A window blind is a type of window covering. There are many different kinds of window blinds. A typical window blind is made up of several long horizontal or vertical slats of various types of hard material, including wood, plastic or metal which are held together by cords that run through the blind slats. Window blinds can be maneuvered with either a manual or remote control by rotating them from an open position, with slats spaced out, to a closed position where slats overlap and block out most of the light. There are several types of window coverings, called shades, that use a single piece of soft material instead of slats; the term window blinds can be used to describe window coverings generically—in this context window blinds include every type of window covering, i.e. shutters, roller blinds, cellular shades, wood blinds, Roman blinds and standard vertical and horizontal blinds. In the United Kingdom, awnings are sometimes called shades; the two overall types of window blinds are ready-made blinds and made to measure.
Made-to-measure blinds are made to fit a measured window size. Ready-made blinds are manufactured in set sizes; these blinds can be classified broadly into six different categories: roller blinds, Roman blinds, pleated blinds, Venetian blinds, Shoji Japanese blinds and vertical blinds. Many window blinds are made with slats of fabric, plastic, or wood that are adjusted by being rotated from an open position to a closed position. Metal window blinds are used outside of a home or business to protect against theft, onlookers, bad weather, or fire. Horizontal blinds use a thin woven corded "ladder" system to suspend the slats and enable them to be closed or opened via a rotating drum to which each upper end of the woven ladder is wrapped and attached. A lift cord allows the blind to be pulled up and stack to top of the window when desired. One of the earliest patents for a window shade was filed by George L. Castner. Vertical blinds use a wider slat and one can pull a cord to stack the slats together, to one side, or to separate them in the centre and stack them on each end.
The slats can be rotated via a rotating shaft in the upper head rail housing, which runs through independent geared carriers that convert the twisting of a tilt rail to a rotation of each individual slat in synchrony. The original vertical blinds were invented in Kansas City, Missouri by Edward Bopp and Fredrick Bopp, who held the original patent; the company name at the time was Sun Vertical. In the 1960s, the patent and company were sold. Shoji blinds are based on Japanese'Shoji' screens and slide on a conventional panel blind track so the panels stack one-in-front of the other- they can stack to either or both sides of the window, inside or outside the recess, they are used as room dividers or wardrobe doors. The term window blinds is sometimes used, somewhat inaccurately, to describe window coverings generically—in this context window blinds include every type of window covering, including both curtains and blinds for homes and commercial premises, such as bars/pubs and shops, e.g. Plantation Shutters/Jigsaw Shutters, Roman blinds, roller blinds, vertical and horizontal blinds.
In Britain and window shutters are categorized under blinds, which are so named because they limit observation and thus “blind” the observer to the view. The main types are slat blinds which can be opened in two ways, solid blinds, which can only be raised or lowered, are sometimes called shades; some types of blinds, such as Holland blinds and woven-wood blinds, have small spaces between the slats. Others, such as pleated shades, have no spaces. Window blinds reduce the heat from sunlight. Ancient Egyptian pharaohs had blinds made of reeds; the most inexpensive blinds in the 19th century were home-made roller blinds, made of cloth. Window blinds can be manually drawn automated through motorization. Controls for motorized blinds can be from a wall switch or keypad, remote control, or computer, eliminating the need for cords and allowing control of otherwise inaccessible windows. A number of modern homes are integrating blind control with central C-Bus solutions; this control provides ease-of-use and is effective for controlling blind operation to reduce heat loss during winter or minimize heat from the sun during summer.
The most common window blinds are Persian blinds, which consist of many horizontal slats of metal or vinyl, connected with string such that they can be rotated to allow light to pass between the slats, rotated up to about 170 degrees to hide the light, or pulled up so that the entire window is clear. Vertical blinds consist of slats of stiffened fabric, plastic, or metal hanging by one end from a track. Vertical blinds are good at controlling how much natural or exterior light comes into a room, due to the ability of the slats to close tightly. A Venetian blind has one above another. Venetian blinds are basic slatted blinds made of plastic, they are suspended by strips of cloth called tapes, or by cords, by which all slats in unison can
A window shutter is a solid and stable window covering consisting of a frame of vertical stiles and horizontal rails. Set within this frame can be louvers, solid panels, fabric and any other item that can be mounted within a frame. Shutters may be employed for a variety of reasons, including controlling the amount of sunlight that enters a room, to provide privacy, security, to protect against weather or unwanted intrusion or damage and to enhance the aesthetics of a building. Depending on the application, the construction of the window frame, shutters can be mounted to fit within the opening or to overlap the opening; the term window shutter includes both interior shutters, used on the inside of a house or building, exterior shutters, used on the outside of a structure. On some styles of buildings it is common to have shutters to cover the doors as well as the windows. Interior shutters are divided into narrow units hinged accordion-style so that two or more units cover each side of a window opening when closed.
