Millsaps College is a private liberal arts college in Jackson, Mississippi. Founded in 1890 and affiliated with the United Methodist Church, Millsaps is home to 985 students; the college was founded in 1889–90 by a Confederate veteran, Major Reuben Webster Millsaps, who donated the land for the college and $50,000. Dr. William Belton Murrah was the college's first president, Bishop Charles Betts Galloway of the Methodist Episcopal Church South organized the college's early fund-raising efforts. Both men were honored with halls named in their honor. Major Millsaps and his wife are interred in a tomb near the center of campus; the current United Methodist Church continues to have affiliations with the college. Nearly 53 years after founding the college, Millsaps was chosen as one of 131 sites for the training of Navy and Marine officers in the V-12 Navy College Training Program. In April 1943, 380 students arrived for the Navy V-12 program, it offered pre-medical and pre-dental. Thereafter Millsaps began accepting students year-round for the program.
A total of 873 officer candidates went through Millsaps between 1943 and 1945. Traces of the Navy V-12 unit appear in the Bobashela in 1944; that year, the Bobashela staff decided to dedicate the yearbook to the unit and Dr. Sanders, one of the unit's advisers. One section memorialized students, killed in action. 1890: Major Reuben Webster Millsaps founds the college with a personal gift of $50,000. 1901: Millsaps builds the first golf course in Mississippi. 1902: Mary Letitia Holloman becomes the first female graduate of Millsaps. 1908: Sing-Ung Zung of Soochow, becomes the first international student to graduate from Millsaps. 1914: Old Main, one of the first buildings on campus, burns and is replaced by Murrah Hall. 1916: Major Millsaps dies and is buried on campus. 1931: The first night football game in Mississippi is played on the Millsaps campus between the Majors and Mississippi A&M. 1936: Millsaps College absorbs bankrupt Grenada College during the Great Depression. 1943: Johnny Carson attends Millsaps for V-12 naval officer training, entertaining his comrades with a magic and humor act.
1944: Louis H. Wilson, who graduated from the college in 1941, received the Medal of Honor for his actions at the Battle of Guam during World War II. Wilson became a General and the 26th Commandant of the Marine Corps in 1975, he was the first Marine Corps Commandant. 1953: Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis judge a Millsaps beauty contest. 1965: Millsaps becomes the first all-white college in Mississippi to voluntarily desegregate. 1967: Robert Kennedy during his presidential campaign speaks at the college about obligations of young Americans to give back to their country. 1975: President Jimmy Carter speaks to Millsaps students about the crisis in the Middle East. 1988: Millsaps initiates the first campus chapter of Habitat for Humanity in Mississippi. 1989: Millsaps becomes the first school in Mississippi to have a chapter of the Phi Beta Kappa honor society. William Belton Murrah, 1890–1910 David Carlisle Hull, 1910–1912 Dr. Alexander Farrar Watkins, 1912–1923 Dr. David Martin Key, 1923–1938 Dr. Marion Lofton Smith, 1938–1952 Dr. Homer Ellis Finger, Jr. 1952–1964 Dr. Benjamin Barnes Graves, 1965–1970 Dr. Edward McDaniel Collins, Jr. 1970–1978 Dr. George Marion Harmon - After 22 years of leading Millsaps College, Dr. Harmon announced his resignation in the Spring of 1999.
His last day as president of Millsaps College was June 30, 2000. Dr. Frances Lucas - Dr. Lucas was the first female to hold the post at Millsaps. Dr. Lucas resigned on April 23, 2009. Lucas cited disagreements with faculty as the reason for her resignation. Howard McMillan, Dean of Millsaps' Else School of Management took over as Interim President in August 2009. Dr. Robert Pearigen, Vice President of University Relations at The University of the South, was selected to serve as the eleventh president of the college, he began his term in office on July 1, 2010. Despite its religious affiliation, the curriculum is secular; the writing-intensive core curriculum requires each student to compile an acceptable portfolio of written work before completion of the sophomore year. Candidates for an undergraduate degree must pass oral and written comprehensive exams in their major field of study; these exams last up to three hours, may cover any required or elective course offered by the major department. Unacceptable performance on comprehensive exams will prevent a candidate from receiving a degree if all course work has been completed.
