The Eiffel Tower is a wrought-iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is built the tower. Constructed from 1887 to 1889 as the entrance to the 1889 World's Fair, it was criticised by some of France's leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but it has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world; the Eiffel Tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world. The tower is 324 metres tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building, the tallest structure in Paris, its base is square. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was finished in 1930. Due to the addition of a broadcasting aerial at the top of the tower in 1957, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building by 5.2 metres. Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower is the second tallest free-standing structure in France after the Millau Viaduct.
The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the second levels. The top level's upper platform is 276 m above the ground – the highest observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be purchased to lift to the first and second levels; the climb from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second. Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is accessible only by lift; the design of the Eiffel Tower is attributed to Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier, two senior engineers working for the Compagnie des Établissements Eiffel. It was envisioned after discussion about a suitable centrepiece for the proposed 1889 Exposition Universelle, a world's fair to celebrate the centennial of the French Revolution. Eiffel acknowledged that inspiration for a tower came from the Latting Observatory built in New York City in 1853. In May 1884, working at home, Koechlin made a sketch of their idea, described by him as "a great pylon, consisting of four lattice girders standing apart at the base and coming together at the top, joined together by metal trusses at regular intervals".
Eiffel showed little enthusiasm, but he did approve further study, the two engineers asked Stephen Sauvestre, the head of company's architectural department, to contribute to the design. Sauvestre added decorative arches to the base of the tower, a glass pavilion to the first level, other embellishments; the new version gained Eiffel's support: he bought the rights to the patent on the design which Koechlin and Sauvestre had taken out, the design was exhibited at the Exhibition of Decorative Arts in the autumn of 1884 under the company name. On 30 March 1885, Eiffel presented his plans to the Société des Ingénieurs Civils. Little progress was made until 1886, when Jules Grévy was re-elected as president of France and Édouard Lockroy was appointed as minister for trade. A budget for the exposition was passed and, on 1 May, Lockroy announced an alteration to the terms of the open competition being held for a centrepiece to the exposition, which made the selection of Eiffel's design a foregone conclusion, as entries had to include a study for a 300 m four-sided metal tower on the Champ de Mars..
On 12 May, a commission was set up to examine Eiffel's scheme and its rivals, which, a month decided that all the proposals except Eiffel's were either impractical or lacking in details. After some debate about the exact location of the tower, a contract was signed on 8 January 1887; this was signed by Eiffel acting in his own capacity rather than as the representative of his company, granted him 1.5 million francs toward the construction costs: less than a quarter of the estimated 6.5 million francs. Eiffel was to receive all income from the commercial exploitation of the tower during the exhibition and for the next 20 years, he established a separate company to manage the tower, putting up half the necessary capital himself. The proposed tower had been a subject of controversy, drawing criticism from those who did not believe it was feasible and those who objected on artistic grounds; these objections were an expression of a long-standing debate in France about the relationship between architecture and engineering.
It came to a head as work began at the Champ de Mars: a "Committee of Three Hundred" was formed, led by the prominent architect Charles Garnier and including some of the most important figures of the arts, such as Adolphe Bouguereau, Guy de Maupassant, Charles Gounod and Jules Massenet. A petition called "Artists against the Eiffel Tower" was sent to the Minister of Works and Commissioner for the Exposition, Charles Alphand, it was published by Le Temps on 14 February 1887: We, painters, sculptors and passionate devotees of the hitherto untouched beauty of Paris, protest with all our strength, with all our indignation in the name
École normale supérieure (Paris)
The École normale supérieure is one of the French grandes écoles and a school of PSL University since 2010. It was conceived during the French Revolution and was intended to provide the Republic with a new body of professors, trained in the critical spirit and secular values of the Enlightenment, it has since developed into an institution which has become a platform for a select few of France's students to pursue careers in government and academia. Founded in 1794 and reorganised by Napoleon, ENS has two main sections and a competitive selection process consisting of written and oral examinations. During their studies, ENS students hold the status of paid civil servants; the principal goal of ENS is the training of professors and public administrators. Among its alumni there are 13 Nobel Prize laureates including 8 in Physics, 12 Fields Medalists, more than half the recipients of the CNRS's Gold Medal, several hundred members of the Institut de France, scores of politicians and statesmen; the school has achieved particular recognition in the fields of mathematics and physics as one of France's foremost scientific training grounds, along with notability in the human sciences as the spiritual birthplace of authors such as Julien Gracq, Jean Giraudoux, Assia Djebar, Charles Péguy, philosophers such as Henri Bergson, Jean-Paul Sartre, Louis Althusser, Simone Weil, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Alain Badiou, social scientists such as Émile Durkheim, Raymond Aron, Pierre Bourdieu, "French theorists" such as Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida.