Operable louvered shutters have louvers, or slats, controlled by a tilt bar or rod to adjust the louver position and keep them in a uniform position, to control light and airflow. Shutters with operable louvers are described variously as traditional shutters, California shutters, or plantation shutters. Plantation shutters, typical of warmer climates like Florida, South Africa, the Mediterranean or Australia have only two shutters per window and wide louver blades. Other interior shutters use stationary louvers. Shutters can be configured in a single tier unit that has one shutter top to bottom of a window opening as well as multiple tiers. Multiple tier units feature separate shutters on each tier which allows the top shutters to be opened independently from the bottom shutters. Café-type shutters refer to shutters. Full height shutters can be made with a horizontal divider rail which separates the upper and lower portions of the shutter. With operable louvered shutters this gives greater control as the louvers above the divider rail can be operated independently from the louvers below the divider rail.
Interior shutters can be constructed from numerous woods, which can be painted or stained, a variety of synthetic materials. Interior shutters that are made to close tolerances are preferable for the best possible fit; when louvers or tilt bar become damaged, replacement kits for these damaged parts may be ordered online and are easy to install. When buildings have sufficiently thick walls, elegant interior shutter installations place the open, folded shutters into pockets in a recess on each side of the window, where they are secured behind a fitted long, narrow cabinet-style door that conceals the open shutters; when the shutters are wanted, the door is opened, the shutters are unfolded, the cabinet door is closed. There are many variations of. In the UK, most interior shutters were paneled. Exterior shutters were constructed for light control, privacy and protection from the elements. Functional shutters hinge on each side of a window or at the top and swing closed when necessary and can be mounted on tracks applied to the face of the building.
Fixed and operable louvers shed rain, allow air transfer, filter direct sunlight, protect from small flying debris, provide privacy. Operable louvered shutters allow for greater control of ventilation. Solid panels and board-and-batten shutters are used for security or protection during severe weather. Non-functional shutters are used to enhance the appearance of a building. Functional shutters have traditionally been constructed from solid woods that have proven to endure outside elements but have been mass-produced in woods less suitable to the outdoors like pine. Finishing wood shutters is recommended for extended life. Composite shutters offer advantages over wood shutters such as resistance to twisting and rotting. However, PVC shutters are hinged with three or more hinges and painted with vinyl-safe paint to keep from bowing in the sun and can require additional hardware. Fiberglass shutters are more dimensionally stable than PVC. Certain hardwoods used for exterior shutters Spanish cedar, Honduran mahogany and teak, are resistant to rot and decay, far more durable than a softer wood like untreated pine.
Because of the tannin in these woods they are not prone to problems from insects. Pressure treatment with wood preservative makes pine and other types of wood suitable for exterior shutters. Non-functional exterior shutters can be constructed from wood, fiberglass or other synthetic materials. Non-functional shutters can be screwed or bolted directly to the building, with spacers or other hardware to prevent water accumulating against the wall. Fiberglass, a material used for boat hulls, is not prone to rotting or twisting, is dimensionally stable and has low expansion and contraction, it is a reinforced plastic, unlike vinyl or PVC, so fiberglass shutters do not have a tendency to warp or sag. Its strength is comparable to aluminum. Exterior shutters in France, notably in Paris, are made of steel and are configured in multiple narrow full-length panels, allowing them to fold open and fit inconspicuously against the recesses at the sides of the window; some exterior shutters in Italy, such as in towns along the Adr
A tile is a thin object square or rectangular in shape. Tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, metal, baked clay, or glass used for covering roofs, walls, or other objects such as tabletops. Alternatively, tile can sometimes refer to similar units made from lightweight materials such as perlite and mineral wool used for wall and ceiling applications. In another sense, a tile is a construction tile or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing games; the word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of fired clay. Tiles are used to form wall and floor coverings, can range from simple square tiles to complex or mosaics. Tiles are most made of ceramic glazed for internal uses and unglazed for roofing, but other materials are commonly used, such as glass, cork and other composite materials, stone. Tiling stone is marble, granite or slate. Thinner tiles can be used on walls than on floors, which require more durable surfaces that will resist impacts.
