The Hernandiaceae are a family of flowering plants, angiosperms, in the order Laurales. Consisting of five genera with about 58 known species, they are distributed over the world's tropical areas, some of them distributed in coastal areas, but they occur from sea level to over 2000 m; the family is related to the Lauraceae, many species inhabit laurel forest habitat. Based on morphology, chromosome numbers, geographical distribution, phylogenetic analyses, the family is divided into two groups that have been given the rank of subfamilies Gyrocarpoideae and Hernandioideae; the Hernandaceae are important components of tropical forests, ranging from low-lying to montane forests. Because of the lack of worldwide knowledge about the family in general, little is known about their diversity yet; the knowledge of this family to national level, is that to be expected in countries with limited economic means with the vast majority of species indeterminate or poorly determined. Described new species come from collections made in countries with limited economic means.
Therefore, an increase in the study of family, at national level, is of utmost importance for the progress of the systematics of the family in general. Trees of the Hernandiaceae family predominate in the world's laurel forests and cloud forests, which occur in tropical and mild temperate regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, highlighting the African and Pacific Ocean islands, New Caledonia and central Chile; the main economic uses for this family are essential oils, found in many species that are important for spices and perfumes, the hardwood of many species is a source for timber around the world. A great number of species is in danger of extinction due to overexploitation as medicinal plants or timber extraction and loss of habitat; the family has been recognised by most taxonomists. The APG IV system recognizes this family, assigns it to the order Laurales in the clade Magnoliids; as circumscribed by APG, the family includes those plants that sometimes have been treated as forming the family Gyrocarpaceae.
Gyrocarpus was considered in the Cronquist system to belong to the Gyrocarpaceae. Hernandia: more than 30 species, including Hernandia ovigera, the most abundant species in terms of the number of compounds isolated and subsequent biological activity reported in the literature. Illigera Hazomalania Hazomalania voyronii Sparattanthelium Sparattanthelium amazonum The Hernandiaceae are a important family; the mode of dispersion is variable among the species. Most species of genus Hernandia have red domes, suggesting zoochory, while Hernandia guianensis is hydrochorian in fresh water, H. nymphaeifolia and Gyrocarpus americanus are hydrochorian in sea water. The fruits are regurgitated. Zoocorian seeds are in small fruits, desired by birds, containing many times a sticky substance coating the seed. Expelled, the seed sticks to the branch of trees and dead bodies, or just in soil, germinating later; some fruits open violently, expelling the seeds away. Others are small nuts or non-fleshy bodies provided with hooks or filaments that stick to the fur of animals or are shaped to float in water or facilitate transport by wind.
They are distributed in the lower areas of the tropics in rain forests, cloud forests, laurel forest, although some species exist in subtropical or arid areas. Distributions in Africa and the Americas, for example, from Gyrocarpus hababensis and G. americanus, relict character, appear to be due to marine transgressions in the past. The family originated in the coastal laurel forests of Gondwana, the reason for its pattern of distribution; the Hernandaceae inhabit montane tropical forests, some species reaching 4000 m above sea level, but most species are more frequent in low-altitude rainforests. Some deciduous species have adapted to demanding conditions in semiarid climates, but they tend to depend on favorable edaphic conditions, for example, perennial aquifers, periodic groundwater flows, or periodically flooded forests in sand containing hardly any nutrients; the plants monoecious. The flowers are aggregated in inflorescences, in cymes, cyclic or tetracyclic, they present a perianth with distinct corolla.
