Latinxua Sin Wenz is a historical set of romanizations for Chinese languages, although references to Sin Wenz refer to Beifangxua Latinxua Sin Wenz, designed for Mandarin Chinese. Distinctively, Sin Wenz does not indicate tones, under the premise that the proper tones could be understood from context. Latinxua is notable as being the first romanization system used in place of Chinese characters by native Chinese speakers, it was developed by groups of Chinese and Russian scholars in the Soviet Union and used by Chinese immigrants there until the majority of them left the country. It was revived for some time in Northern China where it was used in over 300 publications before its usage was ended by the People's Republic of China; the work towards constructing the Beifangxua Latinxua Sin Wenz system began in Moscow as early as 1928 when the Soviet Scientific Research Institute on China sought to create a means through which the large Chinese population living in the far eastern region of the USSR could be made literate, facilitating their further education.
This was different from all other romanization schemes in that, from the outset, it was intended that the Latinxua Sin Wenz system, once established, would supersede the Chinese characters. They decided to use the Latin alphabet because they thought that it would serve their purpose better than Cyrillic. Unlike Gwoyeu Romatzyh, with its complex method of indicating tones, Latinxua Sin Wenz system does not indicate tones at all; the eminent Moscow-based Chinese scholar Qu Qiubai and the Russian linguist V. S. Kolokolov devised a prototype romanization system in 1929. In 1931 a coordinated effort between the Soviet sinologists V. M. Alekseev, A. A. Dragunov and A. G. Shrprintsin, the Moscow-based Chinese scholars Qu Qiubai, Wu Yuzhang, Lin Boqu, Xiao San, Wang Xiangbao, Xu Teli established the Latinxua Sin Wenz system; the system was supported by a number of Chinese intellectuals such as Guo Moruo and Lu Xun, trials were conducted amongst 100,000 Chinese immigrant workers for about four years and in 1940–1942, in the communist-controlled Shaan-Gan-Ning Border Region of China.
In November 1949, the railways in China's north-east adopted the Latinxua Sin Wenz system for all their telecommunications. For a time, the system was important in spreading literacy in Northern China. However: In 1944 the latinization movement was curtailed in the communist-controlled areas on the pretext that there were insufficient trained cadres capable of teaching the system, it is more that, as the communists prepared to take power in a much wider territory, they had second thoughts about the rhetoric that surrounded the latinization movement. Sin Wenz was designed; the letters below represent only one of the thirteen possible schemes present, the below form being Beifangxua Latinxua Sin Wenz: that for Northern Mandarin. Much of Sin Wenz is similar to Pinyin in its orthography. However, palatal affricates are written with the same letters as velar stops, so Beijing is written as Beiging in Sin Wenz. Other differences include the usage of x for both the sounds and, so the characters 畫 and 下 are written as xua and xia.
It is based upon the pronunciation outlined by the Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation, rather than upon the Beijing pronunciation, hence the distinction between sounds such as gi and zi, or spellings such as yo and ung instead of ye or eng. Key: Sin Wenz differs from Pinyin Sin Wenz exhibits some interchangeability symbol for alveolo-palatal between g, k, x with z, c, s. For example, 新 can be written as sin in Sin Wenz; this is because Sin Wenz distinguishes sequences from, which distinction is lost in Standard Mandarin and not made by Pinyin. Key: Sin Wenz differs from Pinyin 1e and ye is written as o and yo after initials g, k and x. For example: gogo, xyosheng 2Standalone ui, un and ung are written as wei and weng respectively.3What is written as i after zh, ch, sh, r, z, c and s in pinyin is not written in Sin Wenz. As in pinyin, spacing in Sin Wenz is based on whole words, not single syllables. Except for u, others syllables starting with u is always written with a w replacing the u.
The syllable u is only preceded by a w. For syllables starting with i, the i is replaced by a j only in the middle of a word. Syllables starting with y is preceded by a j only when preceded by a consonant in the middle of a word; these are unlike pinyin, which always uses y regardless of the positions of the syllables. As in pinyin, the apostrophe is used before a, o, e to separate syllables in a word where ambiguity could arise; because Sin Wenz is written without indicating tones, ambiguity could arise with certain words with the same sound but different tones. In order to circumvent this problem, Sin Wenz defined a list of exceptions. For example, 买 (pinyin: mǎi.
