Mate known as chimarrão or cimarrón, is a traditional South American caffeine-rich infused drink, first consumed by the Guaraní and spread by the Tupí people. In the last centuries, it became popular in Argentina and Uruguay, as in Paraguay, the Bolivian Chaco, Southern Chile and Southern Brazil, it is consumed in Syria, the largest importer in the world, in Lebanon. It is prepared by steeping dried leaves of yerba mate in hot water and is served with a metal straw from a shared hollow calabash gourd; the straw is called a bombilla in Spanish, a bomba in Portuguese, a bombija or, more a masassa in Arabic. The straw is traditionally made of silver. Modern, commercially available straws are made of nickel silver, stainless steel, or hollow-stemmed cane; the gourd is known as a guampa. If the water is supplied from a modern thermos, the infusion is traditionally drunk from mates or cuias; the mate leaves are dried and ground into a powdery mixture called yerba, "erva" in Portuguese, which means "herb".
The bombilla functions as both a straw and a sieve. The submerged end is flared, with small holes or slots that allow the brewed liquid in, but block the chunky matter that makes up much of the mixture. A modern bombilla design uses a straight tube with holes, or a spring sleeve to act as a sieve."Tea-bag" type infusions of mate have been on the market in many South American countries for many years under such trade names as "Taragüi" in Argentina, "Pajarito" and "Kurupí" in Paraguay, Matte Leão and "Mate Real" in Brazil. Mate was first consumed by the indigenous Guaraní and spread by the Tupí people who lived in that part of southern Brazil and northeast Argentina, including some areas that were Paraguayan territory before the Paraguayan War. Therefore, the scientific name of the yerba mate is Ilex paraguariensis; the consumption of yerba mate became widespread with the European colonization in the Spanish colony of Paraguay in the late 16th century, among both Spanish settlers and indigenous Guaraní, who consumed it before the Spanish arrival.
Mate consumption spread in the 17th century from there to Chile. This widespread consumption turned it into Paraguay's main commodity above other wares such as tobacco and beef. Aboriginal labour was used to harvest wild stands. In the mid-17th century, Jesuits managed to domesticate the plant and establish plantations in their Indian reductions in the Paraguayan department of Misiones, sparking severe competition with the Paraguayan harvesters of wild strands. After their expulsion in the 1770s, the Jesuit missions — along with the yerba mate plantations — fell into ruins; the industry continued to be of prime importance for the Paraguayan economy after independence, but development in benefit of the Paraguayan state halted after the Paraguayan War that devastated the country both economically and demographically. Brazil became the largest producer of mate. In Brazilian and Argentine projects in late 19th and early 20th centuries, the plant was domesticated once again, opening the way for plantation systems.
When Brazilian entrepreneurs turned their attention to coffee in the 1930s, which had long been the prime consumer, took over as the largest producer, resurrecting the economy of Misiones Province, where the Jesuits had once had most of their plantations. For years, the status of largest producer shifted between Argentina. Today, Argentina is the largest producer with 56–62%, followed by Brazil, 34–36%, Paraguay, 5%. Uruguay is the largest consumer per capita, consuming around 19 liters per year. Both the spellings "mate" and "maté" are used in English. An acute accent is not used in the Spanish spelling, because it would incorrectly indicate that the second syllable is stressed; as the Yerba Mate Association of the Americas points out, with the accent the word "maté" in Spanish means "I killed". In Brazil, traditionally prepared mate is known as chimarrão, although the word mate and the expression "mate amargo" are used in Argentina and Uruguay; the Spanish cimarrón means "rough", "brute", or "barbarian", but is most understood to mean "feral", is used in all of Latin America for domesticated animals that have become wild.
