Latin alphabet

The Latin or Roman alphabet is the writing system used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language. The term Latin alphabet may refer to either the alphabet used to write Latin or other alphabets based on the Latin script, the basic set of letters common to the various alphabets descended from the classical Latin alphabet, such as the English alphabet; these Latin-script alphabets may discard letters, like the Rotokas alphabet or add new letters, like the Danish and Norwegian alphabets. Letter shapes have evolved over the centuries, including the development in Medieval Latin of lower-case, forms which did not exist in the Classical period alphabet. Due to its use in writing Germanic and other languages first in Europe and in other parts of the world and due to its use in Romanizing writing of other languages, it has become widespread, it is used in China and has been adopted by Baltic and some Slavic states. The Latin alphabet evolved from the visually similar Etruscan alphabet, which evolved from the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, itself descended from the Phoenician alphabet, which in turn derived from Egyptian hieroglyphics.

The Etruscans ruled early Rome. During the Middle Ages, the Latin alphabet was used for writing Romance languages, which are direct descendants of Latin, as well as Celtic, Germanic and some Slavic languages. With the age of colonialism and Christian evangelism, the Latin script spread beyond Europe, coming into use for writing indigenous American, Austronesian and African languages. More linguists have tended to prefer the Latin script or the International Phonetic Alphabet when transcribing or creating written standards for non-European languages, such as the African reference alphabet. Although it does not seem that classical Latin used diacritics, modern English is the only major modern European language that does not have any for native words, it is believed that the Latin alphabet used by the Romans was derived from the Old Italic alphabet used by the Etruscans. That alphabet was derived from the Euboean alphabet used by the Cumae, which in turn was derived from the Phoenician alphabet.

Latin included 21 different characters. The letter ⟨C⟩ was the western form of the Greek gamma, but it was used for the sounds /ɡ/ and /k/ alike under the influence of Etruscan, which might have lacked any voiced plosives. During the 3rd century BC, the letter ⟨Z⟩ – unneeded to write Latin properly – was replaced with the new letter ⟨G⟩, a ⟨C⟩ modified with a small vertical stroke, which took its place in the alphabet. From on, ⟨G⟩ represented the voiced plosive /ɡ/, while ⟨C⟩ was reserved for the voiceless plosive /k/; the letter ⟨K⟩ was used only in a small number of words such as Kalendae interchangeably with ⟨C⟩. After the Roman conquest of Greece in the 1st century BC, Latin adopted the Greek letters ⟨Y⟩ and ⟨Z⟩ to write Greek loanwords, placing them at the end of the alphabet. An attempt by the emperor Claudius to introduce three additional letters, thus it was during the classical Latin period that the Latin alphabet contained 23 letters: The Latin names of some of these letters are disputed.

In general the Romans did not use the traditional names as in Greek: the names of the plosives were formed by adding /eː/ to their sound and the names of the continuants consisted either of the bare sound, or the sound preceded by /e/. The letter ⟨Y⟩ when introduced was called "hy" /hyː/ as in Greek, the name upsilon not being in use yet, but this was changed to "i Graeca" as Latin speakers had difficulty distinguishing its foreign sound /y/ from /i/. ⟨ Z ⟩ was given zeta. This scheme has continued to be used by most modern European languages that have adopted the Latin alphabet. For the Latin sounds represented by the various letters see Latin pronunciation. Diacritics were not used, but they did occur sometimes, the most common being the apex used to mark long vowels, which had sometimes been written doubled. However, in place of taking an apex, the letter i was written taller: ⟨á é ꟾ ó v́⟩. For example, what is today transcribed Lūciī a fīliī was written ⟨lv́ciꟾ·a·fꟾliꟾ⟩ in the inscription depicted.