"Comps" are associated with graduate degree requirements, so their inclusion at the undergraduate level is a source of pride for Millsaps students. Millsaps offers B. S. B. A. B. B. A. M. B. A. and MAcc degrees and corresponding programs. The current undergraduate population is 910 students on a 103 acre campus near downtown Jackson, Mississippi; the student to faculty ratio is 1:9 with an average class size around 15 students. Millsaps offers 32 majors and 41 minors, including the option of a self-designed major, along with a multitude of study abroad and internship opportunities. Millsaps employs 97 full-time faculty members. Of those, 94 percent of tenure-track faculty hold a Ph. D. or the terminal degree in their field. The professors on the tenure track have the highest degree in their field; the college offers research partnerships for undergraduate students, a variety of study abroad programs. Millsaps reports. Millsaps is home to 910 undergraduate, 75 graduate students from 26 states and territories
Placekicker, or kicker, is the player in American and Canadian football, responsible for the kicking duties of field goals and extra points. In many cases, the placekicker serves as the team's kickoff specialist or punter as well; the kicker was not a specialized role. Prior to the 1934 standardization of the prolate spheroid shape of the ball, drop kicking was the prevalent method of kicking field goals and conversions, but after its replacement by place kicking, until the 1960s the kicker always doubled at another position on the roster. George Blanda, Frank Gifford and Paul Hornung are prominent examples of players who were stars at other positions as well as being known for their kicking abilities; when the one-platoon system was abolished in the 1940s, the era of "two-way" players gave way to increased specialization, teams would employ a specialist at the punter or kicker position. Ben Agajanian, who started his professional career in 1945, was the first confirmed place-kicking specialist in the NFL, kicking for ten teams.
Because of the difference in techniques needed, to avoid leg fatigue, to reduce the risk of injury, on the professional level most teams employ separate players to handle the jobs. The placekicker will only punt when the punter is injured, vice versa. A professional team will even have a kickoff specialist who handles only the kickoffs and serves as a backup to the kicker who handles field goals and extra points; this is done to further protect a premier point-scoring kicker from injury or if he, while accurate, does not have sufficient distance on kickoffs. Amateur teams do not differentiate between placekickers and punters, have different players assume different placekicking duties, or have regular position players handle kicking duties; the last option is quite common on high school teams, when the best athletes are the best kickers. Before the modern era of pro football, this was the case for professional teams when most placekicks were still made in the "straight on" style outlined below.
Although kickers are protected from direct physical contact on field goal attempts, this is not true on kickoffs, a kicker can see significant contact during a kick return. Kicker Björn Nittmo notably suffered severe brain damage from a hit he sustained on a kickoff in 1997. Placekickers and punters are the lowest paid starters on professional teams, although proven placekickers sometimes earn over $1 million per year in salary, it is not uncommon for placekickers to be some of the smallest members of their team. However, The New York Times in 2011 wrote that NFL kickers had adopted year-round weight training and strict diets. Sebastian Janikowski that year was a 250-pound kicker. Kicker Rob Bironas, 6 feet and 205 pounds, noted, "I might be bigger than some wide receivers and cornerbacks."The presence of foreign born-and-raised players in the highest levels of gridiron football has been limited to placekickers, more to punters from Australia as well. These players come from outside the traditional American high school or college football systems—and all but one of the women to have played men's American football at the college level were placekickers while the lone exception was a placekick holder.
Notably Tom Landry recruited several soccer players from Latin America, such as Efren Herrera and Raphael Septien, to compete for the job of placekicker for the Dallas Cowboys. Cypriot Garo Yepremian was renowned as much for his kicking proficiency as he was for his complete lack of awareness of the sport early in his career; these anecdotes increase the perception of the placekicker as an outsider. As of 2017, only four kickers have been elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame: George Blanda, Lou Groza, Jan Stenerud and Morten Andersen, among them and Andersen are the only ones who did not play another position. There is only one special teams player to win the NFL's MVP – Mark Moseley in 1982. Due to their duties in kicking both field goals and extra points placekickers are responsible for scoring more points than any other player on a team, often entire football games may come down to a single kick; the top 25 players in NFL history in career scoring are all placekickers. Justin Tucker is the highest paid kicker in the NFL.