The corolla is not fleshy. Androecial members are single-whorled. Androecium of fertile stamens, or including staminodes. Staminodes external to the fertile stamens. Anthers dehiscing by longitudinal valves. Anther wall of the ‘dicot’ type. Pollen grains nonaperturate. Gynoecium 1 carpelled. Carpels reduced in number relative to the perianth; the pistil 1 celled. Gynoecium monomerous. Carpel stylate. Placentation apical. Ovules pendulous. Endosperm formation cellular; the fruit in some species is not fleshy and presents these characteristics: fruiting carpel indehiscent, winged or enclosed in an inflated envelope derived from connate bracteoles, with only one nonendospermic seed, two cotyledons. The embryo is straight; the bark and young leaves are purgative. The root is chewed as a
Siparunaceae is a family of flowering plants in the magnoliid order Laurales. It consists of two genera of woody plants, with essential oils: Glossocalyx in West Africa and Siparuna in the neotropics. Glossocalyx is monospecific and Siparuna has about 74 known species; until the 1990s, most taxonomists placed Siparuna in the family Monimiaceae. The monograph of Monimiaceae by William R. Philipson in 1993 was the last major work to do so. In the 1990s, molecular phylogenetic studies of DNA sequences showed that Monimiaceae, as circumscribed, was paraphyletic; when the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group published their APG system in 1998, the old Monimiaceae was divided into three separate families: Siparunaceae, Atherospermataceae, Monimiaceae sensu stricto. This classification remained unchanged in the APG III system of 2009 and the APG IV system of 2016; the families Siparunaceae and Atherospermataceae form one of the three major clades that constitute the order Laurales. Siparunaceae is sister to the clade composed of Atherospermataceae.
In 1898, Janet Russell Perkins began a series of articles on Monimiaceae, but only two were completed. The second of these covers the genus Siparuna. Distribution Map And Genus List At: Siparunaceae At: Laurales At: Trees At: APweb At: botanical databases At: About Science & Conservation At: Missouri Botanical Garden page 660 And Table of Contents Of: issue 5 At: View Book At: Bot. Jahrb. Syst. vol. 28 from Missouri Botanical Garden At: B At: Titles At: BHL Key And Siparuna In Monimiaceae At View Book At Das Pflanzenreich At D At Titles At Biodiversity Heritage Library Siparuna The Official Siparuna Website An online key to all species of Siparunaceae and Monimiaceae occurring in Ecuador, with descriptions, specimen citations, geographic information, illustrations of all species. Links at CSDL, Texas
Magnoliids are a group of flowering plants. Until the group included about 9,000 species, including magnolias, bay laurel, avocado, black pepper, tulip tree and many others; that group is characterized by trimerous flowers, pollen with one pore, branching-veined leaves. "Magnoliidae" is the botanical name of a subclass, "magnoliids" is an informal name that does not conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants. The circumscription of a subclass will vary with the taxonomic system being used; the only requirement is. The informal name "magnoliids" is used by some researchers to avoid the confusion that surrounds the name "Magnoliidae". More the group has been redefined under the PhyloCode as a node-based clade comprising the Canellales, Laurales and Piperales. Chase & Reveal have proposed, "Magnoliidae" as the name used for the entire group of flowering plants, the formal name "Magnolianae" for the group of four orders are discussed here; the APG III and its predecessor systems did not use formal botanical names above the rank of order.
Under those systems, larger clades were referred to by informal names, such as "magnoliids" or "magnoliid complex". The formal name in Linnean nomenclature was specified in a separate APG publication as the existing name "Magnolianae" Takht.. The APG III recognizes a clade within the angiosperms for the magnoliids; the circumscription is: The clade includes most of the basal groups of the angiosperms. This clade was formally named Magnoliidae in 2007 under provisions of the PhyloCode; the Cronquist system used the name Magnoliidae for one of six subclasses. In the original version of this system the circumscription was: Subclass Magnoliidae: Order Aristolochiales Order Illiciales Order Laurales Order Magnoliales Order Nymphaeales Order Papaverales Order Piperales Order Ranunculales Both Dahlgren and Thorne classified the magnoliids in superorder Magnolianae, rather than as a subclass. In their systems, the name Magnoliidae is used for a much larger group including all dicotyledons; this is the case in some of the systems derived from the Cronquist system.
Dahlgren divided his Magnolianae into ten orders, more than other systems of the time, unlike Cronquist and Thorne, he did not include the Piperales. Thorne grouped most of his Magnolianae into two large orders and Berberidales, although his Magnoliales was divided into suborders along lines similar to the ordinal groupings used by both Cronquist and Dahlgren. Thorne revised his system in 2000, restricting the name Magnoliidae to include only the Magnolianae and Rafflesianae, removing the Berberidales and other included groups to his subclass Ranunculidae; this revised system diverges from the Cronquist system, but agrees more with the circumscription published under APG II. Comparison of classification systems is difficult. Two authors may apply the same name to groups with different composition of members. Two authors may describe the same group with nearly identical composition, but each may apply a different name to that group or place the group at a different taxonomic rank. For example, the composition of Cronquist's subclass Magnoliidae is nearly the same as Thorne's superorder Magnolianae, despite the difference in taxonomic rank.