The school's students are referred to as normaliens. The ENS is a grande école and, as such, is not part of the mainstream university system, although it maintains extensive connections with it; the vast majority of the academic staff hosted at ENS belong to external academic institutions such as the CNRS, the EHESS and the University of Paris. This mechanism for constant scientific turnover allows ENS to benefit from a continuous stream of researchers in all fields. ENS full professorships are competitive. Generalistic in its recruitment and organisation, the ENS is the only grande école in France to have departments of research in all the natural and human sciences, its status as one of the foremost centres of French research has led to its model being replicated elsewhere, in France, in Italy, in Romania, in China and in former French colonies such as Morocco, Mali and Cameroon. The current institution finds its roots in the creation of the Ecole normale de l'an III by the post-revolutionary National Convention led by Robespierre in 1794.
The school was created based on a recommendation by Joseph Lakanal and Dominique-Joseph Garat, who were part of the commission on public education. The Ecole normale was intended as the core of a planned centralised national education system; the project was conceived as a way to reestablish trust between the Republic and the country's elites, alienated to some degree by the Reign of Terror. The decree establishing the school, issued on 9 brumaire, states in its first article that "There will be established in Paris an Ecole normale, from all the parts of the Republic, citizens educated in the useful sciences shall be called upon to learn, from the best professors in all the disciplines, the art of teaching." The inaugural course was given on 20 January 1795 and the last on 19 May of the same year at the Museum of Natural History. The goal of these courses was to train a body of teachers for all the secondary schools in the country and thereby to ensure a homogenous education for all; these courses covered all the existing sciences and humanities and were given by scholars such as: scientists Monge, Daubenton and philosophers Bernardin de Saint-Pierre and Volney were some of the teachers.
The school was closed as a result of the arrival of the Consulate but this Ecole normale was to serve as a basis when the school was founded for the second time by Napoleon I in 1808. On 17 March 1808, Napoleon created by decree a pensionnat normal within the imperial University of France charged with "training in the art of teaching the sciences and the humanities"; the establishment was opened in its strict code including a mandatory uniform. By a sister establishment had been created by Napoleon in Pisa under the name of Scuola normale superiore, which continues to exist today and still has close ties to the Paris school. Up to 1818, the students are handpicked by the academy inspectors based on their results in the secondary school. However, the "pensionnat" created by Napoleon came to be perceived under the Restoration as a nexus of liberal thought and was suppressed by then-minister of public instruction Denis-Luc Frayssinous in 1824. An École préparatoire was created on 9 March 1826 at the site of collège Louis-le-Grand.
