The Latin Empire referred to as the Latin Empire of Constantinople, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Byzantine Empire. The Latin Empire was intended to supplant the Byzantine Empire as the titular Roman Empire in the east, with a Western Roman Catholic emperor enthroned in place of the Eastern Orthodox Roman emperors; the Fourth Crusade had been called to retake the Muslim-controlled city of Jerusalem but a sequence of economic and political events culminated in the Crusader army sacking the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire. The plan had been to restore the deposed Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelos, usurped by Alexios III Angelos, to the throne; the crusaders had been promised financial and military aid by Isaac's son Alexios, with which they had planned to continue to Jerusalem. When the crusaders reached Constantinople the situation turned volatile and while Isaac and Alexios ruled, the crusaders did not receive the payment they had hoped for.
In April 1204, they plundered the city's enormous wealth. The crusaders selected their own emperor from among their own ranks, Baldwin of Flanders, divided the territory of the Byzantine Empire into various new vassal crusader states; the Latin Empire's authority was challenged by Byzantine rump states led by the Laskaris family in Nicaea and the Komnenos family in Trebizond. From 1224 to 1242 the Komnenos Doukas family connected to the Angeloi, challenged Latin authority from Thessalonica; the Latin Empire failed to attain political or economic dominance over the other Latin powers, established in former Byzantine territories in the wake of the Fourth Crusade Venice, after a short initial period of military successes it went into a steady decline due to constant war with Bulgaria to the north and the various Byzantine claimants. The Nicaean Empire recovered Constantinople and restored the Byzantine Empire under Michael VIII Palaiologos in 1261; the last Latin emperor, Baldwin II, went into exile, but the imperial title survived, with several pretenders to it, until the 14th century.
Like the term "Byzantine Empire", "Latin Empire" was not a contemporary term used by the empire itself or the rest of the world. The Byzantines referred to the Latin Empire as the Frankokratia or the Latinokratia and the Latin Emperors themselves referred to the empire by various names imperium Constantinopolitanum, but imperium Romaniae and imperium Romanorum; the term Romania had been used unofficially by the population of the Byzantine Empire for their country for centuries. Much like the term "Byzantine", invented in the 16th century, "Latin Empire" was not a contemporary name used by or for the regime set up by the crusaders of the Fourth Crusade in Constantinople. Instead, both terms were invented much by historians seeking to differentiate between the classical period of the Roman Empire, the medieval period of the Byzantine Empire, the late medieval Latin Empire, all of which called themselves "Roman"; the term "Latin" has been used because the crusaders were Roman Catholic and used Latin as their liturgical and scholarly language.
It is used in contrast to the Eastern Orthodox locals who used Greek in both liturgy and common speech. The Byzantines referred to the Latin Empire as the Latinokratia. Founding treaties issued by the crusaders refer to the empire as the imperium Constantinopolitanum. Although this is a marked departure from the standard Byzantine nomenclature and ideology, imperium Constantinopolitanum was the standard name used for the eastern empire in western sources, such as in papal correspondence, suggests that the Latin leaders viewed themselves as “taking over” the empire rather than “replacing” it, it would have been difficult for the crusaders to justify referring to the empire as "Roman" considering that Western Europe held the germanic Holy Roman Empire to represent the legitimate Roman Empire. The crusaders were well aware of the fact that Constantinople was the capital of the Roman Empire and that the Greek-speaking inhabitants of the empire saw themselves as Romaioi; the full title used by the first Latin Emperor, Baldwin I, was Balduinus dei gratia fidelissimus in Christo imperator a Deo coronatus Romanorum moderator et semper augustus.
His title is a near perfect replication of the title used by Byzantine Emperor Alexios IV Angelos, placed on the throne by the crusaders in a letter to Pope Innocent III: fidelis in Christo imperator a Deo coronatus Romanorum moderator et semper augustus. Letters by Baldwin to Pope Innocent III give his title as imperator Constantinopolitanus altered by Papal scribes as the Pope recognized the Holy Roman Emperor as the imperator Romanorum. In his seals, Baldwin abbreviated Romanorum as Rom. conventiently leaving it open for interpretation whether he referred to Romaniae or Romanorum. It is more that he meant Romanorum; the term "Romania" had been used unofficially by the population of the Byzantine Empire for their country for centuries. Baldwin's
Alexandrian Wicca or Alexandrian Witchcraft is a tradition of the Neopagan religion of Wicca, founded by Alex Sanders who, with his wife Maxine Sanders, established the tradition in the United Kingdom in the 1960s. Alexandrian Wicca is similar in many ways to Gardnerian Wicca, receives regular mention in books on Wicca as one of the religion's most recognized traditions; the tradition is based upon Gardnerian Wicca, in which Sanders was trained, contains elements of ceremonial magic and Qabalah, which Sanders had studied independently. Maxine Sanders recalls that the name was chosen when Stewart Farrar, a student of the Sanders', began to write What Witches Do. "Stewart asked. Before this time we were happy to be called Witches". Conversely, the most recent edition of What Witches Do includes published interviews between Sanders and Farrar. Alexandrian Wicca is practiced outside of Britain, including Canada, Portugal, the United States, Australia and South Africa. Alexandrian Wicca, in similarity with other traditional Wiccan practices, emphasizes gender polarity.
