients. Workers in the parlours were required to provide their names and addresses to the police. Advertising the sale of sex, running a brothel, living off the earnings of prostitution were illegal. Despite the Massage Parlours Act and other laws meant to suppress prostitution, there was considerable toleration of sex work in practice in the last decades of the 20th century.

These laws were all changed by the Prostitution Reform Act in June 2003. The early examples of the exchange of sex for material gain in New Zealand occurred in the early period of contact between indigenous Māori and European and American sailors. Along with food and timber, sex was one of the major commodities exchanged for European goods; the Bay of Islands and in particular the town of Kororareka was notorious for this and brothels proliferated. It is not clear whether all of these exchanges constituted prostitution in the usual sense of the word. In some cases, the sex may have been part of a wider partnership between a tribe and a ship's crew, akin to a temporary marriage alliance; the amount of choice women had about their participation seems to have varied. Throughout this period there was a severe gender imbalance in the settler population and women were in short supply. In the nineteenth century, prostitution was referred to as the "Social Evil"; as with other British dependencies, New Zealand inherited both statute and case law from the United Kingdom, for instance the 1824 UK Vagrancy Act was in force until New Zealand passed its own Vagrancy Act.

These included reference to the common prostitute. New Zealand was amongst those dependencies that British authorities pressured into passing Contagious Diseases Acts; these were oppressive Acts, based on the belief, as found in the 1922 report, that women represented vectors for the spread of venereal diseases. It was replaced by the Social Hygiene Act 1917, although these fears reappeared throughout the British Empire in both World Wars. In the post-war period, the concern was more with "promiscuity", although prostitution was seen as an extreme form of this; the gendered rationale and practice of venereal disease policy formed a focus for early feminist activism. Prostitution-related statute law passed in the second half of the 20th century included the Crimes Act 1961, the Massage Parlours Act 1978, the Summary Offences Act 1981. Section 26 of the Summary Offences Act prohibited soliciting, S 147 of the Crimes Act prohibited brothel-keeping, S 148 living on the earnings of prostitution, S 149 procuring.

In 2000, the Crimes Act was amended to criminalise both clients and operators where workers were aged under 18. Young people under 18 were still classed as offenders after this came into force, until the passage of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003; the Massage Parlours Act allowed indoor commercial sex under a facade. Prostitutes advertised their services as "escorts", brothels advertised themselves as "massage parlours". Workers in "massage parlours" were required to be registered with the police from the time the Massage Parlours Act 1978 came into force. In the mid-1990s, the police extended this registration ex-officio to other indoor workers in some areas of the country; the police had approached media outlets letting them know that they may be "aiding and abetting" sex workers commit crimes, told the media that they should require such registration before accepting advertisements. In 1997, a number of groups came together to hold a Women's Forum in Wellington, out of which a working group developed to draft a bill, including the NZPC, women's groups, the AIDS Foundation.

Other individuals included legal volunteers and MPs, in particular Maurice Williamson, Associate Minister of Health, Katherine O'Regan, who championed the bill in parliament. Labour returned to power, Tim Barnett assumed responsibility for introducing it as a Private Member's Bill to decriminalise prostitution; this was based on the harm reduction model of New South Wales. The bill was introduced on 21 September 2000, placed in the ballot box, being drawn as number 3 and debated on 8 November as Bill 66-1, passing first reading 87:21. Party support came from the Greens, notably Sue Bradford, it was opposed by New Zealand First, who proposed the Swedish approach of criminalising the purchase of sex. It proceeded to select committee, which received 222 submissions and heard 66 submissions and reporting in favour of the Bill on 29 November 2002, following the 2002 election, the bill now being referred to as Bill 66-2. Dissen


Halhjem is a village in Os municipality in Hordaland county, Norway. The village is a suburb of the municipal centre of Osøyro, located to the north; the village is the site of an important ferry quay along the European route E39 highway which runs between the major cities of Bergen and Stavanger. The population of Halhjem in 1999 was 991, but since 2001 it is considered a part of the urban area of Osøyro; the ferry quay has two different ferry routes. There is a ferry from Halhjem to Våge on the island of Tysnesøya in Tysnes municipality, to the southeast. There is a ferry from Halhjem to Sandvika, just north of the village of Fitjar in Fitjar municipality, to the south

