Laudanum is a tincture of opium containing 10% powdered opium by weight. Reddish-brown and bitter, laudanum contains all of the opium alkaloids, including morphine and codeine. Laudanum was used to treat a variety of conditions, but its principal use was as a pain medication and cough suppressant; until the early 20th century, laudanum was sold without a prescription and was a constituent of many patent medicines. Today, laudanum is recognized as addictive and is regulated and controlled as such throughout most of the world; the United States Uniform Controlled Substances Act, for one example, lists it on Schedule II. Laudanum is known as a "whole opium" preparation since it contained all the opium alkaloids. Today, the drug is processed to remove all or most of the noscapine present as this is a strong emetic and does not add appreciably to the analgesic or antipropulsive properties of opium. Laudanum remains available by prescription in the United States and theoretically in the United Kingdom, although today the drug's therapeutic indications are confined to controlling diarrhea, alleviating pain, easing withdrawal symptoms in infants born to mothers addicted to heroin or other opioids.

Recent enforcement action by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration against manufacturers of paregoric and opium tincture suggests that opium tincture's availability in the U. S. may be in jeopardy. The terms laudanum and tincture of opium are interchangeable, but in contemporary medical practice the latter is used exclusively. Paracelsus, a 16th-century Swiss-German alchemist, experimented with various opium concoctions, recommended opium for reducing pain. One of his preparations, a pill which he extolled as his "archanum" or "laudanum", may have contained opium. Paracelsus' laudanum was strikingly different from the standard laudanum of the 17th century and beyond, containing crushed pearls, musk and other substances. One researcher has documented that "Laudanum, as listed in the London Pharmacopoeia, was a pill made from opium, castor, ambergris and nutmeg". Laudanum remained unknown until the 1660s when English physician Thomas Sydenham compounded a proprietary opium tincture that he named laudanum, although it differed from the laudanum of Paracelsus.

In 1676 Sydenham published a seminal work, Medical Observations Concerning the History and Cure of Acute Diseases, in which he promoted his brand of opium tincture, advocated its use for a range of medical conditions. By the 18th century, the medicinal properties of opium and laudanum were well known, the term "laudanum" came to refer to any combination of opium and alcohol. Several physicians, including John Jones, John Brown, George Young, the latter of whom published a comprehensive medical text entitled Treatise on Opium, extolled the virtues of laudanum and recommended the drug for every ailment. "Opium, after 1820, was mixed with everything imaginable: mercury, cayenne pepper, chloroform, whiskey and brandy." As one researcher has noted: "To understand the popularity of a medicine that eased—even if only temporarily—coughing and pain, one only has to consider the living conditions at the time". In the 1850s, "cholera and dysentery ripped through communities, its victims dying from debilitating diarrhoea", dropsy, consumption and rheumatism were all too common.

By the 19th century, laudanum was used in many patent medicines to "relieve pain... to produce sleep... to allay irritation... to check excessive secretions... to support the system... as a soporific". The limited pharmacopoeia of the day meant that opium derivatives were among the most effective of available treatments, so laudanum was prescribed for ailments from colds to meningitis to cardiac diseases, in both adults and children. Laudanum was used during the yellow fever epidemic. Innumerable Victorian women were prescribed the drug for relief of vague aches. Nurses spoon-fed laudanum to infants; the Romantic and Victorian eras were marked by the widespread use of laudanum in Europe and the United States. Mary Todd Lincoln, for example, the wife of the US president Abraham Lincoln, was a laudanum addict, as was the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge, famously interrupted in the middle of an opium-induced writing session of Kubla Khan by a "person from Porlock". A working class drug, laudanum was cheaper than a bottle of gin or wine, because it was treated as a medication for legal purposes and not taxed as an alcoholic beverage.

Laudanum was used in home prescriptions, as well as a single medication. For example, a 1901 medical book published for home health use gave the following two "Simple Remedy Formulas" for "dysenterry": Thin boiled starch, 2 ounces. In a section entitled "Professional Prescriptions" is a formula for "diarrhoea": Tincture opium, deodorized, 15 drops. "Diarrhoea": Aqueous extract of ergot, 20 grains. Take one pill every three or four hours."The early 20th century brought increased regulation of all manner

Peg O'Connor

Peg O'Connor, is a Professor of Philosophy and Gender and Sexuality Studies as well as Chair of the Department of Philosophy at Gustavus Adolphus College. Her present research interests include two separate but intersecting strains: Wittgenstein's approach to ethics, the philosophy of addiction, she contributes to public discourse about her areas of interest through contributing to popular media around philosophical issues surrounding addiction, has spoken out about issues of gender equity facing the field of philosophy. O'Connor earned her bachelor's degree from Wesleyan University in 1987, her master's and doctorate in philosophy from the University of Minnesota in 1993 and 1996, respectively, her doctoral thesis focused on Wittgensteinian moral realism. While pursuing her doctorate, O'Connor acted as an instructor of philosophy at the University of Minnesota from 1994 to 1995, an instructor of philosophy at Moorhead State University from 1995 to 1996. After completing her doctorate, O'Connor accepted a position as Visiting Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Gustavus Adolphus College from 1996 to 1999, before accepting a position as Assistant Professor of Women's Studies at Gustavus Adolphus.