Decorative tilework or tile art should be distinguished from mosaic, where forms are made of great numbers of tiny irregularly positioned tesserae, each of a single color of glass or sometimes ceramic or stone. The earliest evidence of glazed brick is the discovery of glazed bricks in the Elamite Temple at Chogha Zanbil, dated to the 13th century BC. Glazed and colored bricks were used to make low reliefs in Ancient Mesopotamia, most famously the Ishtar Gate of Babylon, now reconstructed in Berlin, with sections elsewhere. Mesopotamian craftsmen were imported for the palaces of the Persian Empire such as Persepolis; the use of sun-dried bricks or adobe was the main method of building in Mesopotamia where river mud was found in abundance along the Tigris and Euphrates. Here the scarcity of stone may have been an incentive to develop the technology of making kiln-fired bricks to use as an alternative. To strengthen walls made from sun-dried bricks, fired bricks began to be used as an outer protective skin for more important buildings like temples, city walls and gates.
Making fired. Fired bricks are solid masses of clay heated in kilns to temperatures of between 950° and 1,150°C, a well-made fired brick is an durable object. Like sun-dried bricks they were made in wooden molds but for bricks with relief decorations special molds had to be made. Rooms with tiled floors made of clay decorated with geometric circular patterns have been discovered from the ancient remains of Kalibangan and AhladinoTiling was used in the second century by the Sinhalese kings of ancient Sri Lanka, using smoothed and polished stone laid on floors and in swimming pools. Historians consider the techniques and tools for tiling as well advanced, evidenced by the fine workmanship and close fit of the tiles. Tiling from this period can be seen in Ruwanwelisaya and Kuttam Pokuna in the city of Anuradhapura; the Achaemenid Empire decorated buildings with glazed brick tiles, including Darius the Great's palace at Susa, buildings at Persepolis. The succeeding Sassanid Empire used tiles patterned with geometric designs, plants and human beings, glazed up to a centimeter thick.
Early Islamic mosaics in Iran consist of geometric decorations in mosques and mausoleums, made of glazed brick. Typical turquoise tiling becomes popular in 10th-11th century and is used for Kufic inscriptions on mosque walls. Seyyed Mosque in Isfahan, Dome of Maraqeh and the Jame Mosque of Gonabad are among the finest examples; the dome of Jame' Atiq Mosque of Qazvin is dated to this period. The golden age of Persian tilework began during the reign the Timurid Empire. In the moraq technique, single-color tiles were cut into small geometric pieces and assembled by pouring liquid plaster between them. After hardening, these panels were assembled on the walls of buildings, but the mosaic was not limited to flat areas. Tiles were used to cover both the exterior surfaces of domes. Prominent Timurid examples of this technique include the Jame Mosque of Yazd, Goharshad Mosque, the Madrassa of Khan in Shiraz, the Molana Mosque. Other important tile techniques of this time include girih tiles, with their characteristic white girih, or straps.
Mihrabs, being the focal points of mosques, were the places where most sophisticated tilework was placed. The 14th-century mihrab at Madrasa Imami in Isfahan is an outstanding example of aesthetic union between the Islamic calligrapher's art and abstract ornament; the pointed arch, framing the mihrab's niche, bears an inscription in Kufic script used in 9th-century Qur'an. One of the best known architectural masterpieces of Iran is the Shah Mosque in Isfahan, from the 17th century, its dome is a prime example of tile mosaic and its winter praying hall houses one of the finest ensembles of cuerda seca tiles in the world. A wide variety of tiles had to be manufactured in order to cover complex forms of the hall with consistent mosaic patterns; the result was a technological triumph as well as a dazzling display of abstract ornament. During the Safavid period, mosaic ornaments were replaced by a haft rang technique. Pictures were painted on plain rectangle tiles and fired afterwards. Besides economic reasons, the seven colors method gave more freedom to artists and was less time-consuming.