Because of these difficulties and others, the synoptic table below imprecisely compares the definition of "magnoliid" groups in the systems of four authors. For each system, only orders are named in the table. All orders included by a particular author are linked in that column; when a taxon is not included by that author, but was included by an author in another column, that item appears in unlinked italics and indicates remote placement. The sequence of each system has been altered from its publication in order to pair corresponding taxa between columns; the magnoliids is a large group of plants, with many species that are economically important as food, perfumes, as ornamentals, among many other uses. One cultivated magnoliid fruit is the avocado, believed to have been cultivated in Mexico and Central America for nearly 10,000 years. Now grown throughout the American tropics, it originates from the Chiapas region of Mexico or Guatemala, where "wild" avocados may still be found; the soft pulp of the fruit is eaten mashed into guacamole.
The ancient peoples of Central America were the first to cultivate several fruit-bearing species of Annona. These include the custard-apple, sweetsop or sugar-apple, the cherimoya. Both soursop and sweetsop now are grown for their fruits in the Old World as well; some members of the magnoliids have served as important food additives. Oil of sassafras was used as a key flavoring in both root beer and in sarsaparilla; the primary ingredient responsible for the oil's flavor is safrole, but it is no longer used in either the United States or Canada. Both nations banned the use of safrole as a food additive in 1960 as a result of studies that demonstrated safrole promoted liver damage and tumors in mice. Consumption of more than a minute quantity of the oil causes nausea, vomiting and shallow rapid breathing, it is toxic, can damage the kidneys. In addition to its former use as a food additive, safro
A shrub or bush is a small- to medium-sized woody plant. Unlike herbaceous plants, shrubs have persistent woody, they are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height, are under 6 m tall. Plants of many species may grow either depending on their growing conditions. Small, low shrubs less than 2 m tall, such as lavender and most small garden varieties of rose, are termed "subshrubs". An area of cultivated shrubs in a park or a garden is known as a shrubbery; when clipped as topiary, suitable species or varieties of shrubs develop dense foliage and many small leafy branches growing close together. Many shrubs respond well to renewal pruning, in which hard cutting back to a "stool" results in long new stems known as "canes". Other shrubs respond better to selective pruning to reveal their character. Shrubs in common garden practice are considered broad-leaved plants, though some smaller conifers such as mountain pine and common juniper are shrubby in structure. Species that grow into a shrubby habit may be either evergreen.
In botany and ecology, a shrub is more used to describe the particular physical structural or plant life-form of woody plants which are less than 8 metres high and have many stems arising at or near the base. For example, a descriptive system adopted in Australia is based on structural characteristics based on life-form, plus the height and amount of foliage cover of the tallest layer or dominant species. For shrubs 2–8 metres high the following structural forms are categorized: dense foliage cover — closed-shrub mid-dense foliage cover — open-shrub sparse foliage cover — tall shrubland sparse foliage cover — tall open shrublandFor shrubs less than 2 metres high the following structural forms are categorized: dense foliage cover — closed-heath or closed low shrubland— mid-dense foliage cover — open-heath or mid-dense low shrubland— sparse foliage cover — low shrubland sparse foliage cover — low open shrubland Those marked with * can develop into tree form
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is used as an aromatic condiment and flavouring additive in a wide variety of cuisines and savoury dishes, breakfast cereals, snackfoods and traditional foods; the aroma and flavour of cinnamon derive from its essential oil and principal component, cinnamaldehyde, as well as numerous other constituents, including eugenol. The term "cinnamon" is used to describe its mid-brown colour. Cinnamon is the name for several species of trees and the commercial spice products that some of them produce. All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae. Only a few Cinnamomum species are grown commercially for spice. Cinnamomum verum is sometimes considered to be "true cinnamon", but most cinnamon in international commerce is derived from related species referred to as "cassia". In 2016, Indonesia and China produced 75% of the world's supply of cinnamon; the English word "cinnamon", attested in English since the fifteenth century, derives from the Greek κιννάμωμον kinnámōmon, via Latin and medieval French intermediate forms.
