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Latex

Latex is a stable dispersion of polymer microparticles in an aqueous medium. It is found in nature, but synthetic latexes can be made by polymerizing a monomer such as styrene, emulsified with surfactants. Latex as found in nature is a milky fluid found in 10% of all flowering plants, it is a complex emulsion consisting of proteins, starches, oils, tannins and gums that coagulate on exposure to air. It is exuded after tissue injury. In most plants, latex is white. Since the 17th century, latex has been used as a term for the fluid substance in plants, it serves as defense against herbivorous insects. Latex is not to be confused with plant sap; the word latex is used to refer to natural latex rubber non-vulcanized rubber. Such is the case in products like latex condoms and latex clothing; the name given to latex by indigenous Equator tribes who cultivated the plant was "caoutchouc", from the words caa and ochu, because of the way it is collected. The cells in which latex is found make up the laticiferous system, which can form in two different ways.

In many plants, the laticiferous system is formed from rows of cells laid down in the meristem of the stem or root. The cell walls between these cells are dissolved so that continuous tubes, called latex vessels, are formed. Since these vessels are made of many cells, they are known as articulated laticifers; this method of formation is found in the poppy family and in the rubber trees, members of the family Asteraceae. For instance, Parthenium argentatum the guayule plant, is in the tribe Heliantheae; this includes a species cultivated for latex production. In the milkweed and spurge families, on the other hand, the laticiferous system is formed quite differently. Early in the development of the seedling, latex cells differentiate, as the plant grows these latex cells grow into a branching system extending throughout the plant. In many euphorbs, the entire structure is made from a single cell – this type of system is known as a non-articulated laticifer, to distinguish it from the multi-cellular structures discussed above.

In the mature plant, the entire laticiferous system is descended from a single cell or group of cells present in the embryo. The laticiferous system is present in all parts of the mature plant, including roots, stems and sometimes the fruits, it is noticeable in the cortical tissues. Latex is exuded as a white liquid, but is some cases it can be clear, yellow or red, as in Cannabaceae. Latex is produced by 20,000 species from over 40 families occurring in multiple lineages in both dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous types of plant, it is found in conifers and pteridophytes. Among tropical plant species 14% create latex, as opposed to 6% of temperate plant species. Several members of the fungal kingdom produce latex upon injury, such as Lactarius deliciosus and other milk-caps; this suggests it is the product of convergent evolution and has been selected for on many separate occasions. Latex functions to protect the plant from herbivores; the idea was first proposed in 1887 by Joseph F. James, who noted that latex carries with it at the same time such disagreeable properties that it becomes a better protection to the plant from enemies than all the thorns, prickles, or hairs that could be provided.

In this plant, so copious and so distasteful has the sap become that it serves a most important purpose in its economy. Evidence showing this defense function include the finding that slugs will eat leaves drained of their latex but not intact ones, that many insects sever the veins carrying latex before they feed, that the latex of Asclepias humistrata kills by trapping 30% of newly hatched monarch butterfly caterpillars. Other evidence is that latex contains 50–1000× higher concentrations of defense substances than other plant tissues; these toxins include ones that are toxic to the plant and consist of a diverse range of chemicals that are either poisonous or "antinutritive". Latex is moved to the area of injury; the clotting property of latex is functional in this defense since it limits wastage and its stickiness traps insects and their mouthparts. While there exist other explanations for the existence of latex including storage and movement of plant nutrients and maintenance of water balance that "ssentially none of these functions remain credible and none have any empirical support".

The latex of many species can be processed to produce many materials. Natural rubber is the most important product obtained from latex; this latex is used to make many other products including mattresses, swim caps, condoms and balloons. Balatá and gutta percha latex contain an inelastic polymer related to rubber. Latex from the chicle and jelutong trees is used in chewing gum. Dried latex from the opium poppy is called opium, the source of several useful analgesic alkaloids such as codeine and morphine, the latter two of which can further be used in the synthesis and manu

Bad Moon Rising (The Vampire Diaries)

"Bad Moon Rising" is the 3rd episode of the second season of The CW television series, The Vampire Diaries and the 25th episode of the series overall. It aired on September 23, 2010; the episode was directed by Patrick Norris. Elena and Damon try to find out why the Gilbert device affected the Lockwood family as well and they ask for Alaric's help since he might know something from Isobel's research. Alaric mentions that Isobel studied the lycanthropes but Damon says that if werewolves exist he would have met them till now. To find out more about it, Alaric and Damon leave for the Duke University where Isobel's research's results are while Stefan stays behind to help Caroline adjust to her new life as a vampire. Meanwhile, Tyler follows his uncle into the abandoned dungeon because he wants to know what he is hiding but he only finds scratches on the wall. Stefan meets Bonnie to ask her help about Caroline, he asks her to make a ring for her so she can be able to walk in the sun but Bonnie does not seem willing to do it.