Scene of the Crime is a 1949 film noir directed by Roy Rowland, starring Van Johnson, featuring Gloria DeHaven, Arlene Dahl, Tom Drake. The film's screenplay, by Charles Schnee, is based on a non-fiction article by John Bartlow Martin, "Smashing the Bookie Gang Marauders", it was the only property sold by Martin to be made into a film. Scene of the Crime was producer Harry Rapf's last film of his thirty-plus year career. According to film critic Dennis Schwartz, the film is one of "few film noirs attempted by MGM, it insisted on producing more realistic films. This is a transitional film from the 1930s gangster film and a forerunner of the modern day TV cop show, it preaches the credo that'Crime Does Not Pay.'" Lieutenant Mike Conovan, head of an LAPD homicide detective squad, investigates when Ed Monigan, an older member of his squad, is murdered while off-duty and carrying $1,000 in cash. Conovan's current partner and one-time mentor, Fred Piper, is getting on in years and his eyesight is failing, while under Conovan's wing is rookie detective "C.
C." Gordon, learning the ropes. Out to dispel a theory that Monigan was secretly in cahoots with bookmakers, Conovan begins to track down a pair of downstate criminals known as the "Royalty Brothers." The trail leads to a stripper, whose ex-boyfriend Turk Kingby has pulled off a series of robberies of gamblers with his partner Lafe Douque. Conovan's primary informant, Sleeper, is brutally murdered for snitching. Conovan tracks down Lafe and places him under arrest, but leaving Lafe's apartment, gunshots ring out, killing Lafe. Conovan is convinced by his wife Gloria, he tenders his resignation. Lili calls headquarters with a tip for Conovan on. Piper investigates it himself and is gunned down. Conovan concludes. Over the objections of his wife, he gets his old job back with the police force. Turk and his new partner attempt to flee, he uses a truck to crash into Turk's armor-plated car. Turk confesses to clears Monigan before he dies. Cast notes Donna Reed was slated to play the part played in the film by Arlene Dahl.
Gloria DeHaven's character, was modeled on stripper Lili St. Cyr MGM, Hollywood's "Tiffany Studio", had a long history of making glamorous films musicals, shied away from making gutty, street-wise films, such as Warner Bros. specialized in. The exceptions were their series of "Crime Does Not Pay" shorts – where director Roy Rowland learned the ins and outs of that genre – and the occasional films in the 1930s and'40s, such as Kid Glove Killer and Grand Central Murder, both released in 1942. Once Dore Schary returned to MGM in 1948 from his stint at RKO Films, to replace Louis B. Mayer as head of production, the studio began to make darker, more realistic films. Scene of the Crime was the result of that transition; the casting for Scene of the Crime went "against type". Star Van Johnson was known for appearing in light fare such as comedies and musicals, making him a teen idol, so a hard-boiled cop was a complete change for him, his newly revealed versatility garnered him roles in 1949's Battleground and the offer to play Eliot Ness in The Untouchables on TV, a role that went instead to Robert Stack.
Although Scene of the Crime made a small profit because of its low production cost, Van Johnson would never make another film noir. Gloria DeHaven was making a change for her role in the film, she had been known for playing innocent ingenues, like Johnson in comedies and musicals. It was Schary's decision to cast her as Lili, a stripper who appears at first to have a heart of gold, but turns out to be a hard-boiled gangster's moll. Unable to show a stripper stripping, the film shows her doing a "reverse strip": Lili starts in a – for the time – skimpy outfit, puts her clothes on while singing Andre Previn and William Katz' song "I'm a Goody Good Girl"; as with Johnson, the film opened up new possibilities for DeHaven. As opposed to DeHaven, the third major actor in Street of the Crime, the glamorous Arlene Dahl, might have been expected to play the stripper role, instead of a nagging housewife. Director Roy Rowland was a long-time stalwart at MGM, directing shorts, B-movies, a variety of other films.
