Last Action Hero is a 1993 American fantasy action comedy film directed and produced by John McTiernan. It is a satire of the action genre and associated clichés, containing several parodies of action films in the form of films within the film; the film stars Arnold Schwarzenegger as Jack Slater, a Los Angeles police detective within the Jack Slater action film franchise, while Austin O'Brien co-stars as Danny Madigan, a boy magically transported into the Slater universe, Charles Dance as Benedict, a ruthless assassin from the Slater universe who escapes to the real world. Schwarzenegger served as the film's executive producer and plays himself as the actor portraying Jack Slater. Although the film was both a critical and commercial disappointment during its initial theatrical release, it has since become a cult film among fans and critics; the film features Art Carney's last appearance in a motion picture before his death in 2003. Danny Madigan is a teenager living in a crime-ridden area of New York City with his widowed mother, Irene.
Following his father's death, Danny takes comfort in watching action movies those featuring the indestructible Los Angeles cop Jack Slater, at his local movie theater owned by Nick, who acts as the projectionist. Nick gives Danny a golden ticket once owned by Harry Houdini, to see an early preview of the latest Jack Slater film before its official release. During the film, the ticket stub magically transports Danny inside the fictional world of the film, interrupting Slater in the middle of a car chase. After escaping their pursuers, Slater takes Danny to the LAPD headquarters, where Danny points out the fictional nature of the world, such as the presence of a cartoon cat detective named Whiskers, that Slater's friend John Practice is played by the same actor, the antagonist that killed Mozart from Amadeus and shouldn't be trusted. Slater's supervisor, assigns Danny as his new partner, instructs them to investigate criminal activities related to mobster Tony Vivaldi. Danny guides Slater to Vivaldi's mansion, having recognized its location from the start of the film.
There, they meet his henchman, Mr. Benedict. Danny explains the criminal deeds that the two had carried out from the film, but Slater has no evidence, they are forced to leave. There, his daughter Whitney, Danny thwart the attack, though Benedict ends up getting the ticket stub, he discovers its ability to transport him out of the film. Slater learns of Vivaldi's plan to murder his rival mob by releasing a lethal gas during a funeral atop a skyscraper, he and Danny go to stop it, but are waylaid by Practice, who reveals that Danny was right as he was working for Vivaldi. Whiskers kills Practice, saving Slater and Danny, the two manage to prevent any deaths by the gas release. Learning that Vivaldi's plan has failed, Benedict kills him, uses the stub to escape into the real world, pursued by Slater and Danny. Slater becomes despondent upon learning the truth, as well as his mortality in the real world, but cheers up after spending some time with Irene. Meanwhile, Benedict devises a plan to kill Arnold Schwarzenegger, the one portraying Slater in the film, from which he can bring other villains from other films into the real world and take over.
To help, Benedict brings the Ripper, the villain of the previous Jack Slater movie, to assassinate Schwarzenegger. Danny and Slater learn of this, race to the premiere. Slater saves electrocutes the Ripper. Benedict shoots Slater, critically injuring him. Danny subdues Benedict, allowing Slater to say: "No sequel for you." To him and kill him by shooting his explosive glass eye. With Slater losing blood, Danny knows that the only way to save him is to return him to the fictional world, since he is indestructible there; the figure of Death from the film The Seventh Seal, who had escaped his film, appears before them. Danny holds Death at gunpoint, but Death suggests that he search for the other stub of the ticket. Danny finds the stub, is able to take Slater back into the film, with his wounds healing. Danny returns to the real world. A recovered Slater enthusiastically embraces the true nature of his reality when he talks to Dekker about his new plan, appreciating the differences between it and the "real" world.
Arnold Schwarzenegger as Jack Slater / Himself Austin O'Brien as Danny Madigan Charles Dance as Benedict, Vivaldi's right-hand man, a supporting antagonist in Jack Slater IV who becomes the antagonist of the main film. Robert Prosky as Nick the projectionist Tom Noonan as the Ripper and himself. Frank McRae as Lieutenant Dekker, Slater's immediate supervisor, always screaming at him. Anthony Quinn as Tony Vivaldi, the main antagonist of Jack Slater IV until Danny's interference changes events. Bridgette Wilson as Whitney Slater and Meredith Caprice, the actress who plays her in the Slater films F. Murray Abraham as John Practice, Jack's friend, revealed to be a traitor. Danny says not to trust him, saying he killed Mozart, referring to Abraham's Oscar-winning role as Antonio Salieri in Amadeus. Mercedes Ruehl as Irene Madigan, Danny's mom Art Carney as Frank Slater, in his last film role Professor Toru Tanaka as Vivaldi and Benedict's bodyguard. Ryan Todd as Andrew Slater, Jack's son, killed in Jack Slater III by the Ripper.