The word was used by the people who colonized the region of the Río de la Plata to describe the natives' rough and sour drink, drunk with no other ingredient to soften the taste. Mate has a strong cultural significance both well as socially. Mate is the national drink of Argentina. Drinking mate is a common social practice in parts of Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and eastern Bolivia. Throughout the Southern Cone, it is considered to be a tradition taken from the gauchos or vaqueros, terms used to describe the old residents of the South American pampas, chacos, or Patagonian grasslands, found principally in parts of Argentina, Uruguay, southeastern Bolivia, southern Chile and southern Brazil. Parque Histórico do Mate, fund
A drink is a liquid intended for human consumption. In addition to their basic function of satisfying thirst, drinks play important roles in human culture. Common types of drinks include plain drinking water, coffee, hot chocolate and soft drinks. In addition, alcoholic drinks such as wine and liquor, which contain the drug ethanol, have been part of human culture for more than 8,000 years. Non-alcoholic drinks signify drinks that would contain alcohol, such as beer and wine, but are made with less than.5 percent alcohol by volume. The category includes drinks that have undergone an alcohol removal process such as non-alcoholic beers and de-alcoholized wines; when the human body becomes dehydrated, it experiences thirst. This craving of fluids results in an instinctive need to drink. Thirst is regulated by the hypothalamus in response to subtle changes in the body's electrolyte levels, as a result of changes in the volume of blood circulating; the complete elimination of drinks, that is, from the body will result in death faster than the removal of any other substance.
Water and milk have been basic drinks throughout history. As water is essential for life, it has been the carrier of many diseases; as society developed, new techniques were discovered to create the drinks from the plants that were available in different areas. The earliest archaeological evidence of wine production yet found has been at sites in Georgia and Iran. Beer may have been known in Neolithic Europe as far back as 3000 BCE, was brewed on a domestic scale; the invention of beer has been argued to be responsible for humanity's ability to develop technology and build civilization. Tea originated in Yunnan, China during the Shang Dynasty as a medicinal drink. Drinking has been a large part of socialising throughout the centuries. In Ancient Greece, a social gathering for the purpose of drinking was known as a symposium, where watered down wine would be drunk; the purpose of these gatherings could be anything from serious discussions to direct indulgence. In Ancient Rome, a similar concept of a convivium took place regularly.
Many early societies considered alcohol a gift from the gods, leading to the creation of gods such as Dionysus. Other religions forbid, discourage, or restrict the drinking of alcoholic drinks for various reasons. In some regions with a dominant religion the production and consumption of alcoholic drinks is forbidden to everybody, regardless of religion. Toasting is a method of wishing good will by taking a drink. Another tradition is that of the loving cup, at weddings or other celebrations such as sports victories a group will share a drink in a large receptacle, shared by everyone until empty. In East Africa and Yemen, coffee was used in native religious ceremonies; as these ceremonies conflicted with the beliefs of the Christian church, the Ethiopian Church banned the secular consumption of coffee until the reign of Emperor Menelik II. The drink was banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe. A drink is a form of liquid, prepared for human consumption.
The preparation can include a number of different steps, some prior to transport, others prior to consumption. Water is the chief constituent in all drinks, the primary ingredient in most. Water is purified prior to drinking. Methods for purification include the addition of chemicals, such as chlorination; the importance of purified water is highlighted by the World Health Organization, who point out 94% of deaths from diarrhea – the third biggest cause of infectious death worldwide at 1.8 million annually – could be prevented by improving the quality of the victim's environment safe water. Pasteurisation is the process of heating a liquid for a period of time at a specified temperature immediately cooling; the process reduces the growth of micro-organisms within the liquid, thereby increasing the time before spoilage. It is used on milk, which prior to pasteurisation is infected with pathogenic bacteria and therefore is more than any other part of the common diet in the developed world to cause illness.
The process of extracting juice from fruits and vegetables can take a number of forms. Simple crushing of most fruits will provide a significant amount of liquid, though a more intense pressure can be applied to get the maximum amount of juice from the fruit. Both crushing and pressing are processes used in the production of wine. Infusion is the process of extracting flavours from plant material by allowing the material to remain suspended within water; this process can be used to prepare coffee. The name is derived from the word "percolate" which means to cause to pass through a permeable substance for extracting a soluble constituent. In the case of coffee-brewing the solvent is water, the permeable substance is the coffee grounds, the soluble constituents are the chemical compounds that give coffee its color, taste and stimulating properties. Carbonation is the process such as water. Fermentation is a metabolic process. Fermentation has been used by humans for the production of drinks since the Neolithic age.
