The Eiffel Tower is a wrought-iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is built the tower. Constructed from 1887 to 1889 as the entrance to the 1889 World's Fair, it was criticised by some of France's leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but it has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world; the Eiffel Tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world. The tower is 324 metres tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building, the tallest structure in Paris, its base is square. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was finished in 1930. Due to the addition of a broadcasting aerial at the top of the tower in 1957, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building by 5.2 metres. Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower is the second tallest free-standing structure in France after the Millau Viaduct.
The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the second levels. The top level's upper platform is 276 m above the ground – the highest observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be purchased to lift to the first and second levels; the climb from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second. Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is accessible only by lift; the design of the Eiffel Tower is attributed to Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier, two senior engineers working for the Compagnie des Établissements Eiffel. It was envisioned after discussion about a suitable centrepiece for the proposed 1889 Exposition Universelle, a world's fair to celebrate the centennial of the French Revolution. Eiffel acknowledged that inspiration for a tower came from the Latting Observatory built in New York City in 1853. In May 1884, working at home, Koechlin made a sketch of their idea, described by him as "a great pylon, consisting of four lattice girders standing apart at the base and coming together at the top, joined together by metal trusses at regular intervals".
Eiffel showed little enthusiasm, but he did approve further study, the two engineers asked Stephen Sauvestre, the head of company's architectural department, to contribute to the design. Sauvestre added decorative arches to the base of the tower, a glass pavilion to the first level, other embellishments; the new version gained Eiffel's support: he bought the rights to the patent on the design which Koechlin and Sauvestre had taken out, the design was exhibited at the Exhibition of Decorative Arts in the autumn of 1884 under the company name. On 30 March 1885, Eiffel presented his plans to the Société des Ingénieurs Civils. Little progress was made until 1886, when Jules Grévy was re-elected as president of France and Édouard Lockroy was appointed as minister for trade. A budget for the exposition was passed and, on 1 May, Lockroy announced an alteration to the terms of the open competition being held for a centrepiece to the exposition, which made the selection of Eiffel's design a foregone conclusion, as entries had to include a study for a 300 m four-sided metal tower on the Champ de Mars..
On 12 May, a commission was set up to examine Eiffel's scheme and its rivals, which, a month decided that all the proposals except Eiffel's were either impractical or lacking in details. After some debate about the exact location of the tower, a contract was signed on 8 January 1887; this was signed by Eiffel acting in his own capacity rather than as the representative of his company, granted him 1.5 million francs toward the construction costs: less than a quarter of the estimated 6.5 million francs. Eiffel was to receive all income from the commercial exploitation of the tower during the exhibition and for the next 20 years, he established a separate company to manage the tower, putting up half the necessary capital himself. The proposed tower had been a subject of controversy, drawing criticism from those who did not believe it was feasible and those who objected on artistic grounds; these objections were an expression of a long-standing debate in France about the relationship between architecture and engineering.
It came to a head as work began at the Champ de Mars: a "Committee of Three Hundred" was formed, led by the prominent architect Charles Garnier and including some of the most important figures of the arts, such as Adolphe Bouguereau, Guy de Maupassant, Charles Gounod and Jules Massenet. A petition called "Artists against the Eiffel Tower" was sent to the Minister of Works and Commissioner for the Exposition, Charles Alphand, it was published by Le Temps on 14 February 1887: We, painters, sculptors and passionate devotees of the hitherto untouched beauty of Paris, protest with all our strength, with all our indignation in the name
A pergola is an outdoor garden feature forming a shaded walkway, passageway, or sitting area of vertical posts or pillars that support cross-beams and a sturdy open lattice upon which woody vines are trained. The origin of the word is the Late Latin pergula; as a type of gazebo, it may be an extension of a building or serve as protection for an open terrace or a link between pavilions. They are different from green tunnels, with a green tunnel being a type of road under a canopy of trees. Pergolas are sometimes confused with arbours, the terms are used interchangeably. An arbour is regarded as a wooden bench seat with a roof enclosed by lattice panels forming a framework for climbing plants. A pergola, on the other hand, is a much larger and more open structure and does not include integral seating. A pergola is a garden feature forming a shaded walkway, passageway, or sitting area of vertical posts or pillars that support cross-beams and a sturdy open lattice upon which woody vines are trained.