The Greek was borrowed from a Phoenician word, similar to the related Hebrew קינמון. The name "cassia", first recorded in late Old English from Latin, derives from Hebrew q'tsīʿāh, a form of the verb qātsaʿ, "to strip off bark". Early Modern English used the names canel and canella, similar to the current names of cinnamon in several other European languages, which are derived from the Latin word cannella, a diminutive of canna, "tube", from the way the bark curls up as it dries. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity, it was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC, but those who reported that it had come from China had confused it with cinnamon cassia, a related species. Cinnamon was so prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and for a deity, its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by those in the spice trade to protect their monopoly as suppliers. Cinnamomum verum, which translates as'true cinnamon', is native to India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar.
Cinnamomum cassia is native to China. Related species, all harvested and sold in the modern era as cinnamon, are native to Vietnam and other southeast Asian countries with warm climates; the first Greek reference to kasia is found in a poem by Sappho in the seventh century BC. According to Herodotus, both cinnamon and cassia grew in Arabia, together with incense and labdanum, were guarded by winged serpents. In Ancient Egypt, cinnamon was used to embalm mummies. From Hellenistic times onward, Ancient Egyptian recipes for kyphi, an aromatic used for burning, included cinnamon and cassia; the gifts of Hellenistic rulers to temples sometimes included cinnamon. Cinnamon was brought around the Arabian peninsula on "rafts without rudders or sails or oars", taking advantage of the winter trade winds. Pliny the Elder mentions cassia as a flavouring agent for wine. According to Pliny the Elder, a Roman pound of cassia, cinnamon, or serichatum cost up to 1500 denarii, the wage of fifty months' labour. Diocletian's Edict on Maximum Prices from 301 AD gives a price of 125 denarii for a pound of cassia, while an agricultural labourer earned 25 denarii per day.
Cinnamon was too expensive to be used on funeral pyres in Rome, but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in AD 65. Through the Middle Ages, the source of cinnamon remained a mystery to the Western world. From reading Latin writers who quoted Herodotus, Europeans had learned that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt, but where it came from was less than clear; when the Sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on crusade in 1248, he reported – and believed – what he had been told: that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. Marco Polo avoided precision on the topic. Herodotus and other authors named Arabia as the source of cinnamon: they recounted that giant "cinnamon birds" collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew and used them to construct their nests, that the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks.
Pliny the Elder wrote in the first century that traders had made this up to charge more, but the story remained current in Byzantium as late as 1310. The first mention that the spice grew in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar al-bilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad about 1270; this was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino in a letter of about 1292. Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon directly from the Moluccas to East Africa, where local traders carried it north to Alexandria in Egypt. Venetian traders from Italy held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe, distributing cinnamon from Alexandria; the disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers, such as the Mamluk sultans and the Ottoman Empire, was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more for other routes to Asia. During the 1500s, Ferdinand Magellan was searching for spices on behalf of Spain, in the Philippines found Cinnamomum mindanaense, related to C. zeylanicum, the cinnamon found in Sri Lanka.
This cinnamon competed with Sri Lankan cinnamon, controlled by the Portuguese. In 1638, Dutch traders established a trading post in Sri Lanka, took control of the manufactories
Amborella is a monotypic genus of understory shrubs or small trees endemic to the main island, Grande Terre, of New Caledonia. The genus is the only member of the family Amborellaceae and the order Amborellales and contains a single species, Amborella trichopoda. Amborella is of great interest to plant systematists because molecular phylogenetic analyses place it as the sister group of the remaining flowering plants. Amborella is a sprawling small tree up to 8 m high, it bears alternate or decussate, simple evergreen leaves without stipules. The leaves are two-ranked, with distinctly serrated or rippled margins, about 8 to 10 cm long. Amborella has xylem tissue; the xylem of Amborella contains only tracheids. Xylem of this form has long been regarded as a "primitive" feature of flowering plants; the species is dioecious. This means that each plant produces "female flowers", but not both. At any one time, a dioecious plant produces only functionally staminate or functionally carpellate flowers. Staminate Amborella flowers do not have carpels, whereas the carpellate flowers have non-functional "staminodes", structures resembling stamens in which no pollen develops.