It was popular until the Qajar period, when the palette of colors was extended by orange. The seven colors of Haft Rang tiles were black, ultramarine
Soundproofing is any means of reducing the sound pressure with respect to a specified sound source and receptor. There are several basic approaches to reducing sound: increasing the distance between source and receiver, using noise barriers to reflect or absorb the energy of the sound waves, using damping structures such as sound baffles, or using active antinoise sound generators. Two distinct soundproofing problems may need to be considered when designing acoustic treatments - to improve the sound within a room, reduce sound leakage to/from adjacent rooms or outdoors. Acoustic quieting and noise control can be used to limit unwanted noise. Soundproofing can suppress unwanted indirect sound waves such as reflections that cause echoes and resonances that cause reverberation. Soundproofing can reduce the transmission of unwanted direct sound waves from the source to an involuntary listener through the use of distance and intervening objects in the sound path; the energy density of sound waves decreases as they spread out, so that increasing the distance between the receiver and source results in a progressively lesser intensity of sound at the receiver.
In a normal three-dimensional setting, with a point source and point receptor, the intensity of sound waves will be attenuated according to the inverse square of the distance from the source. Damping means to reduce resonance by absorption or redirection. Absorption will reduce the overall sound level, whereas redirection makes unwanted sound harmless or beneficial by reducing coherence. Damping can reduce the acoustic resonance in the air, or mechanical resonance in the structure of the room itself or things in the room. Absorbing sound spontaneously converts part of the sound energy to a small amount of heat in the intervening object, rather than sound being transmitted or reflected. There are several ways; the choice of sound absorbing material will be determined by the frequency distribution of noise to be absorbed and the acoustic absorption profile required Porous absorbers open cell rubber foams or melamine sponges, absorb noise by friction within the cell structure. Porous open cell foams are effective noise absorbers across a broad range of medium-high frequencies.
Performance can be less impressive at lower frequencies. The exact absorption profile of a porous open cell foam will be determined by a number of factors including the following: Cell size Tortuosity Porosity Material thickness Material density Resonant panels, Helmholtz resonators and other resonant absorbers work by damping a sound wave as they reflect it. Unlike porous absorbers, resonant absorbers are most effective at low-medium frequencies and the absorption of resonant absorbers is always matched to a narrow frequency range; when sound waves hit a medium, the reflection of that sound is dependent on dissimilarity of the surfaces it comes in contact with. Sound hitting a concrete surface will result in a much different reflection than if sound were to hit a softer medium such as fiberglass. In an outdoor environment such as highway engineering, embankments or panelling are used to reflect sound upwards into the sky. If a specular reflection from a hard flat surface is giving a problematic echo an acoustic diffuser may be applied to the surface.
It will scatter sound in all directions. This is effective to eliminate pockets of noise in a room. A room within a room is one method of isolating sound and preventing it from transmitting to the outside world where it may be undesirable. Most vibration / sound transfer from a room to the outside occurs through mechanical means; the vibration passes directly through the brick and other solid structural elements. When it meets with an element such as a wall, floor or window, which acts as a sounding board, the vibration is amplified and heard in the second space. A mechanical transmission is much faster, more efficient and may be more amplified than an airborne transmission of the same initial strength; the use of acoustic foam and other absorbent means is less effective against this transmitted vibration. The user is advised to break the connection between the room that contains the noise source and the outside world; this is called acoustic decoupling. Ideal decoupling involves eliminating vibration transfer in both solid materials and in the air, so air-flow into the room is controlled.