In winemaking, grape juice is combined with yeast in an anaerobic environment to allow the fermentation. The amount of sugar in the wine and the length of time given for fermentation determine the alcohol level and the sweetness of the wine; when brewing beer, there are four primary ingre
The moka pot is a stove-top or electric coffee maker that brews coffee by passing boiling water pressurized by steam through ground coffee. Named after the Yemenite city of Mocha, it was invented by an Italian engineer named Alfonso Bialetti in 1933. Bialetti Industries continues to produce the same model under the name "Moka Express." Spreading from Italy, the moka pot is today most used in Europe and in Latin America. It has become an iconic design, displayed in modern industrial art and design museums such as the Wolfsonian-FIU, Museum of Modern Art, the Cooper–Hewitt, National Design Museum, the Design Museum, the London Science Museum. Moka pots come from one to eighteen 50 ml servings; the original design and many current models are made from aluminium with Bakelite handles. Moka pots are used over a flame or electric range and are traditionally made of aluminium, though they are sometimes made out of stainless steel or other alloys. "Brikka" is a modified moka pot manufactured by Bialetti.
It incorporates a weighted valve as a pressure regulator on top of the nozzle that allows pressure to build up inside the water tank in a manner similar to a pressure cooker. As pressure builds up more in this method compared to the standard moka pot, it reaches the level required for water to rise through the ground coffee in a shorter time. However, the weighted valve allows pressure to accumulate and temperature to rise somewhat further before the liquid bursts through the nozzle; the result is coffee brewed at a higher pressure and temperature than the standard pot, making it more similar to espresso and therefore with more visible crema. "Mukka Express" is a modified moka pot manufactured by Bialetti that allows milk to be frothed and mixed with the coffee during brewing. The name, "Mukka", is a pun on the Italian for mucca. Bialetti manufactures several stainless steel moka pots, e.g. Musa and Venus. Alessi is an Italian kitchenware manufacturer known for their moka pots. Cuisinox markets several models of moka pots in both aluminium and stainless steel.
The design-oriented Italian kitchenware manufacturer Serafino Zani is known for his moka pots: "Finlandia" designed by Tapio Wirkkala, "Mach" designed by Isao Hosoe and awarded with the Good Design Award 1993, "Thema" in stainess steel with titanium, "Genesis" in stainless steel and copper, both designed by Tarcisio Zani. Vev Viganò is an Italian manufacturer, their product lines include Kontessa, Itaca and Carioca. In 2004 they produced a caffettiera'UFO' designed by Vinod Gangotra, two espresso cups sit in recesses in the upper half of the machine and collects the coffee directly as it's brewed; the upper part is made from cast aluminium whilst the lower from stainless steel. Bellman makes a stainless steel moka pot, the "CX-25 Series", operating at higher pressure and capable of creating a crema, it has a wand to steam liquids, such as milk for cappuccino. The brand Volturno has been manufacturing moka pots in Argentina for many decades. Top Moka, another Italian manufacturer, offers two different styles of moka pots in a wide variety of colours.
The more traditional Top Moka pot comes in sizes varying from two- to six-shot boilers. They make mini moka pots in one- and two-shot sizes that use dispensing arcs rather than the standard collection chamber. Both are available with aluminium boilers for standard cooktops or titanium-alloy boilers for induction stoves. G. A. T. is an Italian company based in Brescia involved in the production of Italian moka coffee-makers since 1986. The range of coffee-makers that G. A. T. proposes is wide and complete, allowing one to choose among various products and prices, following the different market needs or personal liking. After the Second World War, the Italian moka expanded all over the South Europe and it became the standard way of domestically making coffee, its popularity led to non-Italian South European manufacturers making copies or new designs inspired in the original Italian design. Another part of the world the Italian moka reached. Most post-war Italian migrants used the moka pot in their homes which led to many Australians of non-Italian backgrounds to use the pot in their homes.