In the NFL, along with punters and quarterbacks, are among the only players allowed to wear single-digit uniform numbers. In college and high school football, kickers can wear any number and wear one of an eligible receiver; because kickers are less prominent on team rosters, low uniform numbers are much more used among other positions at those levels, kickers are given high jersey numbers that go unused by other players. The two players in documented football history to have worn the uniform number 100, Chuck Kinder and Bill Bell, were both placekickers. Placekickers today are predominantly "soccer-style" kickers, approaching the ball from several steps to the left of it [for a right-footed ki
In sport, a huddle is an action of a team gathering together in a tight circle, to strategize, motivate or celebrate. It is a popular strategy for keeping opponents insulated from sensitive information, acts as a form of insulation when the level of noise in the venue is such that normal on-field communication is difficult; the leader of the huddle is the team captain and it is the captain who will try to inspire other team members to achieve success. After an event a huddle may take place to congratulate one another for the teams success, or to commiserate a defeat; the term "huddle" can be used as a verb as in "huddling up." The huddle is used in American football and Canadian football to strategize before each play. It is popular in basketball, football and cricket; the huddle became more used in cricket after the India national team used it to great success during the 2003 Cricket World Cup. The England team has imitated this technique with some success, notably in the 2005 Ashes series; the modern-day circular huddle, in which the players all face inward in a tight circle, was invented by Gallaudet University quarterback Paul D. Hubbard in 1894.
Gallaudet was among the first schools intended for the education of deaf and hard-of-hearing students, the first intended for their postsecondary education. When quarterbacking, Hubbard realized that his hand signals could be read by opposing players, a particular concern when Gallaudet played other schools for the deaf. To remedy this, he had his players form a circle so that his sign-language signals could be sent and received without anyone on the sidelines or on the opposing team seeing; this type of huddle is still in common use today between plays in American Football as the quarterback assigns the next play to the offense. The typewriter huddle is a huddle formation created by former Florida State Head Coach Tom Nugent in the mid-1950s, it is used between a coach and multiple players, or when a quarterback or other player wants to create an image of being separate from the team, dictating to them, rather than being a part of the group, as with the circular huddle. The players being spoken to are arranged in two or more rows, the front row kneeling or crouching.
The player or coach speaking can be assured that he has the attention of the entire audience, something, not possible if that person is in the center of a circular huddle. Though allowing players breathing room and providing space for more participants than a circular huddle, it is not as secure, as observers on the sidelines may be able to see hand signals or read the speaker's lips. In American football, though random, huddles can have several forms. Before the 1890s, football players didn’t form huddles; as American football became more organized and formalized, so too did the huddle. The football team at Oregon Agricultural College was one of the first schools nationally to use the huddle formation in a game, it happened against the University of Washington in Seattle during the 1918 season. Head coach Bill Hargiss instructed the starters that once they returned to the field, they were to stand 10 yards behind the ball before the beginning of each play and whisper to one another what they were going to do next.
An eyewitness to the game was veteran Seattle sports columnist Royal Brougham, whose stories of the contest give testimony today to the program's early use of this pioneering new formation. Others trace the huddle to the 1890s in Gallaudet College. In Washington, D. C.. Paul Hubbard, a deaf player who went to Gallaudet, used the strategy to avoid having the other team see his sign language between plays. During a game, the quarterback uses the huddle to communicate the next play to the offense. National Football League Rule 5 Section 2 stipulates that no more than eleven players may be in the offensive huddle. An offensive substitute who communicates with a teammate in a huddle would be penalized for "unsportsmanlike conduct". In some situations, teams may choose not to call a huddle and employ a hurry-up no-huddle offense to maximize time and surprise the defense. In a snap, the snap count is decided on in the huddle expressed as "...on <number>." Being the final words spoken by the quarterback after calling the play but before the huddle breaks and the players go to the line of scrimmage.