As a type of gazebo, it may be an extension of a building or serve as protection for an open terrace or a link between pavilions. Pergolas may link pavilions or extend from a building's door to an open garden feature such as an isolated terrace or pool. Freestanding pergolas, those not attached to a home or other structure, provide a sitting area that allows for breeze and light sun, but offer protection from the harsh glare of direct sunlight. Pergolas give climbing plants a structure on which to grow. Pergolas are more permanent architectural features than the green tunnels of late medieval and early Renaissance gardens, which were formed of springy withies—easily replaced shoots of willow or hazel—bound together at the heads to form a series of arches loosely woven with long slats on which climbers were grown, to make a passage, both cool and shaded and moderately dry in a shower. At the Medici villa, La Petraia and outer curving segments of such green walks, the forerunners of pergolas, give structure to the pattern, which can be viewed from the long terrace above it..
The origin of the word is the Late Latin pergula. The English term was borrowed from Italian, it was mentioned in an Italian context in 1645 by John Evelyn at the cloister of Trinità dei Monti in Rome He used the term in an English context in 1654 when, in the company of the fifth Earl of Pembroke, Evelyn watched the coursing of hares from a "pergola" built on the downs near Salisbury for that purpose. The artificial nature of the pergola made it fall from favor in the naturalistic gardening styles of the 18th and 19th centuries, yet handsome pergolas on brick and stone pillars with powerful cross-beams were a feature of the gardens designed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Gertrude Jekyll and epitomize their trademark of firm structure luxuriantly planted. A extensive pergola features at the gardens of The Hill, designed by Thomas Mawson for his client W. H. Lever. Modern pergola design material including wood, fiberglass and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride rather than brick or stone pillars, are more affordable and are increasing in popularity.
Wooden pergolas are either made from a weather-resistant wood, such as western redcedar or of coast redwood, are painted or stained, or use wood treated with preservatives for outdoor use. For a low maintenance alternative to wood, fiberglass, aluminum and CPVC can be used; these materials do not require yearly paint or stain like a wooden pergola and their manufacture can make them stronger and longer-lasting than a wooden pergola. Breezeway Brise soleil Latticework Patio Trellis Vine training systems Media related to Pergolas at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of pergola at Wiktionary
In architecture and decorative art, ornament is a decoration used to embellish parts of a building or object. Large figurative elements such as monumental sculpture and their equivalents in decorative art are excluded from the term. Architectural ornament can be carved from stone, wood or precious metals, formed with plaster or clay, or painted or impressed onto a surface as applied ornament. A wide variety of decorative styles and motifs have been developed for architecture and the applied arts, including pottery, metalwork. In textiles and other objects where the decoration may be the main justification for its existence, the terms pattern or design are more to be used; the vast range of motifs used in ornament draw from geometrical shapes and patterns and human and animal figures. Across Eurasia and the Mediterranean world there has been a rich and linked tradition of plant-based ornament for over three thousand years. In a 1941 essay, the architectural historian Sir John Summerson called it "surface modulation".
The earliest decoration and ornament survives from prehistoric cultures in simple markings on pottery, where decoration in other materials has been lost. Where the potter's wheel was used, the technology made some kinds of decoration easy. Ornament has been evident in civilizations since the beginning of recorded history, ranging from Ancient Egyptian architecture to the assertive lack of ornament of 20th century Modernist architecture. Ornament implies that the ornamented object has a function that an unornamented equivalent might fulfill. Where the object has no such function, but exists only to be a work of art such as a sculpture or painting, the term is less to be used, except for peripheral elements. In recent centuries a distinction between the fine arts and applied or decorative arts has been applied, with ornament seen as a feature of the latter class; the history of art in many cultures shows a series of wave-like trends where the level of ornament used increases over a period, before a sharp reaction returns to plainer forms, after which ornamentation increases again.
The pattern is clear in post-Roman European art, where the ornamented Insular art of the Book of Kells and other manuscripts influenced continental Europe, but the classically inspired Carolingian and Ottonian art replaced it. Ornament increased over the Romanesque and Gothic periods, but was reduced in Early Renaissance styles, again under classical influence. Another period of increase, in Northern Mannerism, the Baroque and Rococo, was checked by Neoclassicism and the Romantic period, before resuming in the 19th century Victorian decorative arts and their continental equivalents, to be decisively reduced by the Arts and Crafts movement and Modernism; the detailed study of Eurasian ornamental forms was begun by Alois Riegl in his formalist study Stilfragen: Grundlegungen zu einer Geschichte der Ornamentik of 1893, who in the process developed his influential concept of the Kunstwollen. Riegl traced formalistic continuity and development in decorative plant forms from Ancient Egyptian art and other ancient Near Eastern civilizations through the classical world to the arabesque of Islamic art.