This date can be taken as the definitive date of creation of the current school. After the July Revolution, the school regained its original name of École normale and in 1845 was renamed École normale supérieure. During the 1830s, under the direction of philosopher Victor Cousin, the school enhanced its status as an institution to prepare the agrégation by expanding the duration of study to three years, was divided into its present-day "
Jeanne d'Arc (Frémiet)
Jeanne d'Arc is an 1874 French gilded bronze equestrian sculpture of Joan of Arc by Emmanuel Frémiet. The outdoor statue is prominently displayed in the Place des Pyramides in Paris; the original statue was commissioned by the French government after the defeat of the country in the 1870 Franco-Prussian War. It is the only public commission of the state from 1870 to 1914, called the Golden Age of statuary in Paris, the other statues were funded by private subscriptions; the sculptor took as his model Aimée Girod, a young woman from Domrémy, Joan of Arc's village in Lorraine. The statue was inaugurated in 1874; the pedestal was designed by the architect Paul Abadie. The artist, who made another version of the monument for the city of Nancy in 1889, replaced the horse of the Parisian monument 10 years by a copy of the smaller Nancy one, which earned him criticism; the monument was classified as a historic monument on March 31, 1992. Reviving a tradition from the far-right leagues, on every May Day, the National Front holds an annual ceremony in her honour at the statue.
The original work is located at the Place des Pyramides, in Paris, near where Joan of Arc was wounded during her failed attempt to take Paris. Other copies can be seen at: Nancy, New Orleans, Portland, Melbourne, Australia. List of public art in Philadelphia Media related to Statue of Jeanne d'Arc in Paris, Place des Pyramides at Wikimedia Commons
A bistro or bistrot, is, in its original Parisian incarnation, a small restaurant, serving moderately priced simple meals in a modest setting with alcohol. Bistros are defined by the foods they serve. French home-style cooking, slow-cooked foods like cassoulet, a bean stew, are typical. Bistros developed out of the basement kitchens of Parisian apartments where tenants paid for both room and board. Landlords could supplement their income by opening their kitchen to the paying public. Menus were built around foods that were simple, could be prepared in quantity and would keep over time. Wine and coffee were served. Today, bistros are still part of the hospitality industry, they are connected to hotels and pubs. They still serve cheaper simplified menus, and/or menus that are not tied down to a specific cultural cuisine; the etymology is unclear, is presumed to come from a regional word: bistro, bistingo, bistouille or bistrouille. The first recorded use of the word appears in 1884. A popular folk etymology of the word claims that it originated among Russian troops who occupied Paris following the Napoleonic Wars, summoned by Russian officers or cossacks who wanted to be served quickly.
This etymology has been discredited by some French linguists as there is no attestation to the occurrence of this word until the end of the 19th century. Brasserie, a more formal French restaurant that may brew its own beer Parisian café, centers of French social and culinary life Sidewalk cafe Merriam-Webster definition Paris Bistros: The Democratization of Excellence
Tourism in Paris
Tourism in Paris is a major income source. In 2018, 17.95 million tourists visited her region. The top reasons to come are shopping; the city is the largest Airbnb market in the world. Top sights: Notre Dame, Disneyland Paris, Sacre Coeur, Versailles Palace, the Louvre Museum, the Eiffel Tower, Centre Pompidou, Musee d'Orsay. In the Paris region, the largest numbers of foreign tourists came in order from Britain, the United States, Italy and Canada. In 2012, 263,212 salaried workers in the city of Paris, or 18.4 percent of the total number, were engaged in tourism-related sectors. In 2014 visitors to Paris spent 17 billion dollars, the third highest sum globally after London and New York; the Eiffel Tower is acknowledged as the universal symbol of France. It was designed by Émile Nouguier and Maurice Koechlin. In March 1885 Gustave Eiffel, known as a successful iron engineer, submitted a plan for a tower to the French Ministre du Commerce et de l'Industrie, he entered a competition for students studying at the university.
The winning proposal would stand as the centerpiece of the 1889 Exposition. Eiffel's was one of over 100 submissions. Eiffel's proposal was chosen in June 1886. Before its construction, the Tower's uniqueness was noticed; the Eiffel Tower was inaugurated on March 31, 1889. About 6.9 million people visit the Eiffel tower each year. Centre Georges Pompidou was opened on January 31, 1977 by President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing; the designers of Pompidou are Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers, Peter Rice. The Centre Pompidou has had over 150 million visitors since 1977. Centre Georges Pompidou is a complex in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil and the Marais. In 1997 renovations had begun to drastically change the interior spaces of the Centre Pompidou; the renovations were still preserving the celebrated and original tubular design The internal refurbishment was done to enable the building to deal with the pressure of increasing visitor numbers. The renovation developed the centre's capacity to host the performing arts and increased the display area of the Museum of Modern Art.