Bobbie Brown as Video Babe Franc
Jayney Miriam Klimek, is a Berlin-based Australian-born singer-songwriter. Jayney Miriam Klimek grew up in Melbourne, her father, Alfons Klimek, mother, Luisa née Cester had eight children: Eugenia, Naomi, Alfons junior and Jayney and her twin brother, Johnny. Johnny is a successful Hollywood composer, their cousins Nic Cester and Chris Cester are founding mainstays of Jet. Klimek studied classical singing and acting at the National Theatre, Melbourne and at John Gauci School of Film. In 1984 she relocated to Berlin to join her two brothers and Johnny, where they had formed The Other Ones with three local musicians. Jayney achieved chart success with The Other Ones. "Holiday" spent 20 weeks in the European Top Ten. Collaborations include work with Tony Banks on two of his solo albums Bankstatement and Still, Tangerine Dream, Paul van Dyk, the French band from Bordeaux XII Alfonso. Jayney performed lead vocals on Digital Tenderness Terranova. In 2005 she formed You Pretty Thing with Andreas Schwarz-Ruszczynski.
Their Single "Push It" has become the longest running No.1 played track on RadioEins. In 2014 she released her first solo album "Awake" on Inflatable Records; the album was produced by Gareth Jones. In 2016 Jayney made her acting debut in the Austrian film de: Hotel Roll, she is slated to appear in the film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 in 2017. Jayney Klimek official website Inflatable Records
The Ministry of Health and Social Protection is a department of the Albanian Government, charged with the responsibility to oversee the running of Albania's healthcare system, including supporting universal and affordable access to medical and hospital services, while helping people to stay healthy through health promotion. In 1914 Prince William of Wied built a new structure, entrusting the Minister of Health Mihal Turtulli. In 1920 with the government of the Lushnja Congress, was established the structure of the General Directorate of Health, which functioned as such until 1944; the Ministry of Health was founded in 1944. The Ministry had its structure with 21 employees and 175 Albanian and foreign doctors practicing the activity throughout the country. Since the establishment of the institution, the Ministry of Health has been reorganized by joining other departments or merging with other ministries, thus resulting in its name changing several times; this list reflects the changes made in years in pluralist history since 1992 as an institution: Ministry of Health and Environment from 1992 to 1998 Ministry of Health from 1998 to 2017 Ministry of Health and Social Protection from 2017 - current The ministry owns and manages all the public hospitals in Albania Albanian Health Insurance Institute Public Health Institute National Center for Blood Transfusion National Center for the Development and Rehabilitation of Children Dental Clinic for Undergraduates Medical Helicopter Transportation Unit National Center for Medicine and Medical Equipment Electro Medical Provider National Center for Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Health Institutions National Center of Education in Continuity Healthcare in Albania Council of Ministers
The Pennsylvania Railroad's class I1s steam locomotives were the largest class of 2-10-0 "Decapods" in the United States, with 598 built 1916–1923. They were the dominant freight locomotive on the system until World War II, they remained in service until the end of PRR steam in 1957. Nicknames for the type included the latter due to the large boiler. Unlike smaller 2-10-0s that preceded them, the I1s design was huge, taking advantage of the PRR's heavy trackage and high allowed axle load, with a wide, free-steaming boiler. Large cylinders enabled the I1s to apply that power to the rails, their power was undeniable, but they were not popular with the crews, for they were hard riding at all but low speeds. One author described them as "the holy terror of the PRR"; the large boiler limited the size of the driving wheels, which made it impossible to mount counterweights large enough to balance the piston thrusts. Their factor of adhesion is low, so they were prone to slipping. Subclass I1sa increased maximum steam cut-off to admit steam for 78% of the piston stroke, boosting low speed tractive effort from 90,000 to 96,000 pounds-force.
There was no obvious external difference except for a revised builders' plate. I1s locomotives were converted to I1sa during major overhaul. In 1923 PRR put engine 4358 on the Altoona test plant; the tests below were all stoker fired. In two hours at 7.12 miles per hour it consumed 8,129 pounds of coal and averaged 71,993 pounds of tractive effort at the driver rims, corresponding to 6.4% thermal efficiency. In one hour at 14.24 miles per hour it consumed 6,809 pounds of coal and averaged 63,263 pounds tractive effort, or 7.1% efficiency. At 22.02 miles per hour it consumed 7,000 lb/h of 13,039 BTU/lb coal and averaged 43,515 pounds TE, for 7.1% efficiency. At 21.36 miles per hour at 50% cutoff it consumed 5,230 pounds of 13,372 BTU/lb coal in 30 minutes averaging 51,409 pounds TE, for an efficiency of just under 5.4%. Of the nearly 600 class I1 locomotives built for the Pennsy, a sole example, #4483, survived the scrapper's torch; the locomotive was retired in August of 1957. Following Chief of Motive Power Hal T.