He would make two additional film noirs, Rogue Cop and Witness to Murder, starring Barbara Stanwyck, both released in 1954. Rowland is best known for directing a cult film, The 5000 Fingers of Dr. T, written by Dr. Seuss. According to MGM records the film earned $968,000 in the US and Canada and $423,000 overseas resulting in a profit of $151,000. Critic Dennis Schwartz liked the film, writing, "It is directed in a workman like efficiency by Roy Rowland... It's filmed Dragnet style, following ordinary police procedures in solving the case; the film had a violent conclusion. It portrayed the hard-working policemen in a sympathetic light and showed how they are misunderstood by the public and betrayed at times by reporters who are eager to grab the headlines and run with them though they don't have all the facts. Mike comes out as a good cop, but is disillusioned by his low pay and all the pressures from home, the job and its politics, from an unappreciative public." Edgar Award - Best Motion Picture (no
The Iraq Stock Exchange, formally the Baghdad Stock Exchange, is a stock exchange in Baghdad, Iraq. It was established by the Coalition Provisional Authority Order No. 74 as a sui generis independent non-profit organization on April 18, 2004. This order created the Iraq Securities Commission and an Iraq Depositary; the stock exchange was part of the development of the country from a non-transparent centrally planned economy to a free market economy through a dynamic private sector. The Iraq Stock Exchange was incorporated and began operations on June 24, 2004, it operates under the oversight of the Iraq Securities Commission, an independent commission modeled after the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission; this body, which supervises the Board of Governors served as the bridge between the country's previous state-owned stock exchange and the new independent exchange. June Reed is an American adviser to the stock exchange. Before the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the country's stock exchange was called the Baghdad Stock Exchange and was operated by the Iraqi Ministry of Finance.
Now it is a self-regulated organization similar to the New York Stock Exchange, owned by the 50 or so member brokerages. As of 2005, the ISX was Iraq's only stock exchange, it opened in 2004 with 15 companies, now lists more than 100 companies. Turnover of shares in 2005 was $5 million USD per trading session. Major stocks included Bank of Baghdad, Baghdad Soft Drinks Co, Iraqi Tufted Carpets Co, Hader Marble, Altherar Agriculture. Aswat al-Iraq news agency covers every trading session with reports published on the web in English and Arabic. Trading was with pen and paper. Buyers shouted at or called into their brokers, who stood near their whiteboards that listed each company's share buy and sell price. Trading was suspended for several months in 2006 due to violence, is subject to power outages. In 2006, 92 trading sessions were held, 57 billion shares were traded, 38,000 trades were consummated; the trading floor is open six hours a week: Sunday and Thursday from 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon. The ISX opened to foreign investors on August 2, 2007.
It has been unaffected by the Economic crisis of 2008. On April 19, 2009, the ISX switched to electronic trading. Only five companies are available for electronic trading, but more will be added over the next few months. In the first quarter of 2018, the ISX became one of the world's top performers due to the influx of investors encouraged by the defeat of the Islamic state. Companies listed on the market increased by 10 percent, anticipating economic recovery due to recent developments; this is notable since the performance defied the violent swings experienced by global markets in the same period. The ISX, still faces a number of challenges, which include political instability as demonstrated by the 7 percent loss in value during the May election, sporadic conflicts, the price of oil, among other economic grievances; the Iraq stock Exchange is a member of the Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges. Economy of Iraq List of Mideast stock exchanges Development Fund for Iraq 2010 Baghdad church attack Iraq Stock Exchange Guide Official Iraq Stock Exchange homepage IraqiXchange – Iraqi Market Research
Douglas M. Parker is a playwright best known for biographical and reality-based plays, his works include BESSIE: The Life and Music of Bessie Smith, a play with music about the rise and fall of the great American blues singer. Parker's works have appeared in theaters across the country. Working as librettist and lyricist, Parker adapted his play Life on the Mississippi into a musical with composer Denver Casado. In October 2008, Life on the Mississippi was named by the National Alliance for Musical Theatre as one of their Five Shows You Should Know. In January 2009, Goodspeed Opera House presented the musical as one of three shows in their Festival of New Artists. In January 2010, a shorter, young audience version of Life on the Mississippi premiered at the Coterie Theatre in Kansas City to positive reviews. In June 2010, the full-length version premiered with a ten-week run at American Folklore Theatre in Wisconsin, where it received strong reviews; the show has since received additional productions nationwide.