Stefan convinces her to do it but Bonnie promises him that if Caroline hurts anyone she will reverse the spell. They go to Caroline's and Bonnie spells a ring for her and now Caroline can walk free outside during the day. Damon tries to make Elena forgive him for trying to kill her brother by telling her that he had seen Jeremy wearing the ring and he knew that he would be fine, but Elena does not believe him, they arrive at Isobel's office. She acts friendly when they come and tells them about Isobel's research but when she gets out of the room she returns with a crossbow and shoots Elena. Damon jumps in front of Elena just in the arrow hits him while Alaric disarms Vanessa. Elena helps Damon take out the arrow and when he says that he will kill Vanessa for what she did, Elena forbids him to do it. In the meantime, in the next room Vanessa tells Alaric that Katherine and Damon are dead and they cannot be standing in front of her. Stefan tries to teach Caroline how to hunt animals to feed so she will not have to feed on people but all Caroline is thinking is Matt and that she wants to be with him at the swimming hole party that Tyler is throwing.

Stefan agrees to let her go to the party and he goes with her. As soon as she gets there, she sees Amiee and flirting Matt and she causes a scene, she compels Amiee to find a single man to flirt with. Matt does not like her being rude and he leaves her while Stefan points her out that Matt was right. Meanwhile, Mason is back at the dungeon and tries to chain up himself since it is full moon and he will be turned into a werewolf. While he is trying to do it, Tyler arrives with Aimee and Mason runs away to his car so the two kids will not see him, he gets to his car and tries to chain up himself to a tree but he cannot. A little further and Matt make up but when Matt hurts his finger and bleeds, Caroline loses control and attacks him. In the meantime, back at the Duke, the three find out about the old Aztec legend "The curse of the sun and the moon" where an Aztec shaman cursed both vampires and werewolves to be slaves of the sun and servants of the moon respectively, they find out that werewolves' bite is fatal to vampires.

Elena calls Stefan to inform him about it so just in case, true to be careful from Mason and Tyler. Stefan runs to find her, he gets to her and Matt just right in time to pull her away from Matt. Stefan tells Caroline, they drive the werewolf away from Matt but they run into Tyler who slows them down and give Mason the opportunity to attack Caroline. Stefan pushes him away but it is Tyler's order that makes him go away. Tyler finds Mason's car and Mason arrives there all naked. Tyler tells him that it was him who attacked Mason confirms it. Elena asks Vanessa about her resemblance to Katherine and why she looks like her but Vanessa doesn't have much info to give her about that. On their way to the car to get back home, Damon gives Elena a book he found at Isobel's office with the title "Petrova", telling that it is Katherine's real name. Elena takes the book but she is still mad at Damon and at his question if he lost her friendship forever, Elena answers him that he did. Caroline and Stefan get back to Matt and Caroline compels him to forget what happened.

Stefan tells her that he will make sure to give Matt a vervain jewellery to protect him and to drink so she will not be able to bite him again. The two of them have a conversation where Stefan tells her that leaving Elena would be the right thing to protect her but he cannot; when Caroline sees Amiee flirting again with Matt, she causes a scene despite the fact that she promised Matt not to do it again, forcing him to break up with her since, the only way she can protect him. The episode ends with Katherine appearing at Caroline's bedroom and telling her that the two of them are going to have so much fun together. In "Bad Moon Rising" we can hear the songs: "Under My Bed" by Meiko "Changes" by Stars "Ashes and Wine" by A Fine Frenzy "In Your Skin" by Lifehouse "Fantasy Friend Forever" by The Asteroid Galaxy Tour "Send a Little Love Token" by The Duke Spirit "Breath Again" by Sara Bareilles In its original American broadcast, "Bad Moon Rising" was watched by 3.57 million. "Bad Moon Rising" received good reviews.

Matt Richenthal of TV Fanatic rated the episode with 4.4/5. "Overall, "Bad Moon Rising"

Live at the Monterey Festival

Live at the Monterey Festival is a live album by the San Francisco rock band Jefferson Airplane, released in the United Kingdom and Europe by Thunderbolt Records in 1991. The album was authorized by the band and features the entire set from the group's June 17, 1967 performance at the Monterey Pop Festival; the album marked the first time that Jefferson Airplane's entire Monterey Pop Festival performance had been given a release by a legitimate record company. "Somebody to Love" – 3:16 "The Other Side of This Life" – 6:53 "White Rabbit" – 2:41 "High Flying Bird" – 4:02 "Today" – 3:07 "She Has Funny Cars" – 3:20 "Young Girl Sunday Blues" – 3:26 "The Ballad of You & Me & Pooneil" – 11:13 Marty Balinvocals Grace Slick – vocals, piano Paul Kantner – rhythm guitar, vocals Jorma Kaukonen – lead guitar Jack Casadybass Spencer Drydendrums, percussion