This has safety implications: inside decoupled space, proper ventilation must be assured, gas heaters cannot be used. Noise cancellation generators for active noise control are a modern innovation. A microphone is used to pick up the sound, analyzed by a computer. Residential soundproofing aims to eliminate the effects of exterior noise; the main focus of residential soundproofing in existing structures is the doors. Solid wood doors are a better sound barrier than hollow doors. Curtains can be used to dampen sound, either through use of heavy materials, or through the use of air chambers known as honeycombs. Single-, double- and triple-honeycomb designs achieve greater degrees of sound damping; the primary soundproofing limit of curtains is the lack of a seal at the edge of the curtain, although this may be alleviated with the use of sealing features, such as hook and loop fastener, magnets, or other materials. Thickness of glass will play a role. Double-pane windows achieve somewhat greater sound damping than si
A trellis is an architectural structure made from an open framework or lattice of interwoven or intersecting pieces of wood, bamboo or metal, made to support and display climbing plants shrubs. There are many types of trellis for different places and for different plants, from agricultural types in viticulture, which are covered at vine training systems, to garden uses for climbers such as grapevines, clematis and climbing roses or other support based growing plants; the rose trellis is common in Europe and other rose-growing areas, many climbing rose varieties require a trellis to reach their potential as garden plants. Some plants will climb and wrap themselves round a trellis without much artificial help being needed while others need training by passing the growing shoots through the trellis and/or tying them to the framework. Trellis can be referred to as panels made from interwoven wood pieces, attached to fences or the roof or exterior walls of a building. A pergola refers to trellis-work, laid horizontally above head height to provide a partial "roof" in a garden.
The trellis was intended to support vine stock — which gives its name: lat Trichila = greenery bower. Though it is unknown when and where the trellis was invented, the trellis has been mentioned in literature and botanical works throughout history. Pliny the Younger, in the first and second centuries, wrote about trellises in some of his letters about gardens. In the 19th century, Walt Whitman mentioned a trellis in his poem Give me the Splendid, Silent Sun. Trellis was used to support shrubs in espalier to separate roads from thickets and diverse sections of vegetable gardens; these sorts of fences were made by the gardeners. When the art of gardening was perfected by André Le Nôtre and Jules Hardouin-Mansart, the treillis became an object of decoration and was entrusted to particular workers named treillageurs, they worked individually until 1769. The treillageur has to have at least some elementary notions and principles of architecture and l’art du trait. A trellis could be designed as a gallery, room or different element of architecture and thus evolved into garden architecture linked to landscaping.
In the 20th Century landscape architects such as Edouard François and Lewis Duncan, Gilles Clément, uses trellis, as well as artists such as Nils Udo or Jean-Max Albert whose spacial creations belong to land art, Site specific art, or Environmental sculpture. Jean-Max Albert notes the trellis possibilities in visual art: « The trellis permits a visual contact of external and internal elements, it allows to observe together the outside of a construction. The semi-transparency of the plans permits a simultaneous reading of imbricated volumes »
The decibel is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a power or field quantity to another on a logarithmic scale, the logarithmic quantity being called the power level or field level, respectively. It can be used to express a change in an absolute value. In the latter case, it expresses the ratio of a value to a fixed reference value. For example, if the reference value is 1 volt the suffix is "V", if the reference value is one milliwatt the suffix is "m". Two different scales are used when expressing a ratio in decibels, depending on the nature of the quantities: power and field; when expressing a power ratio, the number of decibels is ten times its logarithm to base 10. That is, a change in power by a factor of 10 corresponds to a 10 dB change in level; when expressing field quantities, a change in amplitude by a factor of 10 corresponds to a 20 dB change in level. The decibel scales differ by a factor of two so that the related power and field levels change by the same number of decibels in, for example, resistive loads.
The definition of the decibel is based on the measurement of power in telephony of the early 20th century in the Bell System in the United States. One decibel is one tenth of one bel, named in honor of Alexander Graham Bell. Today, the decibel is used for a wide variety of measurements in science and engineering, most prominently in acoustics and control theory. In electronics, the gains of amplifiers, attenuation of signals, signal-to-noise ratios are expressed in decibels. In the International System of Quantities, the decibel is defined as a unit of measurement for quantities of type level or level difference, which are defined as the logarithm of the ratio of power- or field-type quantities; the decibel originates from methods used to quantify signal loss in telegraph and telephone circuits. The unit for loss was Miles of Standard Cable. 1 MSC corresponded to the loss of power over a 1 mile length of standard telephone cable at a frequency of 5000 radians per second, matched the smallest attenuation detectable to the average listener.