In July 2012, Parker's play Thicker Than Water won second prize at Barter Theatre's Appalachian Festival of Plays and Playwrights. In September 2013, Thicker Than Water received a full production, with a scheduled run of six weeks, garnering favorable reviews. In October 2013, Thicker Than Water was selected as an official entrant for the 2014 Pulitzer Prize in Drama, although it did not win. In August 2014, Parker's first book, Contemporary Monologues for Young Actors was published by theatrical publishing house Beat By Beat Press, his second book, Fantasy Monologues for Young Actors was published by theatrical publishing house Beat By Beat Press in September 2015. His third book, Contemporary Scenes for Young Actors, was published by theatrical publishing house Beat By Beat Press and was released in August 2016. Parker's works have been produced in theaters across the country, have received multiple NEA production grants, he is a graduate of Brown University, an alumnus of the BMI Lehman Engel Musical Theater Workshop, a member of ASCAP and the Dramatists Guild of America
Open Market was an ecommerce software startup, founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts in early 1994. It went public in 1996 on the Nasdaq exchange under the symbol OMKT as one of the first ecommerce IPOs; the stock more than doubled on its first day of trading, ending with a $1.2 billion market capitalization. It relocated to Burlington, Massachusetts in early 1998. In 1999, Open Market acquired Future Tense, founded in 1995, to combine its ecommerce software with Future Tense's content management system. Open Market was acquired by Divine in 2001 for about $59 million. Divine filed for bankruptcy in early 2003. In the same year, Soverain Software acquired Open Market's ecommerce assets, including the TRANSACT product. FatWire Software acquired Open Market's content management business from the Divine bankruptcy. FatWire has extended the Open Market software and services Open Market's original content management customer base. FatWire was acquired in 2011 by Oracle, OpenMarket's content Management is now branded as Oracle WebCenter Sites.
Open Market developed a number of software products, including: Open Market Web Server: One of the first commercially available Web servers, the first commercial product with a scalable threading architecture. The Secure Web Server variant added support for Secure HTTP and SSL. Transact: Open Market's eCommerce product. Notable for the use of cryptography to support digital offers and digital receipts with useful properties for eCommerce applications OM Express: An early offline web browser OM Axcess. A centralized access management tool for websites OM e-Business Suite: The WCM Software acquired from FutureTense and extendedOpen Market invented FastCGI, a high-performance variant of the CGI interface. FastCGI was first implemented in Open Market's Web server products, but versions have since been developed for many other Web servers. OpenMarket owned patents for the shopping cart filed in 1994, session identifiers filed in 1998, credit card payements over the internet filed in 1998
Kui Buri is a district in the northern part of Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, central Thailand. Mueang Kui was an ancient city of the Ayutthaya Kingdom. In the reign of King Boromakot, Kui was fourth-class city. In the Rattanakosin era, King Rama II established a Mueang Bang Nang Rom, which had its city hall in Kui Buri. King Mongkut renamed Mueang Bang Nang Rom "Prachuap Khiri Khan", with the same city hall; when King Chulalongkorn created Monthon Phetchaburi, Kui Buri was included. In 1898 the city hall was moved to Ko Lak bay and Kui Buri was downgraded to a subdistrict of Mueang Prachuap Khiri Khan District; the minor district of Kui Buri was re-established on 19 July 1960 and upgraded to a full district on 16 July 1963. The British diplomat John Crawfurd visited the area in 1822 during the mission described in his book Journal of an embassy from the Governor-General of India to the courts of Siam and Cochin-China: exhibiting a view of the actual state of those kingdoms, he reported the name of the town as "Kwi".
Neighboring districts are Mueang Prachuap Khiri Khan to the south. To the west is the Tanintharyi Division of Myanmar, to the east the Gulf of Thailand; the main river of the district is the Khlong Kui. The district is divided into six sub-districts. There are two townships in the district. Kui Buri covers parts of tambons Kui Buri and Kui Nuea, Rai Mai covers parts of tambon Sam Krathai; the missing number five belongs to tambon Rai Mai, reassigned to Sak Roi Yot District