The Black Unicorn

The Black Unicorn is the second novel in the Magic Kingdom of Landover series by Terry Brooks, the follow-up to Magic Kingdom for Sale -- SOLD!. Published in 1987, the book revolves around the evil wizard Meeks, attempting to wrest control of the kingdom from Ben Holiday, the High Lord and the appearance of a mythical black unicorn in the kingdom. Ben Holiday, court magician Questor Thews and the sylph Willow each have a prophetic dream. Ben dreams that his former law partner back in Chicago is in trouble. Questor dreams of the location of two ancient books of magic and Willow dreams of a black unicorn containing great power and a golden bridle that can harness the animal. Only the half-dog court scribe Abernathy voices his misgivings about the dreams. Upon returning to the old world, Ben discovers. Suspicious, he hurries back to Landover. Unbeknownst to him, Meeks has stowed away in Ben's clothing returning as well. At the castle, Ben finds. One is filled with illustrations of unicorns and the other appears burned from the inside.

Willow is still missing. That night, Ben is attacked by Meeks; the old wizard casts a glamour over each of them, so that Meeks appears as Ben and Ben appears as a common peasant. Failing to recognize his true identity and thinking him an intruder, Questor has Ben thrown out of the castle. Ben searches for Willow, hoping to convince her of his identity and prevent her from delivering the bridle to Meeks. Along the way he encounters a prism cat from the fairy world. Dirk is able to recognize Ben as the High King, taunts him for his inability to overcome his situation. Ben is able to arrange a meeting with Willow's father, the River Master, who fails in an attempt to capture the Black Unicorn and keep it as his own; the River Master sends him away without help. Ben encounters the Earth Mother, who tells them that Willow has gone to the Deep Fell to retrieve the golden bridle from the witch Nightshade. Unsure if the witch has returned to the Deep Fell since their last encounter, Ben enlists the help of the G’home Gnomes and Sot, to investigate.

They find that she are apprehended. Nightshade reveals that she is no longer in possession of the bridle, it having been stolen by the dragon Strabo some time ago. Seeing an opportunity to regain the bridle from the dragon, Nightshade transports herself and her captives to Strabo's lair. Meanwhile and Abernathy have been evicted from the castle for failing to capture the black unicorn, they make their way to Strabo's lair, seeking the dragon's help in determining the nature of the black unicorn. Nightshade and her prisoners appear, Strabo admits that he has given up the bridle to Willow for the price of a song; this infuriates Nightshade, the meeting devolves into a furious battle between dragon and witch, while Ben and company escape. Ben is able to convince his friends of his identity, they come across Willow, who has harnessed the black unicorn in a small meadow. Meeks arrives, still in disguise, tries to persuade a confused Willow into bringing the unicorn to him instead of the true king. Edgewood Dirk enters into the confusion, prompting Meeks to launch an explosive attack against the Prism Cat.

Willow mounts the black unicorn and flees, while the firefight turns the meadow into a scorched battlefield and scatters the party. Abernathy and Willow are captured by Meeks and his army of imps. Alone and Edgwood Dirk have one last cryptic conversation, the cat disappears. Thinking on the cats’ words, Ben acknowledges his love for Willow, finds that he can break Meek's spell by conquering his self-deception. Ben summons the Paladin; as the Paladin battles with skeletal creatures summoned by Meeks, Abernathy bites the wizard in the leg, making him drop the books of magic. Streaking through the air, the black unicorn rips the binding from the books, releasing a multitude of white unicorns who scatter. A brief but intense battle of magic between the unicorn and Meeks erupts, Meeks is vanquished, it is revealed that the fairy world sent unicorns into various worlds to help restore peoples' faith in magic. Landover wizards from long ago captured these unicorns, imprisoning their spirits in one book and their bodies in another.

The spirit of the unicorns would break free, manifesting as the black unicorn, the bridle was created to recapture this creature. Meeks had hidden the books before becoming exiled to Earth, sent the dreams to set into motion events that would return possession of the books to him. In the epilogue, a white unicorn dashes down the streets of Chicago; the Official Terry Brooks Website The Black Unicorn Page of Terry Brooks' Website