The standard telephone cable implied was "a cable having uniformly distributed resistance of 88 Ohms per loop-mile and uniformly distributed shunt capacitance of 0.054 microfarads per mile". In 1924, Bell Telephone Laboratories received favorable response to a new unit definition among members of the International Advisory Committee on Long Distance Telephony in Europe and replaced the MSC with the Transmission Unit. 1 TU was defined such that the number of TUs was ten times the base-10 logarithm of the ratio of measured power to a reference power. The definition was conveniently chosen such that 1 TU approximated 1 MSC. In 1928, the Bell system renamed the TU into the decibel, being one tenth of a newly defined unit for the base-10 logarithm of the power ratio, it was named the bel, in honor of the telecommunications pioneer Alexander Graham Bell. The bel is used, as the decibel was the proposed working unit; the naming and early definition of the decibel is described in the NBS Standard's Yearbook of 1931: Since the earliest days of the telephone, the need for a unit in which to measure the transmission efficiency of telephone facilities has been recognized.
The introduction of cable in 1896 afforded a stable basis for a convenient unit and the "mile of standard" cable came into general use shortly thereafter. This unit was employed up to 1923 when a new unit was adopted as being more suitable for modern telephone work; the new transmission unit is used among the foreign telephone organizations and it was termed the "decibel" at the suggestion of the International Advisory Committee on Long Distance Telephony. The decibel may be defined by the statement that two amounts of power differ by 1 decibel when they are in the ratio of 100.1 and any two amounts of power differ by N decibels when they are in the ratio of 10N. The number of transmission units expressing the ratio of any two powers is therefore ten times the common logarithm of that ratio; this method of designating the gain or loss of power in telephone circuits permits direct addition or subtraction of the units expressing the efficiency of different parts of the circuit... In 1954, J. W. Horton argued that the use of the decibel as a unit for quantities other than transmission loss led to confusion, suggested the name'logit' for "standard magnitudes which combine by addition".
In April 2003, the International Committee for Weights and Measures considered a recommendation for the inclusion of the decibel in the International System of Units, but decided against the proposal. However, the decibel is recognized by other international bodies such as the International Electrotechnical Commission and International Organization for Standardization; the IEC permits the use of the decibel with field quantities as well as power and this recommendation is followed by many national standards bodies, such as NIST, which justifies the use of the decibel for voltage ratios. The term field quantity is deprecated by ISO 80000-1. In spite of their widespread use, suffixes are not recognized by the IEC or ISO. ISO 80000-3 describes definitions for units of space and time; the decibel for use in acoustics is defined in ISO 80000-8. The major difference from the article below is that for acoustics the decibel has no
Wood grain is the longitudinal arrangement of wood fibers or the pattern resulting from this. R. Bruce Hoadley wrote that grain is a "confusingly versatile term" with numerous different uses, including the direction of the wood cells, surface appearance or figure, growth-ring placement, plane of the cut, rate of growth, relative cell size; the most important physical aspect of wood grain in woodworking is the grain direction or slope. The two basic categories of grain cross grain. Straight grain runs parallel to the longitudinal axis of the piece. Cross grain deviates from the longitudinal axis in spiral grain or diagonal grain; the amount of deviation is called the slope of the grain. In describing the application of a woodworking technique to a given piece of wood, the direction of the technique may be: with the grain against the grain across the grain end grain Grain alignment must be considered when joining pieces of wood, or designing wooden structures. For example, a stressed span is less to fail if tension is applied along the grain, rather than across the grain.
Grain direction will affect the type of warping seen in the finished item. In describing the alignment of the wood in the tree a distinction may be made. Basic grain descriptions and types include: straight - grain which runs in a single direction, parallel to the axis of the tree spiral - grain which spirals around the axis of the tree interlocked - grain which spirals around the axis of the tree, but reverses its direction for periods of years resulting in alternating directions of the spiral grain. In its simplest aesthetic meaning, wood grain is the alternating regions of darker and lighter wood resulting from the differing growth parameters occurring in different seasons on a cut or split piece of wood. Causes including fungus, stress, special grain alignments, others produce figure in wood, their rarity promotes the value of both the raw material, the finished work it becomes a part of. These include: bird's eye quilted fiddleback curlyThe way a given piece of wood has been sawn affects both its appearance and physical properties: flat-grain: flat-sawn, slab-sawn, plain sawn, bastard-sawn, or sawn "through and through".
Edge grain: quarter-sawn or rift-sawn or straight-grained, end grain: the grain of wood seen when it is cut across the growth rings. Speaking, grain is not always the same as the figure of wood. There is irregular grain in burr wood or burl wood, but this is result of many knots. Grain painting Grain filler Knee Wood finishing