Cover's instructions, the railroad moved the engine to its roundhouse in Northumberland, PA, along with several other retired steam locomotives labeled for preservation. There the engine sat until 1963, when the PRR sold it to the Westinghouse Air Brake Company and moved the engine to Wilmerding, PA. WABCO had sought a railroad-themed display for its headquarters to commemorate its heritage of supplying air brakes to America's railroads. #4483 saw little maintenance during its life as a display piece for the company and its condition deteriorated although the boiler's asbestos cladding was removed. By 1982, the company had grown tired of the locomotive on its front lawn; the Western New York Railway Historical Society acquired #4483 and moved the engine to Hamburg, NY, where it resides today, receiving occasional maintenance. The organization hopes to move the locomotive to the Heritage Discovery Center in Buffalo, NY, where the engine will sit on public display protected from the elements. Photo Gallery and Further History of #4483 Audio of I1sa starting a heavy coal train, 1949 Info and Photos on modeling an N Scale PRR I1s Diagram
Pablo Presbere was an indigenous king of the community of Suinse, in the region, now known as Talamanca, in the south-east of Costa Rica. He is remembered as the indigenous leader who led the aboriginal insurrection in "Tierra Adentro" against the Spanish authorities on September 29, 1709, in the course of which several friars and soldiers and the wife of one of these were killed and fourteen temples erected by the missionaries were set ablaze; the rebellion was supported by all the natives of Costa Rica from Cerro Chirripó to Isla Tojar, in Almirante Bay, with the exception of the Viceitas, allowed the aboriginals to regain control of the territory of Talamanca, which became in a refuge area during the colonial period of Costa Rica. He was known as "the most feared warrior in Talamanca; some sources argue that his original indian name "Pabru" means "chief of the macaw" and "Preberi" would be "Place of running waters". The macaw is a bird of religious significance for the Bribri people thus, some scholars argue that Presbere was a shaman or religious leader and not from a warrior caste, which may explain both the respect that he inspired in other natives and the fear that the Spaniards had for him.
The reason for the indigenous uprising of 1709 was the interception, by Presbere, of a letter ordering the uprooting of the Talamanca Indians from their lands and transferring them, by force, to the villages of Boruca and Teotique. Secretly reunited in Suinse with the head of the Cabécares, both chiefs organized the stockpile of spears made of hardened wood and leather shields. On September 28, 1709, under the command of a group of Cabécares and Teribes, allied with the chief of Cabécar Comesala, Presbere attacked the convent of Urinama, where they killed Fray Pablo de Rebullida - who had lived in Talamanca for 15 years and spoke seven languages indigenous - and two soldiers. Rebullida died of a thrown and its corpse was decapitated, because among these natives appropriating the head of an enemy meant to appropriate the powers that this one had in life. After attacking Urinama, the army of Presbere went to Chirripó, where another friar was killed, Antonio de Zamora, two soldiers, a woman and her son, as well as some indigenous acolytes of the friars.
They continued on their way to Cabécar, where five Spanish soldiers died, while the remaining eighteen fled towards Tuis, twelve leagues from Cartago, where they tried to resist, but chose to continue towards Cartago. The Indians in arms burned fourteen churches founded by the missionaries, the convents and town houses, destroyed the images and sacred objects of the friars, because these were a symbol of the threat they represented to their traditional order; the authorities of Cartago decided to carry out a punishment expedition. The governor and captain general of the province of Costa Rica, Lorenzo Antonio de Granda y Balbín, asked the Audiencia of Guatemala to send 75 firearms, one hundred knives, 800 pounds of gunpowder, 4 thousand bullets and 4 thousand pesos, it was organized in Cartago, in February 1710, an army of 200 men who attacked Talamanca by two flanks, using the town of San José Cabécar as headquarters. Presbere went to take refuge in the village of Viceita with all his people, after a hard scuffle the viceites were forced to hand him over.
Presbere was captured, the indigenous chiefs of Talamanca Siruro, Iruscara and Dapari, 700 indigenous people, after a month of searching the mountains. The other leader of the revolt, managed to escape. Of the total of the 700 Indians captured, for their use as slaves, upon arrival in Cartago the number was 500, while 200 died on the road or escaped. Nine years after his capture, the governor of Costa Rica reported that of these 500, 300 had died from smallpox and measles. In Cartago and the other indigenous leaders were put on trial by Governor Lorenzo Antonio de Granda y Balbín. At the trial, Presbere did not admit any responsibility in the uprising and claimed that he was in another town when the events occurred, he refused to give up any of his fighting companions. On the contrary, the other indigenous people tried with him indicated him as leader of the insurrection; the documents record his haughty behavior. He gave his testimony in his native language, the Bribri; as a justification for the rebellion, he said that he had been informed that the friars wrote letters asking soldiers to get the Indians out of their villages.