The snap count allows offensive players to have a small head start. In Association football, the huddle has been used before games by Brazil and the Ireland national teams and club teams such as Derry City FC. Celtic FC from Scotland have used the huddle as a pre-match ritual since 1995, although this was pre-dated by St. Mirren FC, using the huddle since 1993. Celtic copied this and in turn is now carried out by all levels and ages of the Celtic club and imitated by the supporters; the supporting visual aspect of this, although culturally unrelated can be seen as similar to The Poznan. In contrast to other sports, the huddle is a specific tactic in Australian football, used by the team kicking in after a behind is scored, or some delayed stoppage. All players in the backline gather together about fifty meters from goal; the players individually lead away from the huddle in all directions. The technique means that there will be several leading players, making it difficult to defend the first kick-in
Canadian football is a sport played in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play 110 yards long and 65 yards wide attempting to advance a pointed oval-shaped ball into the opposing team's scoring area. In Canada, the term "football" may refer to Canadian football and American football collectively, or to either sport depending on context; the two sports have shared origins and are related but have some key differences. Rugby football in Canada originated in the early 1860s, over time, the game known as Canadian football developed. Both the Canadian Football League, the sport's top professional league, Football Canada, the governing body for amateur play, trace their roots to 1880 and the founding of the Canadian Rugby Football Union; the CFL is the most only major professional Canadian football league. Its championship game, the Grey Cup, is one of Canada's largest sporting events, attracting a broad television audience. In 2009, about 40% of Canada's population watched part of the game.
Canadian football is played at the bantam, high school, junior and semi-professional levels: the Canadian Junior Football League, formed May 8, 1974, Quebec Junior Football League are leagues for players aged 18–22, many post-secondary institutions compete in U Sports football for the Vanier Cup, senior leagues such as the Alberta Football League have grown in popularity in recent years. Great achievements in Canadian football are enshrined in the Canadian Football Hall of Fame located in Hamilton, Ontario. Other organizations across Canada perform senior league Canadian football during the summer; the first documented football match was a practice game played on November 9, 1861, at University College, University of Toronto. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear; the first written account of a game played was on October 1862, on the Montreal Cricket Grounds.
It was between the First Battalion Grenadier Guards and the Second Battalion Scots Fusilier Guards resulting in a win by the Grenadier Guards 3 goals, 2 rouges to nothing. In 1864, at Trinity College, Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune, Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, devised rules based on rugby football; the game gained a following, with the Hamilton Football Club formed on November 3, 1869, Montreal formed a team April 8, 1872, Toronto was formed on October 4, 1873, the Ottawa FBC on September 20, 1876. This rugby-football soon became popular at Montreal's McGill University. McGill challenged Harvard University to a game, in 1874 using a hybrid game of English rugby devised by the University of McGill; the first attempt to establish a proper governing body and adopted the current set of Rugby rules was the Foot Ball Association of Canada, organized on March 24, 1873 followed by the Canadian Rugby Football Union founded June 12, 1880, which included teams from Ontario and Quebec.
Both the Ontario and Quebec Rugby Football Union were formed, the Interprovincial and Western Interprovincial Football Union. The CRFU reorganized into an umbrella organization forming the Canadian Rugby Union in 1891; the original forerunners to the current Canadian Football League, was established in 1956 when the IRFU and WIFU formed an umbrella organization, The Canadian Football Council. In 1958 the CFC left the CRFU to become the CFL; the Burnside rules resembling American football that were incorporated in 1903 by the ORFU, was an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game. The Burnside Rules had teams reduced to 12 men per side, introduced the Snap-Back system, required the offensive team to gain 10 yards on three downs, eliminated the Throw-In from the sidelines, allowed only six men on the line, stated that all goals by kicking were to be worth two points and the opposition was to line up 10 yards from the defenders on all kicks; the rules were an attempt to standardize the rules throughout the country.
The CIRFU, QRFU and CRU refused to adopt the new rules at first. Forward passes were not allowed in the Canadian game until 1929, touchdowns, five points, were increased to six points in 1956, in both cases several decades after the Americans had adopted the same changes; the primary differences between the Canadian and American games stem from rule changes that the American side of the border adopted but the Canadian side did not. The Canadian field width was one rule, not based on American rules, as the Canadian game was played in wider fields and stadiums that were not as narrow as the American stadiums; the Grey Cup was established in 1909 after being donated by Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey, The Governor General of Canada as the championship of teams under the CRU for the Rugby Football Championship of Canada. An amateur competition, it became dominated by professional teams in the 1940s and early 1950s; the Ontario Rugby Football Union, the last amateur organization to compete for the trophy
John Carney (American football)
John Michael Carney is a retired American football placekicker. He was signed by the Cincinnati Bengals as an undrafted free agent in 1987, he played college football at Notre Dame. Carney was a member of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, San Diego Chargers, New Orleans Saints, Los Angeles Rams, Jacksonville Jaguars, Kansas City Chiefs, New York Giants, he was a Pro Bowl selection with the Chargers in 1994 and with the Giants in 2008. When he was released from the Saints' active roster in December 2009, Carney was third on the NFL career scoring list with a career total of 2,044 points, he was the last remaining player from the 1980s still active in professional football. He has worked as a kicking consultant for the Saints. Carney attended Cardinal Newman High School in West Palm Beach and lettered in football. In football, he won All-State honors as a punter. Carney attended Notre Dame and played football there from 1984 to 1986, he was named to the Notre Dame's all time team by Sports Illustrated. After going undrafted in the 1987 NFL Draft, Carney was signed by the Cincinnati Bengals as an undrafted free agent.