Plants may change from one reproductive morphology to the other. In one study, seven cuttings from a staminate plant produced, as expected, staminate flowers at their first flowering, but three of the seven produced carpellate flowers at their second flowering; the small, creamy white flowers are arranged in inflorescences borne in the axils of foliage leaves. The inflorescences have been described as cymes, with up to three orders of branching, each branch being terminated by a flower; each flower is subtended by bracts. The bracts transition into a perianth of undifferentiated tepals; the tepals are arranged in a spiral, but sometimes are whorled at the periphery. Carpellate flowers are 3 to 4 mm in diameter, with 7 or 8 tepals. There are a spiral of 4 to 8 free carpels. Carpels bear green ovaries, they contain a single ovule with the micropyle directed downwards. Staminate flowers are 4 to 5 mm in diameter, with 6 to 15 tepals; these flowers bear 10 to 21 spirally arranged stamens, which become progressively smaller toward the center.
The innermost may be sterile. Stamens bear triangular anthers on short broad filaments. An anther consists of two on each side, with a small sterile central connective; the anthers may be covered with secretions. These features suggest that, as with other basal angiosperms, there is a high degree of developmental plasticity. 1 to 3 carpels per flower develop into fruit. The fruit is an ovoid red drupe borne on a short stalk; the remains of the stigma can be seen at the tip of the fruit. The skin is papery; the inner pericarp surrounds the single seed. The embryo is small and surrounded by copious endosperm. Plant systematists accept Amborella trichopoda as the most basal lineage in the clade of angiosperms. In systematics the term "basal" describes a lineage that diverges near the base of a phylogeny, thus earlier than other lineages. Since Amborella is basal among the flowering plants, the features of early flowering plants can be inferred by comparing derived traits shared by the main angiosperm lineage but not present in Amborella.
These traits are presumed to have evolved after the divergence of the Amborella lineage. One early twentieth century idea of "primitive" floral traits in angiosperms, accepted until recently, is the Magnolia blossom model; this envisions flowers with numerous parts arranged in spirals on an elongated, cone-like receptacle rather than the small numbers of parts in distinct whorls of more derived flowers. In a study designed to clarify relationships between well-studied model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, the basal angiosperms Amborella, Illicium, the monocots, more derived angiosperms, chloroplast genomes using cDNA and expressed sequence tags for floral genes, the cladogram shown below was generated; this hypothesized relationship of the extant seed plants places Amborella as the sister taxon to all other angiosperms, shows the gymnosperms as a monophyletic group sister to the angiosperms. It supports the theory that Amborella branched off from the main lineage of angiosperms before the ancestors of any other living angiosperms.
There is however some uncertainty about the relationship between the Amborellaceae and the Nymphaeales: one theory is that the Amborellaceae alone are the monophyletic sister to the extant angiosperms. Because of its evolutionary position at the base of the flowering plant clade, there was support for sequencing the complete genome of Amborella trichopoda to serve as a reference for evolutionary studies. In 2010, the US National Science Foundation began a genome sequencing effort in Amborella, the draft genome sequence was posted on the project website in December 2013. Amborella is the only genus in the family Amborellaceae; the APG II system recognized this family, but left it unplaced at order rank due to uncertainty about its relationship to the family Nymphaeaceae. In the more recent APG systems, APG III and APG IV, the Amborellaceae
Sassafras is a genus of three extant and one extinct species of deciduous trees in the family Lauraceae, native to eastern North America and eastern Asia. The genus is distinguished by its long and rubbery properties, which have made the tree useful to humans. Sassafras trees grow from 9–35 m tall with many slender sympodial branches, smooth, orange-brown bark or yellow bark. All parts of the plants are fragrant; the species are unusual in having three distinct leaf patterns on the same plant: unlobed oval and trilobed. Three-lobed leaves are more common in Sassafras tzumu and Sassafras randaiense than in their North American counterparts, although three-lobed leaves do sometimes occur on Sassafras albidum; the young leaves and twigs are quite mucilaginous, produce a citrus-like scent when crushed. The tiny, yellow flowers are six-petaled; the fruit is a drupe, blue-black when ripe. The largest known sassafras tree in the world is in Owensboro, is over 100 feet high and 21 feet in circumference.