The primary mark of punctuation was the interpunct, used as a word divider, though it fell out of use after 200 AD. Old Roman cursive script called majuscule cursive and capitalis cursive, was the everyday form of handwriting used for writing letters, by merchants writing business accounts, by schoolchildren learning the Latin alphabet, emperors issuing commands. A more formal style of writing was based on Roman square capitals, but cursive was used for quicker, informal writing, it was most used from about the 1st century BC to the 3rd century, but it existed earlier than that. It led to Uncial, a majuscule script used from the 3rd to 8th centuries AD by Latin and Greek scribes. New Roman cursive script known as minuscule cursive, was in use from the 3rd century to the 7th century, uses letter forms that are more recognizable to modern eyes.

New Ohio Review

New Ohio Review is a national literary magazine produced by the creative writing program of Ohio University in Athens, Ohio Published biannually since 2007, the magazine showcases short fiction and essays. Writers published by New Ohio Review have included Tony Hoagland, Robert Pinsky, Rosanna Warren, Rachel Zucker, among others. Pieces Appearing in New Ohio Review have been included in such anthologies as The Best American Series and the Pushcart Prize anthology; the journal is a recipient of a National Endowment for the Arts grant. The first issue of New Ohio Review was published in the spring of 2007. In 2008 that first issue received both “Creative Best” and the Jury’s prize at the Columbus Design Awards. In 2010, Writer’s Digest devoted a full-page feature to the journal; that same year, editor J. Allyn Rosser received the Ohioana Library Association’s James P. Barry Award for Editorial Excellence. In 2011, New Ohio Review received a National Endowment for the Arts grant. From 2012-2015, the magazine was awarded Ohio Arts Council grants.

In 2017, pieces from that year’s issues received 14 Pushcart Prize nominations. In 2019, New Ohio Review received Pushcart Prize nominations and an Ohio Arts Council Sustainability Grant. In addition to its regular output, New Ohio Review hosts an annual contest in which writers can submit their work for the chance to win a prize of $1000 in each genre. Winning submissions are published in the journal’s fall issue. Submissions are reviewed by outside judges. Judges for the contest have included Ann Beattie, Tony Hoagland, Phillip Lopate, Elena Passarello, Colm Tóibín, among others. Winners have included Rachel Cochran, Julie Hanson, Christopher Kempf, Suzanne McConnell, Michael Pearce, Leslie Rodd. Poems and short stories in these collections were first published in the New Ohio Review. Best American Poetry Best American Poetry 2011, Robert Pinsky’s “Horn” and Bob Hicok’s “Having Intended Merely to Pick on an Oil Company…” Best American Poetry 2012, Steve Orlen’s “Where Do We Go After We Die” and David Yezzi’s “Minding Rites” Best American Poetry 2013, Nathan Anderson’s “Stupid Sandwich” Best American Poetry 2015, Bethany Schultz Hurst’s “Crisis on Infinite Earths: Issues 1-12” Best American Poetry 2016, Eleanor Wilner’s “To Think of How Cold” Best American Poetry 2017, Billy Collins's “The Present and David Brendan Hopes’s “Certain Things”Best American Short Stories Best American Short Stories 2012, Carol Anshaw’s “The Last Speaker of the Language” Best American Short Stories 2015, Kevin Canty’s “Happy Endings

Wild Girl (film)

Wild Girl is a 1932 American pre-Code historical drama film directed by Raoul Walsh and starring Charles Farrell, Joan Bennett, Ralph Bellamy, Eugene Pallette. The film was based on a play by Paul Armstrong, Jr. which in turn was based on the novella Salomy Jane's Kiss by Bret Harte. The story had been filmed as Salomy Jane and Salomy Jane. Charles Farrell as Billy Joan Bennett as Salomy Jane Ralph Bellamy as Jack Marbury Eugene Pallette as Yuba Bill Irving Pichel as Rufe Waters Minna Gombell as Millie Willard Robertson as Red Pete Sarah Padden as Lize Morgan Wallace as Phineas Baldwin Wild Girl on IMDb synopsis at AllMovie