He spent the year out of football. Carney played five games for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers between 1988 and 1989, he converted two of all six extra point attempts. Carney attended training camp with the San Diego Chargers in 1990, but did not make the final roster. Carney played one game for the Los Angeles Rams in 1990, but did not attempt a field goal or extra point, he was the last remaining active Los Angeles Ram, until the team moved back to Los Angeles from St. Louis in 2016. Carney was re-signed by the Chargers during the 1990 season, appearing in 12 games for the team and converting 19 of 21 field goal attempts, he played 11 seasons with the Chargers through the 2000 season, earning his first Pro Bowl selection in 1994 after going 34-for-38 on field goal attempts as the Chargers made it to the Super Bowl. To this day, he remains the Chargers' all-time leading scorer. Carney signed with the New Orleans Saints as a free agent prior to the 2001 season. On December 21, 2003, the Saints were trailing the Jaguars 20-13 with 7 seconds left in regulation.
Quarterback Aaron Brooks threw the ball in a hurry to Donte Stallworth. As time expired, the Saints continued to lateral the ball around until wide receiver Jerome Pathon scored a touchdown in what became known as the River City Relay. Carney was sent out to kick the extra point to force overtime. Instead, Carney pushed the ball wide right and the Saints lost 19-20. Carney kicked a game-winning field goal against the Carolina Panthers following Hurricane Katrina, he appeared on the cover of Sports Illustrated with quarterback Aaron Brooks on September 19, 2005 as the city celebrated this victory. On April 5, 2007, Carney asked and was given permission to leave the Saints after their acquisition of kicker Olindo Mare. Following Week 1 of the 2007 NFL Season, Carney signed with the Jacksonville Jaguars replacing injured placekicker Josh Scobee. Carney appeared in eight games for the Jaguars in Scobee's absence, converting nine of 11 field goal attempts and 20 of 21 extra point attempts, he was released on November 19 upon Scobee's return.
On November 26, 2007, the Kansas City Star reported that the Kansas City Chiefs would sign Carney after holding tryouts to replace Dave Rayner – making Carney the fourth placekicker to play for the Chiefs within a one-year period, following Lawrence Tynes, Justin Medlock and Rayner. Carney appeared in five games for the Chiefs, going 3-for-3 on field goal attempts and 7-for-7 on extra point attempts. On August 30, 2008, Carney signed with the New York Giants to fill in while Tynes recovered from a knee injury sustained in training camp. Although Tynes would recover from his injury Carney continued to hold on to the starting position and Tynes was relegated to kickoff duties. At age 44, Carney was the oldest active NFL player during the 2008 season. After a near perfect season, Carney was chosen as the starting kicker for the NFC for the 2009 Pro Bowl. Carney was not re-signed after his contract expired, leaving him a free agent entering the 2009 season. Following the announcement that New Orleans Saints placekicker Garrett Hartley would be suspended the first four games of the 2009 season, Carney returned to New Orleans on August 15 on a one-year contract.
With his start on November 30, he became the sixth player in NFL history to reach 300 career games. Carney was waived on December 22. On December 24, 2009, the Saints announced that Carney had been hired as a "kicking consultant", with responsibility for the snap and hold as well as working on kicking with his successor, Hartley; the appointment meant that Carney was ineligible to kick for any team for the rest of the 2009 season. Carney remained with the Saints in this capacity through the playoffs, received credit for his role in preparing the comparatively inexperienced Hartley to make a number of critical kicks that helped the Saints win their first Super Bowl. Carney started the 2010 season without a team. However, after Hartley missed 3 out of 7 field goal attempts during the Saints' first 3 games, including a short kick in overtime that would have won a game against the Atlanta Falcons, the Saints re-signed Carney on September 28, 2010; the signing made him the oldest active player in the NFL at the age of 46.