While the concept of the Kunstwollen has few followers today, his basic analysis of the development of forms has been confirmed and refined by the wider corpus of examples known today. Jessica Rawson has extended the analysis to cover Chinese art, which Riegl did not cover, tracing many elements of Chinese decoration back to the same tradition. Styles of ornamentation can be studied in reference to the specific culture which developed unique forms of decoration, or modified ornament from other cultures; the Ancient Egyptian culture is arguably the first civilization to add pure decoration to their buildings. Their ornament takes the forms of the natural world in that climate, decorating the capitals of columns and walls with images of papyrus and palm trees. Assyrian culture produced ornament which shows influence from Egyptian sources and a number of original themes, including figures of plants and animals of the region. Ancient Greek civilization created many new forms of ornament, with regional variations from Doric and Corinthian groups.
The Romans adapted the forms to every purpose. A few medieval notebooks survive, most famously that of Villard de Honnecourt showing how artists and craftsmen recorded designs they saw for future use. With the arrival of the print ornament prints became an important part of the output of printmakers in Germany, played a vital role in the rapid diffusion of new Renaissance styles to makers of all sorts of object; as well as revived classical ornament, both architectural and the grotesque style derived from Roman interior decoration, these included new styles such as the moresque, a European adaptation of the Islamic arabesque. As printing became cheaper, the single ornament print turned into sets, th
Brise soleil, sometimes brise-soleil, is an architectural feature of a building that reduces heat gain within that building by deflecting sunlight. Brise-soleils can comprise a variety of permanent sun-shading structures, ranging from the simple patterned concrete walls popularized by Le Corbusier in the Palace of Assembly to the elaborate wing-like mechanism devised by Santiago Calatrava for the Milwaukee Art Museum or the mechanical, pattern-creating devices of the Institut du Monde Arabe by Jean Nouvel. In the typical form, a horizontal projection extends from the sunside facade of a building; this is most used to prevent facades with a large amount of glass from overheating during the summer. Louvers are incorporated into the shade to prevent the high-angle summer sun falling on the facade, but to allow the low-angle winter sun to provide some passive solar heating. Awning Green building List of low-energy building techniques Mashrabiya Pergola Sudare Brise soleil at the Milwaukee Art Museum British-Yemini Society Influence of climate on window design AD Classics: AD Classics: Palace of the Assembly / Le Corbusier
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
A mashrabiya either shanshūl or rūshān, is an architectural element, characteristic of Arabic residences. It is a type of projecting oriel window enclosed with carved wood latticework located on the second story of a building or higher lined with stained glass; the mashrabiya is an element of traditional Arabic architecture used since the Middle Ages up to the mid-20th century. It is most used on the street side of the building; the style may be informally known as a "harem window" in English. Mashrabiya is derived from the triliteral root Š-R-B, which denotes drinking or absorbing. There are two theories for its name: The more common theory is that the term was derived from the Arabic word, sharaba because the space was used for a small wooden shelf where the drinking water pots were stored; the shelf was located at the window in order to keep the water cool. On, this shelf evolved until it became part of the room with a full enclosure and retained the name despite the radical change in use; the less common theory is that the name was mashrafiya, derived from the verb shrafa, meaning to overlook or to observe.
During the centuries, the name changed because of sound change and the influence of other languages. In some parts of the Arab world, a mashrabiya may be known as rūshān or a shanasheel; the date of their origin is unknown. The mashrabiya that remain in Arabic cities were built during the late 19th century and early-to-mid-20th century, but some mashrabiyas are three to four hundred years old. An extant example of an ancient residence incorporating mashrabiya is the Bayt al-Razzaz - a two-storey mansion dating to the Mamluk period in Cairo. In Iraq during the 1920s and 1930s, the designs of the latticework were influenced by the Art Deco and Art Nouveau movements of the time. Mashrabiyas, along with other distinct features of Arabic architecture, were being demolished as part of a modernisation program across the Arab world from the first decades of the 20th-century. In Baghdad, members of the arts community feared that vernacular architecture would be lost permanently and took steps to preserve them.