She was raised to Associate Professor in 2003, to full Professor in 2007 in both Philosophy and Women's, Sexuality Studies. O'Connor has acted in several administrative capacities, including becoming Chairperson of the Department of Philosophy at Gustavus Adolphus in 2011, serving as director of Gustavus Adolphus's Women's Studies Program from 1999 to 2004 and again from 2004 to 2011. O'Connor's present research interests include two separate but intersecting strains: Wittgenstein's approach to ethics, the philosophy of addiction, she has written extensively about issues involving gender equity and harassment, sexuality and oppression. O'Connor has published two books, is working on a third, she has edited a pair of books, contributed a number of book and encyclopedia chapters, published a number of journal articles. O'Connor's first book, published in 2002, was titled Oppression and Responsibility: A Wittgensteinian Approach to Social Practices and Moral Theory, drew on a Wittgensteinian framework to articulate various forms of political oppression and to put forward a theory of moral responsibility.

Her second book, published in 2008, was titled Morality and Our Complicated Form of Life: Feminist Wittgensteinian Metaethics and opposed both realist and antirealist positions to metaethics, suggesting instead a Wittgensteinian approach that she refers to as “felted contextualism.”O'Connor's third book will explore issues of addiction and recovery through the lens of philosophy. In an interview on her book, she states: “Addicts are very philosophical. Addicts struggle with issues of self-identity, self-knowledge and self-deception, the nature of God, existential dilemmas, marking the line between appearance and reality, free will and voluntariness, moral responsibility; these are prompted by acute instances of self-examination and reflection about how to live well.”O'Connor maintains a blog on Psychology Today that deals with the philosophy of addiction, contributes to the New York Times' Opinionator and The Stone blogs about similar topics, co-maintains the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy's article about topics in feminism.

O'Connor, Peg. Feminist interpretations of Ludwig Wittgenstein. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 9780271021980. O'Connor, Peg. Oppression and responsibility a Wittgensteinian approach to social practices and moral theory. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 9780271023465. O'Connor, Peg. Oppression and resistance: theoretical perspectives on racism and heterosexism. Boston: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 9780072882438. O'Connor, Peg. Morality and our complicated form of life: feminist Wittgensteinian metaethics. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 9780271033808. O'Connor, Peg. Life on the rocks: finding meaning in addiction and recovery. Las Vegas, NV: Central Recovery Press. ISBN 1942094027 Profile page: Peg O'Connor Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter's, Minnesota

Tomicus piniperda

Tomicus piniperda is a bark beetle native throughout Europe, northwestern Africa, northern Asia. It is one of the most destructive shoot-feeding species in northern Europe, its primary host plant is Scots pine Pinus sylvestris, but it uses European black pine P. nigra, maritime pine P. pinaster, eastern white pine P. strobus, red pine P. resinosa, jack pine P. banksiana and other pines to a small extent, more on spruce Picea and larch Larix. It is black or dark brown, 3.5–4.8 mm long, with a cylindrical body, rounded at the head and abdomen ends. It breeds in dead and dying trees, most windblown trees lying on the ground but in e.g. fire-killed standing trees. The adults tunnel a breeding gallery in spring, up to 25 cm long, parallel to the wood grain, where they lay their eggs. On hatching, the larvae chew through the phloem radially from the gallery for several months, emerging as new adults in late summer; the adults feed through the autumn and winter on the pith in strong apical shoots of healthy young trees, killing the bored-out shoots.

This does not kill the tree, but causes damage to the growth form, reducing the economic value of the timber by reducing growth rates and stem straightness. There is one generation per year, with most adults dying after breeding many times, though a few survive to breed again a year later. Unlike most bark beetles, Tomicus piniperda does not use pheromones for pre-breeding association and pairing, but instead homes in on the resin scent emitted by damaged specimens of the host species. Species related to Tomicus piniperda include Tomicus minor, with a similar distribution but ecologically separated, using standing dead pines and with its breeding galleries across the grain, not parallel to it; these species were not distinguished from T. piniperda, but they are reproductively isolated, which has consequences for pest control. The beetle has been introduced accidentally to northeastern North America, where it has become an invasive species; the first known occurrence in North America was found in July 1992 at a Christmas tree farm close to Cleveland, from where it has spread to 11 states in the United States and to Ontario and Quebec in Canada.

The beetle has been identified as a serious pest in the United States. As a precautionary step to help protect pine plantations, a United States federal quarantine was introduced in 1992 in the northeast and north-midwest, regulating movement of pine logs and bark, nursery stock, Christmas trees from infested to uninfested areas, a similar quarantine brought in to cover part of southeast Canada in 1993 by the Canadian authorities; as with all bark beetle species, this species is known to associate with a wide range of fungal taxa. However, there is little clarity regarding the existence of symbiotic relationships between this beetle species and the fungal species that make up its mycobiota. Pine shoot beetle on the University of Florida / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Featured Creatures website Species Profile - Common Pine Shoot Beetle, National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Common Pine Shoot Beetle