On October 3, 2010, he kicked three field goals in a Saints win against the Carolina Panthers, became the third oldest player to play in an NFL game. On October 12, the
Kickoff (gridiron football)
A kickoff is a method of starting a drive in American football and Canadian football. A kickoff consists of one team – the "kicking team" – kicking the ball to the opposing team – the "receiving team"; the receiving team is entitled to return the ball, i.e. attempt to advance it towards the kicking team's end zone, until the player with the ball is tackled by the kicking team, goes out of bounds, or scores a touchdown. Kickoffs take place at the start of each half of play, the beginning of overtime in some overtime formats, after scoring plays. Common variants on the typical kickoff format include the onside kick, in which the kicking team attempts to regain possession of the ball. Additionally, penalties exist for various infractions such as a player violating his position restrictions prior to the kick, or if the ball goes out of bounds before touching a player. A kickoff occurs before each overtime, it is traditionally decided by a coin toss at the beginning of each game carried out by the referee.
The visiting team captain calls either tails. The winner of the coin toss elects whether to take first choice in the first half or the second half; the captain with first choice picks either a team to kick off or an end of the field to defend. The other captain chooses the remaining option. At the beginning of the second half, the two captains choose in the reverse order. If an overtime is required, another coin toss takes place to decide who gets first possession during the overtime. After a touchdown the scoring team kicks the ball off to the opposing team. In American football a field goal results in a kickoff by the scoring team, but in Canadian football the scored-against team has an option of scrimmaging from their 35-yard line or receiving a kickoff. After a safety in Canadian football, the scored-against kicks off. In American football, a kickoff is an option, but most teams choose to punt the ball on the free kick; the line where the ball is placed for kickoff varies among the rule books.
It is placed on the kicking team's 30-yard line in six-man football, 35-yard line in college and professional outdoor football, 40-yard line in American high school football, 45-yard line in amateur Canadian football, the goal line in indoor and arena football. For the 2016 season only, the Ivy League placed the ball on the 40-yard line in conference games. All players on the kicking team except the kicker must not cross the line at which the ball is placed until the ball is kicked; the receiving team must stay behind the line, 10 yards from where the ball is placed. The ball can be fielded by the receiving team at any point after it has been kicked, or by the kicking team after it has traveled 10 yards or has been touched by a member of the receiving team. In American football touchback and fair catch rules apply to the kicked ball. If it is fielded by the kicking team, it is called an onside kick. A low, bouncing kick is called a squib kick. Although a squib kick gives the receiving team better field position than they would if a normal kick had been used, a squib kick is sometimes used to avoid giving up a long return, as well as use up a valuable amount of time on the clock, as it is impossible to fair catch such a kick.
It is done when a team takes the lead in the final seconds, is done to safely run out the remainder of the clock. Squib kicking with more than 20 seconds remaining has had unfortunate results, but has been done by some teams. If a receiving player crosses his restraining line before the kick, the ball is to be advanced 5 yards re-kicked. If a kicking team player crosses the line at which the ball is placed before it is kicked, the receiving team has the option either to have the kicking team re-kick from 5 yards farther back, or have 5 yards added on to the end of the return. In high school football, the receiving team only has the option to make the kicking team re-kick. If the ball goes out of bounds without being touched by a player, the receiving team can choose either to have the ball moved back 5 yards and re-kicked, to take the ball 25 yards past the spot of the kick, or to take the ball where it went out of bounds. On an onside kick, if the ball does not travel ten yards before the kicking team recovers the ball, they will take a 5-yard penalty and have the chance to kick another onside kick.