This emphasis can be seen in the Sabbat rituals, which focus on the relationship between the Wiccan Goddess and God. As compared to Gardnerian Wicca, Alexandrian Wicca is "somewhat more eclectic", according to The Encyclopedia of Modern Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism. Maxine Sanders notes that Alexandrians take the attitude "If it works use it". Tool use and deity and elemental names differ from the Gardnerian tradition. Skyclad practice, or ritual nudity, is optional within the tradition, training is emphasized, ceremonial magic practices, such as those derived from Hermetic Qabalah and Enochian magic may be part of ritual. Alex's work on his Book of Shadows continued up until his death resulting, like the Gardnerian in several different versions; some of these derived from his teaching notes that his students received in the late 1960s and early 1970s. It is not unusual to find that earlier initiates did not receive the same books as ones although they obtained all the information in dictated form, Sander's preferred mode of teaching.
Alexandrian covens meet during Sabbat festivals. Alexandrian Wicca shares with other traditional Wicca systems the belief that "only a witch can make another witch"; the process through which an individual is made a witch is called "initiation". As in Gardnerian Wicca, there are three levels, or "degrees", of initiation referred to as "first", "second", "third" degree. Only a second or third degree witch can initiate another into witchcraft, only a third degree witch can initiate another to third degree. A third degree initiate is referred to as a "High Priestess" or "High Priest"; the Farrars published the rituals for the three ceremonies of initiation in Eight Sabbats for Witches. Some Alexandrians have instituted a preliminary rank called "neophyte" or "dedicant." In these Alexandrian covens, a neophyte is not bound by the oaths taken by initiates, thus has an opportunity to examine the tradition before committing to it. Neophytes are not, considered to have joined the tradition until they do take first degree.
As such they would not experience certain aspects of rituals. Historian Ronald Hutton records comments from British practitioners of Gardnerian and Alexandrian Wicca that distinctions between the two traditions have blurred in the last couple of decades, some initiates of both traditions have recognized initiation within one as qualification for the other. Author Vivianne Crowley trains her students in both traditions. In the United States, Alexandrian priestess Mary Nesnick, an initiate of both traditions, created a deliberate fusion of the two, which she named the Algard Tradition. Janet and Stewart Farrar, both of whom were initiated into the Alexandrian tradition by the Sanderses, describe themselves as having left the tradition after the release of Eight Sabbats for Witches, they were referred to as "Reformed Alexandrian", a description that Janet Farrar does not use preferring just to refer to herself and her initiates as witches. Chthonioi Alexandrian Wicca and the "Starkindler Line" are derived from Alexandrian Wicca, Alexandrian Wicca was a major influence on Blue Star Wicca and Odyssean Wicca.
The High Magical and Qabalistic strands of the Alexandrian tradition informed the Ordine Della Luna in Constantinople which, from 1967 onwards, Sanders operated as a'side-degree' or ancillary rite to Alexandrian Wicca, most notably in collaboration with Derek Taylor in the 1980s. Great Rite Neopaganism Alex Sanders Maxine Sanders
Olive Scott FRCP was an English paediatric cardiologist. She was the first person in Britain appointed to a consultant position in paediatric cardiology. Olive Sharpe was born on 25 June 1924 in Cumbria, she attended Carlisle and County High School for Girls and completed her medical studies at Sheffield Medical School in 1948. She married James Scott, a reproductive immunologist. Scott was a junior doctor at Liverpool, where she worked with the cardiologist John Hay and developed an interest in children's congenital heart defects, her postgraduate research with Hay earned her a doctoral degree in 1957. She moved to Leeds after her husband was appointed professor at the University of Leeds in 1961, began working at Leeds General Infirmary. In 1966, Scott was appointed by Killingbeck Hospital as a consultant paediatric cardiologist; the same year, she became the first person in the UK to perform a balloon atrial septostomy after learning how to perform the procedure from its inventor, William Rashkind.
In 1976, she established the first unit in a British hospital dedicated to non-invasive cardiac diagnosis through echocardiography, at Killingbeck. She understood the importance of parents being involved in their child’s medical issues and wanted them to understand information about congenital heart disease; the British Heart Foundation assisted Scott in creating a pamphlet that contained educational pictures and written information about the disease their child might have. In addition to the pamphlet, Scott introduced parents’ accommodation, so parents were able to continuously be with their child in the hospital. Scott's most famous research work was a collaboration with her husband James Scott: they showed an association maternal anti-Ro and anti-La autoantibodies and congenital heart block in their children. Scott discovered the causative relationship between maternal lupus and babies with congenital heart blockage, she co-authored a key textbook, Heart Disease in Paediatrics, first published in 1973 and was revised in three editions.
She was elected Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 1972. On a broader level, Scott was a founding member of the Association for European Paediatric Cardiology. In her career, she trained many foreign doctors in her speciality, she was known for her perfect English diction, this helped her in her foreign affairs. Scott retired from medicine in 1986, she died in Harrogate on 4 March 2007