The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile is one of the most famous monuments in Paris. It stands at the western end of the Champs-Élysées, it should not be confused with a smaller arch, the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, which stands west of the Louvre. The Arc de Triomphe honours those who fought and died for France in the French Revolutionary and the Napoleonic Wars, with the names of all French victories and generals inscribed on its inner and outer surfaces. Beneath its vault lies the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I; the Arc de Triomphe is the linchpin of the historic axis – a sequence of monuments and grand thoroughfares on a route which goes from the courtyard of the Louvre, to the Grande Arche de la Défense. The Musée d'Orsay is a museum in France, on the left bank of the Seine, it started to be constructed in 1897 and was designed by Gae Aulenti, Victor Laloux, Émile Bernard. The Musée d'Orsay is an art museum for works from 1848 to 1914 and has an emphasis on French Impressionism artwork.
One can walk through the museum room by room. There are sections on Symbolism, Impressionism, Pont Aven School, Art Nouveau to name just a few; the museum is the culmination of nearly ten years of government commitment and dedicated team-work By visiting this museum it is possible to get some idea of what was happening in France in the fields of painting and sculpture, opera design, photography, furniture and textiles. Disneyland Paris is an amusement park in the Paris region, it is the most popular amusement park in Europe in terms of attendance records. The Louvre Palace built as a medieval fortress in the year 1190 by King Philippe Auguste, was transformed by successive governments, since the French Revolution, it hosts the Musée du Louvre one of the largest museums of the western world, it houses some of the most culturally ethnic form of art. The doors to The Louvre opened to the public on August 10, 1793. Since the 12th Century, The Louvre has undergone several infrastructural changes due to a change of reign after every century.
On March 3, 1989, I. M. Pei inaugurated the Glass Pyramid; this serves as an official entrance to the main exhibition hall, which in turn leads to the temporary exhibition halls. The Musée is divided into 3 separate wings: Sully and Denon, which showcase 35,000 pieces of art, dating back to the Middle Ages; some of the most renown pieces of art showcased at The Louvre are the Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa, Venus of Milo, Winged Victory of Samothrace, Liberty Leading the People, the Dying Slave by Michelangelo. The Notre-Dame de Paris, is the largest cathedral in Paris, it was started to be built in 1163 by Maurice de Sully, the appointed bishop of Paris. The construction campaign was divided into 4 parts, was done by well-known builders of that era: Jean de Chelles, Pierre de Montreuil, Pierre de Chelles, Jean Ravy, Jean le Bouteiller, it took over 100 years for the Notre-Dame to be built completely. It was built in honour of Virgin Mary, making it a canon church and a baptistery, it is one of the main symbols of Paris.
It is located at a small island in the heart of the city. There have been several historical events that have taken place here, in
The Gare Saint-Lazare Paris-Saint-Lazare, is one of the six large terminus railway stations of Paris. It serves train services toward Normandy, northwest of Paris, along the Paris–Le Havre railway. Saint-Lazare is the second busiest station in Paris, after the Gare du Nord, it handles 275,000 passengers each day. The station was designed by architect Juste Lisch, the maître de l'oeuvre was Eugene Flachat; the first station at St Lazare was 200 m north-west of its current position, called Embarcadère des Batignolles. The station was opened by Marie-Amélie on 24 August 1837; the first line served was the single track line to Le Pecq. In 1843 St-Lazare was the terminus for three lines; the station had 14 platforms in 1854 after several enlargements, now has 27 platforms sorted in six destination groups. On 27 April 1924 the inner suburban lines were electrified with 750 V third rail; the same lines were re-electrified at 25 kV overhead wires in the 1960s. On 21 March 2012, a new three-level shopping mall with 80 shops opened inside the passenger hall.