If the onside kick goes less than 10 yards again, the receiving team will receive the ball at the spot the kicking team recovered it. However, if the receiving team touches the ball before it goes 10 yards, either team can recover it unpenalized. Kickoffs entering the end zone are handled differently in Canadian rules. In the American college and professional game, if the ball goes out of bounds in the receiving team's end zone or is recovered and downed in the receiving team's end zone, the ball is placed at the receiving team's 25-yard line, possession is given to the receiving team. High school football rules the ball dead when the
In several forms of football a forward pass is a throwing of the ball in the direction that the offensive team is trying to move, towards the defensive team's goal line. The forward pass is one of the main distinguishers between gridiron football in which the play is legal and widespread, rugby football from which the North American games evolved, in which the play is illegal. In some football codes, such as association football, the kicked forward pass is used so ubiquitously that it is not thought of as a distinct kind of play at all. In these sports, the concept of offside is used to regulate who can be in front of the play or be nearest to the goal. However, this has not always been the case; some earlier incarnations of football allowed unlimited forward passing, while others had strict offside rules similar to rugby. The development of the forward pass in American football shows how the game has evolved from its rugby roots into the distinctive game it is today. Illegal and experimental forward passes had been attempted as early as 1876, but the first legal forward pass in American football took place in 1906, after a change in rules.
Another change in rules occurred on January 18, 1951, which established that no center, tackle, or guard could receive a forward pass. Today, the only linemen are the tight ends. Current rules regulate who may throw and who may receive a forward pass, under what circumstances, as well as how the defensive team may try to prevent a pass from being completed; the primary pass thrower is the quarterback, statistical analysis is used to determine a quarterback's success rate at passing in various situations, as well as a team's overall success at the "passing game." In American and Canadian football, a forward pass is referred to as a pass, consists of a player throwing the football towards the opponent's goal line. This is permitted only once during a scrimmage down by the offensive team before team possession has changed, provided the pass is thrown from in or behind the neutral zone. An illegal forward pass can incur a yardage penalty and the loss of a down, although it may be intercepted by the opponents and advanced.
If an eligible receiver on the passing team catches the ball, the pass is completed and the receiver may attempt to advance the ball. If an opposing player catches the ball it is an interception; that player's team gains possession of the ball and he may attempt to advance the ball toward his opponent's goal. If no player is able to catch the ball it is an incomplete pass and the ball becomes dead the moment it touches the ground, it will be returned to the original line of scrimmage for the next down. If any player interferes with an eligible receiver's ability to catch the ball it is pass interference which draws a penalty of varying degree; the person passing the ball must be a member of the offensive team, the recipient of the forward pass must be an eligible receiver and must touch the passed ball before any ineligible player. The moment that a forward pass begins is important to the game; the pass begins the moment. If the passer drops the ball before this moment it is a fumble and therefore a loose ball.
In this case anybody can gain possession of the ball. If the passer drops the ball while his arm is moving forward it is a forward pass, regardless of where the ball lands or is first touched; the quarterback either starts a few paces behind the line of scrimmage or drops back a few paces after the ball is snapped. This places him in an area called the "pocket", a protective region formed by the offensive blockers up front and between the tackles on each side. A quarterback who runs out of this pocket is said to be scrambling. Under NFL and NCAA rules, once the quarterback moves out of the pocket the ball may be thrown away to prevent a sack. NFHS rules do not allow for a passer to intentionally throw an incomplete forward pass to save loss of yardage or conserve time, except for a spike to conserve time after a hand-to-hand snap. If he throws the ball away while still in the pocket a foul called "intentional grounding" is assessed. In Canadian football the passer must throw the ball across the line of scrimmage—whether he is inside or outside of the "pocket"—to avoid the foul of "intentionally grounding".
If a forward pass is caught near a sideline or endline it is a complete pass only if a receiver catches the ball in bounds. For a pass to be ruled complete in-bounds, depending on the rules either one or two feet must touch the ground within the field boundaries, after the ball is first grasped. In the NFL the receiver must touch the ground with both feet, but in most other codes—CFL, NCAA and high school—one foot in bounds is enough. Common to all gridiron codes is the notion of control—a receiver must demonstrate control of the ball in order to be ruled in possession of it, while still in bounds, as defined by his code. If the receiver handles the ball but the official determines that he was still "bobbling" it prior to the end of the play the pass will be ruled incomplete; the forward pass had been attempted at least 30 years before the play was made legal. Passes "had been carried out but illegally several times, including the 1876 Yale–Princeton game in which Yale's Walter Camp threw forward to teammate Oliver Thompson as he was being