The architect, Rifat Chadirji and his father, photographed structures and monuments across Iraq and the Saudi region, published a book photographs. The artist and educator, Lorna Selim, sketched these buildings with their decorative mashrabiya, took her students at Baghdad's Institute of Architecture into Baghdad's alley-ways and river-fronts to sketch vernacular structures in order to appreciate their importance; such initiatives have contributed to a renewed interest in traditional practices as a means of building sustainable residences in harsh climatic conditions. Traditionally, houses are built of a combination. Wooden houses are not popular and hardly found. Building heights in urban setting range from two to five floors with the mashrabiyas on the second level and above; the roofs are built using wooden or steel beams with the areas between filled with brick in a semi vault style. These beams were extended over the street; the upper floor is enclosed with latticework and roofed with wood.
The projection does not bear the weight of traditional building materials. There are different types of mashrabiyas, the latticework designs differ from region to region. Most mashrabiyas are closed where the latticework is lined with stained glass and part of the mashrabiya is designed to be opened like a window sliding windows to save space; some mashrabiyas are open and not lined with glass. Sometimes the woodwork is reduced making the mashrabiya resemble a regular roofed balcony. Mashrabiyas were used in houses and palaces although sometimes in public buildings such as hospitals, inns and government buildings, they tend to be associated with houses of the urban elite classes. They are found in the Mashriq – i.e. the eastern part of the Arab world, but some types of similar windows are found in the Maghreb. They are prevalent in Iraq, the Levant and Egypt. In Basra, where they are prevalent, they are known as shanasheel to the extent that Basra is called "the city of Shanashil." Some 400 traditional buildings are still standing in Basra.
In Malta Mashrabiyas are quite common in dense urban areas. They are made from wood and include glass windows, but there are variations made from stone or aluminium, they could originate from around the tenth century during the Arab occupation of the islands, but the modern word for it in the Maltese language is "gallarija", of Italic origin. Recognised as being the predecessors of the iconic closed balcony, or "gallarija", in 2016 Maltese authorities scheduled a total of 36 ancient mashrabiyas as Grade 2 protected properties. One of the major purposes of the mashrabiya is an essential aspect of Arabic culture. From the mashrabiya window, occupants c
A mesh is a barrier made of connected strands of metal, fiber, or other flexible or ductile materials. A mesh is similar to a net in that it has many attached or woven strands. A plastic mesh may be extruded, expanded, woven or tubular, it can be made from polypropylene, nylon, PVC or PTFE. A metal mesh may be woven, welded, photo-chemically etched or electroformed from steel or other metals. In clothing, mesh is loosely woven or knitted fabric that has a large number of spaced holes. Knitted mesh is used for modern sports jerseys and other clothing. A mesh skin graft is a skin patch, cut systematically to create a mesh. Meshing of skin grafts provides coverage of a greater surface area at the recipient site, allows for the egress of serous or sanguinous fluid. However, it results in a rather pebbled appearance upon healing that may look less aesthetically pleasing. Fiberglass mesh is a neatly woven, crisscross pattern of fiberglass thread that can be used to create new products such as door screens, filtration components, reinforced adhesive tapes.
It is sprayed with a PVC coating to make it stronger, last longer, to prevent skin irritation. Coiled wire fabric is a type of mesh, constructed by interlocking metal wire coils via a simple corkscrew method; the resulting spirals are woven together to create a flexible metal fabric panel. Coiled wire fabric mesh is a product, used by architects to design commercial and residential structures, it is used in industrial settings to protect personnel and contain debris. Additionally, coiled wire fabric mesh is used for zoo enclosures aviary and small mammal exhibits. Meshes are used to screen out insects. Wire screens on windows and mosquito netting are meshes. Wire screens can be used to shield against radio frequency radiation, e.g. in microwave ovens and Faraday cages. Metal and nylon wire mesh filters are used in filtration. Wire mesh is used in guarding as protection in the form of vandal screens. Wire mesh can be fabricated to produce park benches, waste baskets and other baskets for material handling.
Woven meshes are basic to screen printing. Surgical mesh is used to provide a reinforcing structure in surgical procedures like inguinal hernioplasty, umbilical hernia repair. Meshes are used as drum heads in practice and electronic drum sets. Fence for livestock or poultry Humane animal trapping uses woven or welded wire mesh cages to trap wild animals like raccoons and skunks in populated areas. Meshes can be used for eyes in masks. Expanded metal Faraday cage Gauze Wire gauze Heating mantle Latticework Mesh Polygon mesh Sieve