A lateen or latin-rig is a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, running in a fore-and-aft direction. Dating back to Roman navigation, the lateen became the favorite sail of the Age of Discovery because it allows a boat to tack "against the wind", it is common in the Mediterranean, the upper Nile River, the northwestern parts of the Indian Ocean, where it is the standard rig for feluccas and dhows. The lateen is used today in a different form on small recreational boats like the popular Sailfish and Sunfish, but is still used as a working rig by coastal fishermen in the Mediterranean; the earliest fore-and-aft rig was the spritsail, appearing in the 2nd century BC in the Aegean Sea on small Greek craft. The lateen sail originated somewhat during the Roman empire in the Mediterranean Sea, it evolved out of the dominant square rig by setting the sails more fore-and-aft – along the line of the keel – rather than athwartship, while tailoring the luff and leech. Both types of lateen were used from an early date on: a 2nd-century AD gravestone depicts a quadrilateral lateen sail, while a 4th-century mosaic shows a triangular one, to become the standard rig throughout the Middle Ages.
According to the Belgian maritime historian Lucien Basch, the true lateen rig appears as early as the 1st century BC, in a Hellenistic wall painting found in a Hypogeum in Alexandria. The earliest archaeologically excavated ship, reconstructed with a lateen rig is dated to ca. 400 AD, with a further four being attested prior to the Arab advance to the Mediterranean. The Kelenderis ship mosaic and the Kellia ship graffito from the early 7th century complement the picture. By the 6th century, the lateen sail had replaced the square sail throughout the Mediterranean, the latter disappearing from Mediterranean iconography until the mid-13th century, it became the standard rig of the Byzantine dromon war galley and was also employed by Belisarius' flagship in the 532 AD invasion of the Vandal kingdom. The triangular lateen and the settee continued to coexist in the middle Byzantine period, as evidenced by Christian iconography, as well as a recent find of a graffito in the Yenikapı excavations. In the 12th to 13th centuries the rigging underwent a change when the hook-shaped masthead made way for an arrangement more akin to a barrel-like crow's nest.
After the Muslim conquests, the Arabs adopted the lateen sail by way of the Coptic populace, which shared the existing Mediterranean maritime tradition and continued to provide the bulk of galley crews for Muslim-led fleets for centuries to come. This is indicated by the terminology of the lateen among Mediterranean Arabs, derived from Greco-Roman nomenclature. More detailed research into their early use of the lateen is hampered by a distinct lack of unequivocal depictions of sailing rigs in early Islamic art. A glazed pottery dish from Saracenic Dénia dating to the 11th century is at present the earliest securely identifiable example found in the Mediterranean; the emergence of new evidence for the development and spread of the lateen sail in the ancient Mediterranean in recent decades has led to a reevaluation of the role of Arab seafaring in the Indian Ocean in that process. Neither the attribution of the lateen to the Arabs nor its origin in the Indian Ocean can any longer be upheld: The origin of the lateen sail has been attributed by scholars to the Indian Ocean and its introduction into the Mediterranean traditionally ascribed to the Arab expansion of the early-7th century.
This was due to the earliest iconographic depictions of lateen rigged ships from the Mediterranean post-dating the Islamic expansion into the Mediterranean basin... It was assumed that the Arab people who invaded the Mediterranean basin in the 7th century carried with them the sailing rig familiar to them; such theories have been superseded by unequivocal depictions of lateen-rigged Mediterranean sailing vessels which pre-date the Arab invasion. Further inquiries into the appearance of the lateen rig in the Indian Ocean and its gulfs show a reversal of earlier scholarly opinion on the direction of diffusion, now pointing to an introduction by Portuguese sailors in the wake of Vasco da Gama's arrival in India in 1500. Searches for lateen sails in India were inconclusive. Since lateen sails were absent from Indian inland waters, in regions remote from foreign influences, as late as the mid-20th century, the hypothesis of an Indian origin appears a priori implausible; the earliest evidence for the lateen in Islamic art adjacent to the Indian Ocean occurs in a 13th-century Egyptian artifact which, however, is assumed to show a Mediterranean vessel.