It is available in many of the Italian-style delis and supermarkets that exist in Australia. The boiler is filled with water up to the safety release valve and the funnel-shaped metal filter is inserted. Finely-ground coffee is added to the filter; the upper part is screwed onto the base. The pot is placed on a suitable heat source, the water is brought to its boiling point, thereby steam is created in the boiler. A gasket ensures a closed unit and allows for pressure to safely build up in the lower section, where a safety valve provides a necessary release in case this pressure should get too high; the steam reaches a high enough pressure to force the surrounding boiling water up the funnel through the coffee powder and into the upper chamber, where the coffee is collected. Although the "boiler" on a moka pot contains steam at elevated temperature and pressure, the water forced up through the grounds is no hotter than that used in other brewing methods – up to 90 °C, depending on the stage of extraction.
When the lower chamber is empty, bubbles of steam mix with the upst
Café au lait
Café au lait is coffee with hot milk added. It differs from white coffee, coffee with cold milk or other whitener added. In Europe, café au lait stems from the same continental tradition as café con leche in Spain, kawa biała in Poland, Milchkaffee in Germany, tejeskávé in Hungary, koffie verkeerd in the Netherlands and Flanders, café com leite in Portugal and Brazil. In the French-speaking areas of Switzerland, a popular variation is the café renversé, made by using the milk as a base and adding espresso, in reversal of the normal method of making a café au lait. In Andalusia, Southern Spain, a similar variation is called manchado. In northern Europe, café au lait is the name most used in coffee shops. At home, café au lait can be prepared from heated milk. Café au lait and caffè latte are used as contrasting terms, to indicate whether the beverage is served in the "French" or the "Italian" way, the former being in a white porcelain cup or bowl, the latter in a kitchen glass and always made from an espresso machine, whereas café au lait might be espresso- or dark coffee-based.
In many American coffeehouses, a café au lait is a drink of strong drip brewed or French pressed coffee, to which steamed milk is added. American café au lait is served in a cup, as with brewed coffee, being served in a bowl only at shops which wish to emphasize French tradition. Café au lait is a popular drink in New Orleans, available at coffee shops like Café du Monde and Morning Call Coffee Stand, where it is made with milk and coffee mixed with chicory, giving it a strong, bitter taste. Unlike the European café style, a New Orleans-style café au lait is made with scalded milk, rather than with steamed milk; the use of roasted chicory root as an extender in coffee became common in Louisiana during the American Civil War, when Union naval blockades cut off the Port of New Orleans, forcing citizens to stretch out the coffee supply. In New Orleans, café au lait is traditionally drunk while eating beignets dusted with powdered sugar, which offsets the bitterness of the chicory; the taste for coffee and chicory was developed by the French during their civil war.
Coffee was scarce during those times, they found that chicory added body and flavor to the brew. The Acadians from Nova Scotia brought this taste and many other french customs to Louisiana. Flat white List of coffee beverages Coffee portal
Masala chai is a flavoured tea beverage made by brewing black tea with a mixture of aromatic spices and herbs. Originating in the Indian subcontinent, the beverage has gained worldwide popularity, becoming a feature in many coffee and tea houses. Although traditionally prepared as a decoction of green cardamom pods, cinnamon sticks, ground cloves, ground ginger, black peppercorn together with black tea leaves, retail versions include tea bags for infusion, instant powdered mixtures, concentrates; the term "chai" originated from the Mandarin Chinese word for tea 茶 chá and the Hindustani word “chai.” In English, this spiced tea is referred to as masala chai or chai, though the term refers to tea in general in the original language. Numerous coffee houses use the term chai latte or chai tea latte for their version to indicate that the steamed milk, much like a regular caffè latte, is mixed with a spiced tea concentrate instead of espresso. By 1994, the term had gained currency on the U. S. coffeehouse scene.