The Gare Saint-Lazare is situated in the 8th arrondissement, in a dense business and shopping area of Paris. The Gare Saint-Lazare has been represented in a number of artworks, it attracted artists during the Impressionist period and many of them lived close to the Gare St-Lazare during the 1870s and 1880s. Édouard Manet lived close at 4 rue de Saint-Pétersbourg. Two years after moving to the area he showed his painting The Railway, at the Paris Salon in 1874. Painted from the backyard of a friend's house on the nearby rue de Rome, this canvas, now in the National Gallery of Art at Washington D. C. portrays a woman with a book as she sits facing us in front of an iron fence. At the time of its first exhibition it was caricatured and the subject of ridicule. Gustave Caillebotte lived just a short walk away from the station, he painted Le Pont de l’Europe in 1876 and On the Pont de l'Europe in 1876-80. While the former picture looks across the bridge with the ironworks diagonally crossing the picture to the right, with a scene of interacting figures on the bridge to the left, the latter depicts the iron structure of the bridge face-on in a strong close-up of its industrial geometry, with three male figures to the left side of the painting all looking in different directions.
In 1877, painter Claude Monet rented a studio near the Gare Saint Lazare. That same year he exhibited seven paintings of the railway station in an impressionist painting exhibition, he completed 11 paintings of this subject. Oscar-Claude Monet's series of the Gare Saint-Lazare train station was one of his most famous series in his lifetime. Monet was one of the most important and influential painters in the Impressionist movement in the 19th century, he was a strong proponent of plein-air landscape painting. Artists such as Gustave Caillebotte, Edgar Degas and Berthe Morisot, do this in order to portray the scene in the moment instead of creating the painting from what they could remember. Monet and others who followed the Impressionism Movement were not accepted in the Salon de Paris, because of their rejection of the academies’ teachings of form, subject matter etc. so instead they decided to open a new exhibition on their own Impressionist Exhibition in April 1874. Claude Monet's depiction of this train station is an astonishing composition in which the hard-edged discs of the railroad signals hover above a scribbled swirl of blue and rose clouds of steam, with scrolled white edges, while the sketchy, angular drawing of the tracks and buildings provides contrast.
The flat, opaque circle of the largest signal, placed dead center and thickly painted, is so insistent that it turns the picture into a near-abstraction. The Gare Saint-Lazare piece was shown at the Third Impressionist Exhibition; the Gare Saint-Lazare is far different than Monet's previous paintings of harbors and oceans that viewers had seen before. The Gare Saint-Lazare series of paintings lead the viewers through a tour of the train station in different points of the day. “Monet exemplifies the modern life, in all its chaos and instability,” The steam coming from the trains creates a way of dissolving the train and showing the impressionistic style of blending colors and light. Everything turns into a flurry of blended colors; as said by Émile Zola, “Monet is able to turn a dirty and gritty place into a peaceful and beautiful scene…You can hear the trains rumbling in, see the smoke billow up under the huge roofs…that is where painting is today…our artists have to find the poetry in train station, the way their fathers found the poetry in forests and rivers.”
“Monet’s work on the Gare Saint-Lazare is unparalleled in its evocation of steam and the smoke-filled station. In spite of the impressionist style, the work reproduces the topography of the area allowing one to deduce the precise point where the artist was standing while painting; this is the first time an artist had showed a single theme through a series of variations” The Gare Saint-Lazare itself, a monument to the last word in state-of-the-art transportation, the railroad. Le Quartier de l'Europe, where artists like Claude Monet and Gustave Caillebotte spent a lot of time and painted was, in short, a paradigm of mo
The Conciergerie is a building in Paris, located on the west of the Île de la Cité a prison but presently used for law courts. It was part of the former royal palace, the Palais de la Cité, which consisted of the Conciergerie, Palais de Justice and the Sainte-Chapelle. Hundreds of prisoners during the French Revolution were taken from the Conciergerie to be executed by guillotine at a number of locations around Paris; the west part of the island was the site of a Merovingian palace, was known as the Palais de la Cité. From the 10th to the 14th centuries, it was the main palace of the medieval Kings of France. During the reigns of Louis IX and Philippe IV the Merovingian palace was extended and fortified more extensively. Louis IX added the Sainte-Chapelle and associated galleries, while Philippe IV created the towered facade on the Seine river side and a large hall. Both are excellent examples of French secular architecture of the period; the Sainte-Chapelle was built in the French royal style to house the crown of thorns, brought back from the Crusades and to serve as a royal chapel.