On July 1, 1710, Presbere was sentenced to death by garrote, since Costa Rica had no executioner to apply the cruel death typical of the colonial era called "garrote vil", which consisted of the prisoner being seated in a chair to apply a tourniquet on the neck to which it was turned. After the insurrection of Pablo Presbere, the indigenous people of Talamanca reinforced their identity and dominion in that territory, increasing their function as a refuge zone for the aborigines who managed to escape to Spanish rule. In a certain way, this allowed the subsistence of the traditions and language of these cultures to this day; the rebellion of Presbere is still considered as the maximum protest action Talamanqueño indigenous before the Spanish submission. With the capture of the 700 Indians, from the point of view of these the rebellion was a success, since the Spaniards had to leave the South Caribbean region as a result of it, which allowed Talamanca to recover its independence and sovereignty.
The name of Presbere was recorded in the collective memory of the Talamanca indigenous people as a symbol of resistance to foreign invaders. On Wednesday, March 19, 1997, the Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica declared Pablo Presbere
A voltage-regulator tube is an electronic component used as a shunt regulator to hold a voltage constant at a pre-determined level. Physically, these devices resemble vacuum tubes, but there are two main differences: Their glass envelopes are filled with a gas mixture, They have a cold cathode. Electrically, these devices resemble Zener diodes, with the following major differences: They rely on gas ionization, rather than Zener breakdown The unregulated supply voltage must be 15–20% above the nominal output voltage to ensure that the discharge starts The output can be higher than nominal if the current through the tube is too low; when sufficient voltage is applied across the electrodes, the gas ionizes, forming a glow discharge around the cathode electrode. The VR tube acts as a negative resistance device. In this way, the device conducts sufficient current to hold the voltage across its terminals to the desired value; because the device would conduct a nearly unlimited amount of current, there must be some external means of limiting the current.
This is provided by an external resistor upstream from the VR tube. The VR tube conducts any portion of the current that does not flow into the downstream load, maintaining an constant voltage across the VR tube's electrodes; the VR tube's regulation voltage was only guaranteed when conducting an amount of current within the allowable range. In particular, if the current through the tube is too low to maintain ionization, the output voltage can rise above the nominal output—as far as the input supply voltage. If the current through the tube is too high, it can enter an arc discharge mode where the voltage will be lower than nominal and the tube may be damaged; some voltage-regulator tubes contained small amounts of radionuclides to produce a more reliable ionization. The Corona VR tube is a high-voltage version that's hydrogen-filled at close to atmospheric pressure, for voltages ranging from 400 V to 30 kV at tens of microamperes, it has a coaxial form. The voltage stability depends on the gas pressure.
In America, VR tubes were given RETMA tube part numbers. Lacking a heater, the tube's part numbers began with "0". In Europe, VR tubes were given part numbers under the professional system and under a dedicated system. In USSR, glow-discharge stabilitrons were given designation in Cyrillic with serial number of development. For example, "СГ21Б", "СГ204К" and i.e. VR tubes were only available in certain voltages. Common models were: Octal-based tubes, 5–40 mA current: 0A3 – 75 volts 0B3 – 90 volts 0C3 – 105 volts 0D3 – 150 voltsMiniature tubes, 5–30 mA current: 0A2 – 150 volts 0B2 – 108 volts 0C2 – 72 voltsMiniature tubes, 1–10 mA current: 85A2 – 85 volts Voltage reference 1.5–3.0 mA current: 5651 – 87 volts 5651A – 85.5 voltsSubminiature tubes: Various models such as the 991 that resembled neon lamps, but were optimized for more-accurate voltage regulationMiniature corona tubes, 5–55 µA current: CK1022 1 kVWire-ended, subminiature corona tubes: CK1037 700 volts, 5–125 µA CK1038 900 volts, 5–55 µA CK1039 1.2 kV, 5–125 µA Some voltage regulator tubes have an internal jumper connected between two of the pins.
This jumper could be used in series with the secondary transformer winding. If the tube was removed rather than leaving the voltage unregulated, output would turn off; because the glow discharge is a "statistical" process, a certain amount of electrical noise is introduced into the regulated voltage as the level of ionization varies. In most cases, this could be filtered out by placing a small capacitor in parallel with the VR tube or using an RC decoupling network downstream of the VR tube. Too large a capacitance and the circuit will form a relaxation oscillator ruining the voltage regulation and causing the tube to fail catastrophically. VR tubes could be operated in series for greater voltage ranges, they could not be operated in parallel: because of manufacturing variations, the current would not be shared among several tubes in parallel. Presently, VR tubes have been almost-entirely supplanted by solid state regulators based on Zener diodes and avalanche breakdown diodes. Operating VR tubes glow during normal operation.
The color of the glow varies depending upon the gas mixture used to fill the tubes. Though they lack a heater, VR tubes do become warm during operation due to the current and voltage drop through them