Tea plants have grown wild in the Assam region since antiquity, but Indians viewed tea as an herbal medicine rather than as a recreational beverage. Some of the chai masala spice mixtures, or karha and Kashayam that are still in current use, are derived from ancient Ayurvedic texts. In the 1830s, the British East India Company became concerned about the Chinese monopoly on tea, which constituted most of its trade and supported the enormous consumption of tea in Great Britain around one pound per person per year. British colonists had noticed the existence of the Assamese tea plants, began to cultivate tea plantations locally. In 1870, over 90% of the tea consumed in Great Britain was still of Chinese origin, but by 1900, this had dropped to 10% replaced by tea grown in British India and British Ceylon, present-day Sri Lanka. However, consumption of black tea within India remained low until the promotional campaign by the Indian Tea Association in the early 20th century, which encouraged factories and textile mills to provide tea breaks for their workers.
It supported many independent chai wallahs throughout the growing railway system. The official promotion of tea was as served in the English mode, with small added amounts of milk and sugar; the Indian Tea Association disapproved of independent vendors' tendency to add spices and increase the proportions of milk and sugar, thus reducing their usage of tea leaves per liquid volume. However, masala chai in its present form has now established itself as a popular beverage; the recipe or preparation method for masala chai is not fixed, many families have their own versions of the tea. Most chai contains caffeine one-third that of coffee; the tea leaves steep in the hot water long enough to extract intense flavour, ideally without releasing the bitter tannins. Because of the large range of possible variations, masala chai can be considered a class of tea rather than a specific kind. However, all masala chai has four basic components: milk, sugar and ginger; the western adaption of chai, or chai latte, has a lighter and sweeter taste than the Indian version of a more herbal and spicier milk beverage.
The base tea is a strong black tea such as Assam, so the spices and sweeteners do not overpower it. A specific type of Assam is used called mamri. Mamri tea has been cured in a special way, it is inexpensive and the tea most used in India. However, a wide variety of teas is used to make chai. Most chai in India is brewed with strong black tea; the traditional masala chai is a spiced beverage brewed with different proportions of warming spices. The spice mixture, called karha, uses a base of ground ginger and green cardamom pods. Other spices are added to this karha. For example, some masala chai found on the street, in restaurants, or in homes may incorporate one or more of cinnamon, star anise, fennel seeds, peppercorn and cloves. In the Western world, using allspice, to either replace or complement the cinnamon and clove, is common. Traditionally and ginger play a dominant note, supplemented by other spices such as cloves, or black pepper; the traditional composition of spices differs by climate and region in Southern and Southwestern Asia.
For example, in Western India and black pepper are expressly avoided. The Kashmiri version of chai is brewed with green tea instead of black tea and has a more subtle blend of flavourings: almonds, cinnamon and sometimes saffron. In Bhopal a pinch of salt is added. Other possible ingredients include nutmeg, black cardamom, coriander, rose flavouring, or liquorice root. A small amount of cumin is preferred by some people. Traditionally in India, water buffalo milk is used to make chai. Outside of India, whole-fat cow's milk is used. Masala chai is made by mixing one part milk with two to four parts water and heating the liquid to near boiling; some people like to use sweetened condensed milk in their masala chai to double as the sweetener. For those who prefer to drink chai without milk, the portion is replaced with water. Plain white sugar, Demerara sugar, other brown sugars, palm or coconut sugars, syrup
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California. It is named after philosopher George Berkeley, it borders the cities of Oakland and Emeryville to the south and the city of Albany and the unincorporated community of Kensington to the north. Its eastern border with Contra Costa County follows the ridge of the Berkeley Hills; the 2010 census recorded a population of 112,580. Berkeley is home to the oldest campus in the University of California system, the University of California and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, managed and operated by the University, it has the Graduate Theological Union, one of the largest religious studies institutions in the world. Berkeley is considered one of the most liberal cities in the United States; the site of today's City of Berkeley was the territory of the Chochenyo/Huchiun band of the Ohlone people when the first Europeans arrived. Evidence of their existence in the area include pits in rock formations, which they used to grind acorns, a shellmound, now leveled and covered up, along the shoreline of San Francisco Bay at the mouth of Strawberry Creek.