The genus Sassafras was first described by the Bohemian botanist Jan Presl in 1825. The name "sassafras", applied by the botanist Nicolas Monardes in 1569, comes from the French sassafras; some sources claim it originates from the Latin saxifraga or saxifragus: "stone-breaking". Sassafras trees are not within the family Saxifragaceae. Early European colonists reported that the plant was called winauk by Native Americans in Delaware and Virginia and pauane by the Timucua. Native Americans distinguished between white sassafras and red sassafras, which terms referred to the same plant but to different parts of the plant with distinct colors and uses. Sassafras was known as fennel wood due to its distinctive aroma; the genus Sassafras includes three extant and one extinct. Sassafras plants are endemic to North America and East Asia, with two species in each region that are distinguished by some important characteristics, including the frequency of three-lobed leaves and aspects of their sexual reproduction.
Taiwanese sassafras, Taiwan, is treated by some botanists in a distinct genus as Yushunia randaiensis Kamikoti, though this is not supported by recent genetic evidence, which shows Sassafras to be monophyletic. Sassafras albidum Nees – sassafras, white sassafras, red sassafras, or silky sassafras, eastern North America, from southernmost Ontario, Canada through the eastern United States, south to central Florida, west to southern Iowa and East Texas Wisconsin †Sassafras hesperia – western North American, from the Eocene Klondike Mountain Formation of Washington and British Columbia. Sassafras tzumu Hemsl. – Chinese sassafras or tzumu and southwestern China Sassafras randaiense Rehd. – Taiwan Many Lauraceae are aromatic, evergreen trees or shrubs adapted to high rainfall and humidity, but the genus Sassafras is deciduous. Deciduous sassafras trees lose all of their leaves for part of the year, depending on variations in rainfall. In deciduous tropical Lauraceae, leaf loss coincides with the dry season in tropical and arid regions.
In temperate climates, the dry season is due to the inability of the plant to absorb water available to it only in the form of ice. Sassafras is found in open woods, along fences, or in fields, it grows well in moist, well-drained, or sandy loam soils and tolerates a variety of soil types, attaining a maximum in southern and wetter areas of distribution. Sassafras albidum ranges from southern Maine and southern Ontario west to Iowa, south to central Florida and eastern Texas, in North America. Sassafras tzumu may be found in Anhui, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Sichuan and Zhejiang, China. Sassafras randaiense is native to Taiwan; the leaves, twigs and fruits are eaten by birds and mammals in small quantities. For most animals, sassafras is not consumed in large enough quantities to be important, although it is an important deer food in some areas. Carey and Gill rate its value to wildlife as their lowest rating. Sassafras leaves and twigs are consumed by white-tailed porcupines. Other sassafras leaf browsers include groundhogs, marsh rabbits, American black bears.
Rabbits eat. American beavers will cut. Sassafras fruits are eaten by many species of birds, including bobwhite quail, eastern kingbirds, great crested flycatchers, wild turkeys, gray catbirds, northern flickers, pileated woodpeckers, downy woodpeckers, thrushes and northern mockingbirds; some small mammals consume sassafras fruits. All parts of sassafras plants, including roots, twig leaves, bark and fruit, have been used for culinary and aromatic purposes, both in areas where they are endemic and in areas where they were imported, such as Europe; the wood of sassafras trees has been used as a material for building ships and furniture in China and the United States, sassafras played an important role in the history of the European colonization of the American continent in the 16th and 17th centuries. Sassafras twigs have been used as toothbrushes or fire starters. Sassafras albidum is an important ingredient in some distinct foods of the United States, it is the main ingredient in traditional root beer and sassafras root tea, groun