Excavated depictions of Muslim vessels along the Eastern African coast uniformly show square sails before 1500. After 1500, the situation in the Indian Ocean changed, with nearly all vessels now being lateen rigged; as Portuguese hull design and construction methods are known to have been subsequently adopted by Eastern Muslim shipbuilders, it is assumed that this process included the lateen rigging of the novel caravel. Within fourteen years of da Gama's arrival, lateens were spotted by the Portuguese on local vessels; the "V"-shaped and mastless lateen rig, known as crab claw sail, of the seafaring people of Oceania, in use as far east as Tonga and Samoa at the time of European contact, is assumed to be an independent invention on the grounds of its different construction. Until the 14th century, the lateen sail was employed on the Mediterranean Sea, while the Atlantic and Baltic vessels relied on square
Sorrento is a town in Ascension Parish, United States. The population was 1,227 at the 2000 census. By the 2010 census it had grown 14.2%, to 1,401 inhabitants. It is part of the Baton Rouge Metropolitan Statistical Area. Sorrento is located at 30°10′49″N 90°51′58″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.1 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,227 people, 446 households, 337 families residing in the town; the population density was 392.5 people per square mile. There were 494 housing units at an average density of 158.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 83.70% White, 14.83% African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 0.41% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.39% of the population. There were 446 households out of which 37.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.6% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.4% were non-families.
19.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone who were 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.20. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.3% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 31.1% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, 10.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $35,234, the median income for a family was $40,208. Males had a median income of $35,662 versus $20,625 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,803. About 14.2% of families and 16.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.8% of those under age 18 and 20.3% of those age 65 or over. Sorrento Primary School Sorrento is home to River Parishes Community College, established in 1998; the official journal for the Town of Sorrento is The Gonzales Weekly Citizen.
Clay Schexnayder, member of the Louisiana House of Representatives from Ascension Parish, owns an automotive repair business in Sorrento. John "Hot Rod" Williams, NBA player The About Us – History of the College page for River Parishes Community College contains Facts about the Sorrento area, including the town's history
Sherjill MacDonald is a Dutch footballer who plays as a forward for KFC Lille in Belgium. MacDonald started his career as a product of the Ajax youth system, was loaned out to several clubs before being transferred to R. S. C. Anderlecht and to AGOVV Apeldoorn, he joined West Bromwich Albion on loan during the January 2007 transfer window, with the option of a permanent transfer at the end of his loan spell. He made his club debut as a substitute in a 2–1 victory over Plymouth Argyle on 31 January. On 27 February 2007 he missed a penalty during sudden death in the 6th round of the FA cup against Middlesbrough, who won 5–4 on penalties. After the end of the 2006–07 season it was announced that his loan period had been extended until January 2008, he has been described by West Bromwich Albion manager Tony Mowbray as "a special talent". On 4 January 2008 he signed a two and a half-year permanent contract with Albion, after they paid a £200,000 fee. On 8 February 2008 MacDonald joined Hereford United on a month's emergency loan.
He scored twice on his debut the following day in a 4–1 victory over Dagenham & Redbridge, earning him a place in the League Two Team of the Week. Three days he scored a hat-trick against Rochdale in a 4–2 away win. MacDonald returned to the Hawthorns having scored six goals in seven league games, he joined K. S. V. Roeselare on loan during the January 2009 transfer window. During the 2009 close season he left West Bromwich Albion F. C. to sign a contract with K. F. C. Germinal Beerschot which will keep him at the club until the 30 June 2013. MacDonald joined Major League Soccer club Chicago Fire on 24 July 2012 under the league's designated player rule, his debut for the Chicago Fire was unsuccessful, as the Fire drew last second to the San Jose Earthquakes. He was released on 14 August 2013. In July 2018, MacDonald joined Busan IPark in South Korea, but after an unsuccessful half year, he left the club again and returned to Belgium, he started to train with KFC Lille. MacDonald scored one goal and made one assist in his first game.