The "Grande Salle" was one of the largest in Europe, its lower story, known as "La Salle des Gens d'Armes" survives at 64m long, 27.5m wide and 8.5m high. It was used as a dining room for the 2,000 staff members, it lit by many windows, now blocked. It was used for royal banquets and judicial proceedings; the neighboring Salle des Gardes was used as an antechamber to the Great Hall above, where the king held his lit de justice. The early Valois kings continued to modify the palace during the 14th century, but Charles V abandoned the palace during 1358, relocating across the river to the Louvre Palace; the palace continued to serve an administrative function and still included the chancellery and French Parliament. In the king's absence, he appointed a concierge to command of the palace, a fact which gave the palace its eventual name. During 1391, part of the building was converted for use as a prison and took its name from the ruling office, its prisoners were a mixture of political prisoners. In common with other prisons of the time, the treatment of prisoners was dependent on their wealth and associates.
Wealthy or influential prisoners got their own cells with a bed and materials for reading and writing. Less-well-off prisoners could afford to pay for furnished cells known as pistoles, which would be equipped with a rough bed and a table; the poorest, known as the pailleux from the paille that they slept on, would be confined to dark, vermin-infested cells known as oubliettes. In keeping with the name, they were left to live or die in conditions that were ideal for the plague and other infectious diseases, which were rife in the unsanitary conditions of the prison. Three towers survive from the medieval Conciergerie: the Caesar Tower, named in honor of the Roman Emperors; the building was extended during the reigns of kings with France's first public clock being installed about 1370. The current clock dates from 1535; the ten month Reign of Terror had a profound effect on France. More than 40,000 people died from execution and imprisonment, France would not be a republic again for nearly half a century.
The National Convention enacted the Law of Suspects on September 17, 1793. This act declared that anyone considered a counter-revolutionary or enemy of the republic was guilty of treason and, condemned to death; the Revolutionary Tribunal was set up in the Palace of Justice. The two fates for those sent before the tribunal were acquittal or death, with no possibility of appeal. Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville, a radical, was named public prosecutor; the Tribunal sat in the Great Hall between 2 April 1793 and 31 May 1795 and sent nearly 2,600 prisoners to the guillotine. The Conciergerie prison became the main penitentiary of a network of prisons throughout Paris, was the last place of housing for more than 2,700 people, who were summarily executed by guillotine; the dank dungeons were a stark contrast to the beautiful architecture of the palace above. The quality of life of the prisoners was based on their personal wealth and the whims of the jailers; the revolutionary period continued the prison's tradition of interning prisoners based on wealth, such that wealthier prisoners could rent a bed for 27 livres 12 sous for the first month, 22 livres 10 sous for subsequent months.
When the price was decreased to 15 livres, the commanders of the prison made a fortune: as the Terror escalated, a prisoner could pay for a bed and be executed a few days freeing the bed for a new inmate who would pay as well. One memoirist termed the Conciergerie "the most lucrative furnished lodgings in Paris". Only celebrity prisoners were assigned cells to themselves. Most of the pistole inmates were stuffed into a single room that abutted a local hospital, making disease an inevitability; the cramped cells were infested with rats, the stench of urine permeated every room. All the prisoners, except those locked in the dungeons, were allowed to walk about the prisoners' gallery from 8 a.m. to an hour before sunset. Roll call was always a tortuous proceeding because many of the jail