Other artifacts were discovered in the 1950s in the downtown area during remodeling of a commercial building, near the upper course of the creek. The first people of European descent arrived with the De Anza Expedition in 1776. Today, this is noted by signage on Interstate 80, which runs along the San Francisco Bay shoreline of Berkeley; the De Anza Expedition led to establishment of the Spanish Presidio of San Francisco at the entrance to San Francisco Bay. Luis Peralta was among the soldiers at the Presidio. For his services to the King of Spain, he was granted a vast stretch of land on the east shore of San Francisco Bay for a ranch, including that portion that now comprises the City of Berkeley. Luis Peralta named his holding "Rancho San Antonio"; the primary activity of the ranch was raising cattle for meat and hides, but hunting and farming were pursued. Peralta gave portions of the ranch to each of his four sons. What is now Berkeley lies in the portion that went to Peralta's son Domingo, with a little in the portion that went to another son, Vicente.
No artifact survives of the Domingo or Vicente ranches, but their names survive in Berkeley street names. However, legal title to all land in the City of Berkeley remains based on the original Peralta land grant; the Peraltas' Rancho San Antonio continued after Alta California passed from Spanish to Mexican sovereignty after the Mexican War of Independence. However, the advent of U. S. sovereignty after the Mexican–American War, the Gold Rush, saw the Peraltas' lands encroached on by squatters and diminished by dubious legal proceedings. The lands of the brothers Domingo and Vicente were reduced to reservations close to their respective ranch homes; the rest of the land was parceled out to various American claimants. Politically, the area that became Berkeley was part of a vast Contra Costa County. On March 25, 1853, Alameda County was created from a division of Contra Costa County, as well as from a small portion of Santa Clara County; the area that became Berkeley was the northern part of the "Oakland Township" subdivision of Alameda County.
During this period, "Berkeley" was a mix of open land and ranches, with a small, though busy, wharf by the bay. In 1866, Oakland's private College of California looked for a new site, it settled on a location north of Oakland along the foot of the Contra Costa Range astride Strawberry Creek, at an elevation about 500 feet above the bay, commanding a view of the Bay Area and the Pacific Ocean through the Golden Gate. According to the Centennial Record of the University of California, "In 1866…at Founders' Rock, a group of College of California men watched two ships standing out to sea through the Golden Gate. One of them, Frederick Billings, thought of the lines of the Anglo-Irish Anglican Bishop George Berkeley,'westward the course of empire takes its way,' and suggested that the town and college site be named for the eighteenth-century Anglo-Irish philosopher." The philosopher's name is pronounced BARK-lee, but the city's name, to accommodate American English, is pronounced BERK-lee. The College of California's College Homestead Association planned to raise funds for the new campus by selling off adjacent parcels of land.
To this end, they laid out a plat and street grid that became the basis of Berkeley's modern street plan. Their plans fell far short of their desires, they began a collaboration with the State of California that culminated in 1868 with the creation of the public University of California; as construction began on the new site, more residences were constructed in the vicinity of the new campus. At the same time, a settlement of residences and various industries grew around the wharf area called "Ocean View". A horsecar ran from Temescal in Oakland to the university campus along; the first post office opened in 1872. By the 1870s, the Transcontinental Railroad reached its terminus in Oakland. In 1876, a branch line of the Central Pacific Railroad, the Berkeley Branch Railroad, was laid from a junction with the mainline called Shellmound into what is now downtown Berkeley; that same year, the mainline of the transcontinental railroad into Oakland was re-routed, putting the right-of-way along the bay shore through Ocean View.