MacDonald was capped for the Netherlands at U21 level, making his debut against an England U21 side who won 1–0 in November 2006. It was during this game that he came to the attention of West Bromwich Albion, as he played against Albion centre back Curtis Davies. MacDonald is of Surinamese descent. Sherjill is a Mormon. Sparta RotterdamEerste Divisie: 2015–16 Sherjill MacDonald at Soccerbase Sherjill MacDonald at WorldFootball.net "Profile on West Bromwich Albion F. C. official site". Archived from the original on 21 June 2007. Retrieved 28 October 2007
Kazuhiro Soda is a Japanese documentary filmmaker and author based in New York City, USA. He is known for his observational method of documentary filmmaking. Soda obtained a degree in religious studies from Tokyo University in 1993 and a BFA in filmmaking from the School of Visual Arts in New York, where he has remained since, in 1997. Soda worked as a television director for NHK from 1997 to 2005. In 2005, he shot Campaign, depicting a political campaign in Kawasaki, Japan by Kazuhiko Yamauchi, an inexperienced outsider candidate endorsed by the Japanese Liberal Democratic Party; when completed, it was invited to the forum section of Berlin International Film Festival in 2007. PBS broadcast a 52-minute version, which won the Peabody Award in 2008; the TV version was broadcast under a different title, Campaign! The Kawasaki Candidate as part of the Why Democracy? series, a global media event co-produced by 33 broadcasters around the world, including the BBC, CBC, NHK. The 120-minute theatrical version won the Best Documentary Award at the Belgrade International Documentary Film Festival in 2008.
From 2005 to 2007, Soda shot Mental, which focuses on the lives of patients in a small mental clinic Chorale Okayama in Japan. The film was world-premiered at the Pusan International Film Festival in 2008, won the Best Documentary Award there, it won the Best Documentary Award at the Dubai International Film Festival in December 2008. Other awards include Special Jury Mention at the 2009 Miami International Film Festival, Outstanding Documentary Award at the 2009 Hong Kong International Film Festival, Inter-religious Jury Prize at Visions du Reel in 2009. In September 2010, Soda premiered a documentary, Peace, as the opening film of the DMZ International Documentary Film Festival. Peace depicts the lives of people with disabilities and cats in Okayama and was commissioned by DMZ Docs as a short documentary. Peace won the Audience Award at Tokyo Filmex, Buyens-Chagoll Award at Visions du Reel, Best Documentary Award at the Hong Kong International Film Festival. In 2009, Soda started shooting Theater 1 and Theatre 2, a documentary series about a playwright/theater director Oriza Hirata and his company, Seinendan.
The series was world-premiered at the Busan International Film Festival in 2012, won the Young Jury's Prize at the Festival des 3 Continents in Nantes, France in 2012. A Night in New York, writer/director/editor A Flower and a Woman, writer/director/editor Freezing Sunlight, writer/director/editor The Flicker, writer/director/editor Campaign, writer/director/editor/producer Mental, writer/director/editor/producer Peace, writer/director/editor/producer Theatre 1, writer/director/editor/producer Theatre 2, writer/director/editor/producer Campaign 2, writer/director/editor/producer Oyster Factory, writer/director/editor/producer The Big House, director/editor/producer Mental Illness and Mosaic, 2009 ISBN 978-4-8058-3014-7 The Reason Why I Make Documentaries, 2010 ISBN 4062881136 Theatre vs. Film - Can a Documentary Capture Fiction?, 2012 ISBN 4000222880 Official Website Official blog Kazuhiro Soda on IMDb
Binnenalster or Inner Alster Lake is one of two artificial lakes within the city limits of Hamburg, which are formed by the river Alster. The main annual festival is the Alstervergnügen; the lake has an area of 0.2 square kilometres. The phrase "inner" refers to the old city walls of Hamburg; the Binnenalster was the part of the lake, "inside" the city walls. The lake was created to serve as a reservoir for a mill; as of 2008 the old city walls do not exist, instead two car and train bridges, the Lombardsbrücke and the Kennedybrücke, span the river. The Binnenalster is bordered by embankment streets on three sides, only the northern side is bordered by a park. Jungfernstieg – on the southern side, opposite this park is a busy boulevard and center of the Binnenalster. Left and right and Neuer Jungfernstieg accommodate a number of corporate headquarters and first class hotels; the Alstervergnügen is an annual street fair held around the lake. It always takes place throughout the first weekend of September, offers a wide variety of food, drink and games stands, as well as some rock bands.
WZCP is an American non-commercial FM radio station located in Chillicothe and operates on the assigned frequency of 89.3 MHz. As of 2007, WZCP identifies itself on the air as "89.3 The River". The station had the call sign of WVXC-FM and was owned by Cincinnati Classical Public Radio. Three repeater stations were sold to Christian Voice of Central Ohio in 2007 because of the small population and lack of a revenue stream from the outlying communities and to pay off the debt incurred by the purchase of 7 stations in 2005 from Xavier University for $15 million. Station website Query the FCC's FM station database for WZCP Radio-Locator information on WZCP Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WZCP