There was a strong prohibition movement in Berkel
Latte art is a method of preparing coffee created by pouring microfoam into a shot of espresso and resulting in a pattern or design on the surface of the latte. It can be created or embellished by "drawing" in the top layer of foam. Latte art is difficult to create due to the demanding conditions required of both the espresso shot and milk. This, in turn, is limited by the experience of the quality of the espresso machine; the pour itself becomes the last challenge for the latte artist. The term is not reserved to latte coffee only, it applies for other beverages containing milk foam like cappuccino and hot chocolate. Latte art developed independently in different countries, following the introduction of espresso and the development of microfoam, the combination of crema and microfoam allowing the pattern. In the United States, latte art was developed in Seattle in the 1980s and 1990s, popularized by David Schomer. Schomer credits the development of microfoam to Jack Kelly of Uptown espresso in 1986, by 1989 the heart pattern was established and a signature at Schomer's Espresso Vivace.
The rosette pattern was developed by Schomer in 1992, recreating the technique based on a photograph he saw from Cafe Mateki in Italy. Schomer subsequently popularized latte art in his course "Caffe Latte Art". At the same time Luigi Lupi from Italy met Schomer on the internet and they exchanged videos they made on Latteart and Cappuccini Decorati. Luigi Lupi involved and growth up this art and invented the Tulip in Salonnico during an Exibition in the MUSETTI booth. Latte art is a mixture of two colloids: the crema, an emulsion of coffee oil and brewed coffee. Milk itself is an emulsion of butterfat in water, while coffee is a mixture of coffee solids in water. Neither of these colloids are stable – crema dissipates from espresso, while microfoam separates into drier foam and liquid milk – both degrading in a matter of seconds, thus latte art lasts only briefly. Latte art requires first producing espresso with crema and microfoam, combining these to make latte art. See microfoam: procedure for how microfoam is made.
Before the milk is added, the espresso shot must have a creamy brown surface, an emulsion known as crema. As the white foam from the milk rises to meet the red/brown surface of the shot, a contrast is created and the design emerges; as the milk is poured, the foam rises to the top. If the milk and espresso shot are "just right", the pitcher is moved during the pour, the foam will rise to create a pattern on the surface. Alternatively, a pattern may be etched with a stick after the milk has been poured, rather than during the pour; some controversy exists within the coffee community as to whether or not there is excessive focus on latte art amongst baristas. The argument is that too much focus on the superficial appearance of a drink leads some to ignore more important issues, such as taste; this is relevant with new baristas. There are two main types of latte art: free etching. Free pouring is far more common in American cafés, requires little additional time in preparing a drink; the two most common forms of poured latte art are a heart shape and the "rosetta" or "rosette" known as "fern" which resembles a type of flower or fern.
Of these, hearts are simpler and more common in macchiatos, while rosettes are more complex and more common in lattes. For free pouring, the cup is either tilted in one direction; as the milk is poured straight into the cup, the foam begins to surface on one side. The barista moves the pitcher from side to side as they level the cup, or wiggle the spout back and forth, finishes by making a quick strike through the poured pattern; this "strike" creates the stem portion of the flower design, bends the poured zig-zag into a flower shape. A more direct pour and less wiggling yields a heart shape, minor variation yields an apple shape. More complex patterns are possible, some requiring multiple pours; some examples of advanced latte art techniques are that of the tulip, wave heart, swan, or a scorpion. Etched patterns range from simple geometric shapes to complicated drawings, such as crosshatching, images of animals and flowers, are performed with a coffee stirrer of some sort. Etched latte art has a shorter lifespan than free poured latte art as the foam dissolves into the latte more quickly.
A crude but quick method with cappuccino is to pour chocolate powder through a metal cutout in which an image a flower, has been incised. This is favoured by chain coffee shops like Costa where speed is of the essence when serving large numbers of clients during peak times. Latte art is made by adding microfoam to espresso. Similar patterns, though much fainter, can be achieved by adding microfoam to brewed coffee, as in a café au lait or tea. Alternatively, patterns can be etched in the crema of an espresso, without adding any milk, in order to yield espresso art. Oregon Art Beat: Barista Art